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EXPERIMENTAL CHILD STUDY 



THE CENTURY 
PSYCH OLOGY S K R I KS 

EDITED BY 
RICHARD M. ELLIOTT, PH.D., Cniwrsity nf 



^EXPERIMENTAL CHILD STUDY, by Florence L. (*m>drfmtigh ; 
*HI/MAN LEARNING, by Edward L, Thorndtke; *HISI*ORY OF 
EXPERIMENTAL PSYCHOLOGY, by Edwin <}. Boring; *GRFAT 
EXPERIMENTS IN PSYCHOLOGY, by Henry K. Garrets; *Ptn\HtouB 
AND INTELLECT, by Donald G." Patcr.son; SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY, 
by Charles Bird; PURPOSIVE BEHAVIOR, by Kdxvurd ("*, Tol- 
man; METHODS OF STUDYING THE VOUN< CiiiLt> by Florence 
L. CJoodenough and John K, Anderson; SYHTFMS IN PsYciiortviY, 
by Edna Heidbreder; How TO STOOY, l\v Charles Bird; 
BEAUTY AND HUMAN NATURE, by Albert R, Chandler; HTMAN 
MOTIVES AND INCENTIVES by H, A. Toopn; Sucx^vsTinN AMI> 
HYPNOSIS, by Clark L. Hull; CHILD P.wciioLfKJYt bv John K. 
Anderson; THE DIAGNOSIS OK OONIUTCT, by P. M, ^>motui. 

OTHER VOLUMES TO BE ARRAN<';Rl> 
* Published. 
May, 1 03 1 






Series 



Richard* at * 26 U*ott, 



EXPERIMENTAL 
CHILD STUDY 



BY 



FLORENCE L. GOODENOUGH 

PROFESSOR, INSTITUTE OF CHILD WELFARE 
UNIVERSITY OF MINNESOTA 

AND 

JOHN E. ANDERSON 

PROFESSOR OF PSYCHOLOGY 

AND DIRECTOR OF THIS IN8TITUTK OF CHILD WELFARE 
UNIVERSITY OF MINNESOTA 




TOE CENTURY CO. 
NKW YORK LONDON 



COPYRIGHT, 1931, BY THE CENTURY CO. 
ALL RICSHTS RESERVE*), INCLUDING THE 

.RIGHT TO REPRODUCE THIS BOOK, OR 

PORTIONS THEREOF } Itf ANY FORM, 34! 



FOREWORD 

The last decade has been marked by a rapidly increasing 
interest in the field of child development in both its scientific 
and its practical aspects. Nowhere has this interest been 
more apparent than in the period of development commonly 
known as that of "the young child" or "the preschool child." 

The need of a book for students of child behavior, teachers, 
and parents which will describe in simple and understand- 
able form the principles and methods of scientific child study 
has been sensed by many. In this book, through a series of 
experiments and exercises, we have tried to outline the 
methods available for the study of young children both prior 
to and after their entrance into school, and to give insight 
into the scientific possibilities inherent in the study of chil- 
dren. In so doing We have drawn extensively upon the mod- 
ern literature, much of which is relatively inaccessible because 
of its very recency and because of the fact that the field is 
one in which the collection of data has outstripped its presen- 
tation in textbook form. 

The book is the outcome of five years experience in teach- 
ing courses in experimental child study. Although there are 
a number of useful books and laboratory manuals dealing 
with methods of research in psychology, education, and the 
social sciences, none are well suited for students in child 
development since the experiments and methods are, as a 
rule, devised for adults and older children. On the other hand, 
neither the monographs and experimental articles on the 
young child nor the systematic textbooks or outlines of 



vi Foreword 

knowledge furnish adequate concrete guidance for the con- 
duct of experiments by the beginning student, because of 
the degree of technical and statistical knowledge which they 
presuppose. 

In spirit, the book reflects the modern attitude in that it 
is frankly experimental and observational in tone rather than 
philosophical. This 5s an age of scientific inquiry in which 
theories unsupported by evidence command slight respect. 
Only through the accurate determination of facts can the 
principles necessary for the understanding of child nature 
be formulated. 

We have drawn heavily upon the experience and the Inves- 
tigations of the Institute of Child Welfare of the University 
of Minnesota, which has played Its part: in the modern move- 
ment for experimental child study. Our gratitude to both our 
present and former colleagues and students can best be ex- 
pressed by the hope that this volume will prove of value to 
students of child development, and through them, of service 
to children. 

P, L. G. 
J. K.A. 

lis, At arch *?o, 



CONTENTS 



PAGE 

FOREWORD v 



PART I. INTRODUCTION 

CHAPTER 

1. BRIEF HISTORICAL RESUME 3 

2. FUNDAMENTAL PRINCIPLES OF DEVELOPMENT 19 

3. MODERN METHODS OF CHILD STUDY 31 

PART II. EXPERIMENTS 

4. NOTES TO THE INSTRUCTOR 41 

5. BECOMING ACQUAINTED wmi THE LITERATURE 47 

6. CONDUCT OF AN INVESTIGATION . 55 

7. METHODS OF HANDLING CHILDREN IN EXPERIMENTAL SITUATIONS 62 

8. TtiK STUDENT'S REPORT OF AN EXPERIMENT 73 

g, THE MEASUREMENT OF BODILY DIMENSIONS ...... 77 

to. MAKING FREQUENCY DISTRIBUTION** 84 

n. A SHORT METHOD FOR FINDINC; THE MEAN 96 

12, SI.KKP 103 

13, FOOD PREFERENCES -117 

14, RATK OF TAPPING . I22 

15, GENERAL BODILY COORDINATION AND ACTIVITY 14* 

tf', COLOR DISCRIMINATION * ^S 1 " * 

17, Pl'lRCKFriON A A Sltt.ECTIVK PROCKSft ......*. 1^8 



vlii Contents 

CHAPTER PAGE 

19. MEMORY ................. 179 

go. THE DEVELOPMENT OF LOGICAL THINKING OR PROBLEM SOLVING 186 

21, LEARNING AND HABIT FORMATION ......... 192 

22, THE ACQUISITION OF COMPLEX SKILLS ........ 202 

3. LANGUAGE DEVELOPMENT ............ 210 

24. VOCABULARY ... ...... ...... 222 

25. GENERAL INTELLECTUAL DEVELOPMENT ....,,.. 225 

26. JUDGING INTELLIGENCE FROM PERSONAL APPEARANCE .... 231 

27. SOCIO-ECONOMIC STATUS ............ 234 

28. SOCIAL BEHAVIOR ... ........ ... 245 

29. THE SOCIAL REACTIONS OF INFANTS ......... 254 

30. FLAY EQUIPMENT AND PLAY BEHAVIOR ....... * 258 

31. THE PEARSON PRODUCT MOMENT METHOD OP CORRELATION . . 263 

32. INTROVERSION AND EXTROVERSION ....... . 291 

33. LAUGHTER , ......... , . . 296 

34. JUDGING EMOTION FROM FACIAL EXPRESSION .,.,.. 300 

35. MENTAL HYGIENE . , ..... ,,,,. 305 

36. CHILDREN'S PREFERENCES FOR THE DIFFERENT SCHOOL SUBJECTS 312 
37* SPECIAL ABILITIES .,........*.. 319 

38. EDUCATIONAL METHOD ..,,.,...,* 326 

19, THE DwTRimmoN OF TEACHERS' TIME ....,. 349 

40, PRQEI.EMB FOR MORE ADVANCED STUDENTS *.,.. 334 

PART III METHODS OF COLLECTING DATA 



41, INCIDKNTAL OHKRRVATIONS AND CASK 

42, Tnn Qnr.HTtoNNAiM: ....... ..,.,, 379 

43, DIRECT MttAgt'iwMftNra .*...**.. 403 



Contents Ix 

CHAPTER PAGE 

44. RATING SCALES AND RANKING METHODS ....... 413 

45. SYSTEMATIC OBSERVATIONS WITHOUT CONTROL OF CONDITIONS . 426 

46. STANDARDIZED TESTS OF GENERAL TRAITS OR CHARACTERISTICS 439 

47. EXPERIMENTS OR CONTROLLED INVESTIGATIONS 455 

BIBLIOGRAPHY 469 

APPENDIX A: 

Occupational Classification 501 

APPENDIX B: 

Chapin Scale for Rating Living Room Equipment 513 

APPENDIX C: 

1. List of LQ.'s for Matching Photographs in Chap. 26 ... 517 

2. Correct Matching for the Buchner Pictures and Situations in 

Chap. 34 517 

APPENDIX D: 
List of Statistical Formulas .518 

GLOSSARY . . 523 

INDEX OF SUBJECTS 537 

INDEX OF NAMES ,...., 545 



LIST OF FIGURES 

FIGURE FAGB 

1. Correct and incorrect methods of measuring standing height 

with home made stadiometer 80 

2. Children, of different heights arranged by class-intervals ... 84 

3. Histogram showing data of Figure 2 85 

4. Histogram showing distribution of standing-heights of twenty- 

five five-year-old boys. Measurements grouped by class-inter- 
vals of I centimeter 91 

5. Histogram showing distribution of standing-heights of twenty- 

five five-year-old boys. Measurements grouped by class-inter- 
vals of 2.5 centimeters .... * 93 

6. Graphic representation of the data in Table 5 to illustrate the 

location of the mean 98 

7. Seriatim curve showing relation of length of sleep to age . . no 

8. Example of a bar diagram showing percentage of incomprehen- 

sible language-responses given by children of different ages . 120 

9. Different methods of measuring rate of tapping . . (facing) 124 

10. Showing the relative values of the average deviation and the 

standard deviation 129 

11. Showing a five-minute record of the activity of one child . . 144 

12. Showing the reliability of a difference between independent 

measures *5^ 

13. Showing the effect upon the reliability of a difference of in- 

creasing the difference between the means 158 

14. Showing the effect upon the reliability of a difference of increas- 

ing the number of cases In the sampling ....... 159 

15. Showing the effect upon the reliability of a difference of correla- 

tion between measures * . \ . fi *S9 



rellabiUt; 
13 licfJprt 



16* Illuatratrng placement of forms ltcf<|re child ...... 170 

17- Learning curve for one subject practising typewriting. From 

Book *93 

xi 



xll List of Figures 

Ft CURB PAGE 

18. Learning curves for children on Young Slot Maxc. From Mc- 

Ginms (173) . . . . . 194 

19. Learning curves for individual children in ring-tossing. From 

Gooderiough and Brian (no) 195 

20. Illustrating the effect of smoothing by means of a moving average 196 

21. Method of drawing percent ile curves ........ 219 

22. Judging intelligence from photographs 224 

23. Social behavior in infants. From Shirley (228) . . (facing) 254 

24. Correlation between height and weight of five-year-old boys . 266 

25. Scattergram and regression lines when r = +.93 . . * * . 273 

26. Seattergrarn and regression lines when r = +.62 ..... 274 

27. Scattergram and regression lines when r -I* .36 ..... 275 

28. Seattergrarn and regression lines for data of Figure 25 when 

one variable is compressed into a small number of class- 
intervals * 276 

29. Expression of the emotions in a ten-mouths-old infant. From 

Ruchner 302 

30. Distribution of heights of six-year-old buys ...... 444 



TABLES 

TABLE PAGE 

1. Physical measurements of children between the ages of sixty 

and sixty-three months 86 

2. Frequency distribution of measurements of standing height of 

boys; grouped by class-intervals of one centimeter .... 90 

3. Frequency distribution of measurements of standing height of 

boys; grouped by intervals of 2.5 centimeters 92 

4. Distribution of the scores made on the McCarty test of drawing 

ability by 244 second grade boys 94 

5. Computation of mean standing height by the short method . 97 

6. Total amount of sleep (night sleep plus naps) taken by Minne- 

sota children at different seasons 103 

7. Analysis of sleep records of 25 two-year-old children . . . 114 

8. Analysis of sleep records of 25 five-year-old children . . . . 115 

9. Finding the standard deviation 128 

10. Method of computing the rank-order correlation between the 

tapping scores made on two consecutive days by fifteen kinder- 
garten children 134 

11. Showing the probability that a difference which is a given 

multiple of Its standard error will occur by chance . . . 163 
iz. Daily records of three four-year-old children in learning a ring- 

tnss game . 206 

13* Mean number of words per response by chronological age and sex 217 

14. Percentages of different classes of toys found in a representative 

sampling of the homes of children between the ages of 2 and 

4 year In the city of Minneapolis 258 

15, Measurements of the height and weight of fifty five-year-old boys 264 



PART I 
INTRODUCTION 



Chapter i 
BRIEF HISTORICAL RESUME 

SCIENTIFIC interest in children late in developing. In 
the days of our grandfathers, popular judgment as to the 
place of the child in society was epitomized by the maxim, 
"Children should be seen but not heard." Examination of 
the scientific literature of the time leaves one with the 
feeling that the admission of children to the visual world 
was a concession imposed by necessity. As an object of 
scientific inquiry the child was neither seen nor heard he 
did not exist. It is true that early in the seventeenth century 
such men as Ratke and Comenius on the Continent, and 
John Locke in England had emphasized the importance of 
"seeking and following the order of Nature" as a guide to 
the education of youth. In a sense these men may be said 
to have laid the foundation, or at least to have pointed 
the way, for the empirical studies of child development 
which were to follow. However, almost three quarters of a 
century elapsed before Locke's ideas were popularized by 
Rousseau in the Einile (1762). Another generation elapsed 
before Rousseau's theories were put into actual practice by 
Pestalozzi (1800), and still another before their special 
application to the education of young children by Froebel 
(1837). Not until the latter part of the nineteenth century 
did the scientific study of child development begin to assume 
systematic form. 

From the beginning we can distinguish two very different 
trends or motivating forces in the study of child develop- 

3 



4 Experimental Child Study 

ment. The first is the practical aim which has for its ob- 
ject the molding of child behavior into some more or less 
clearly conceived form or pattern. This aim has probably 
existed in a more or less clearly recognized form in all 
ages and societies. However, it was not until the eighteenth 
century that the possibility of utilizing a knowledge of the 
natural development of the child as a means of facilitating 
the process of education was clearly recognized. The pos- 
sibilities of actual experimentation in the education of chil- 
dren were not realized until the beginning of the twentieth 
century. 

The second line of interest, which we may call scientific 
as opposed to the more purely practical educational interest, 
may properly be said to date its birth from the publication 
of Darwin's Expression of the Emotions in Men and 
Animals in 1872. Previous to that time a few scattered 
studies such as ^iedemann's observations on the develop- 
ment of his infant son had appeared, but the material was 
not looked upon as having any real scientific importance. 
In the scientific theory of that time, child psychology had 
no place. Once its significance had been pointed out, how- 
ever, interest in the subject developed at an astoundingly 
rapid rate. Previous to 1872, not more than a dozen major 
studies devoted to child development had appeared in the 
literature. Before the end of the century the number had run 
into hundreds. 

Early methods of cMld study: the child biography. Fol- 
lowing the example set by Tiedemann (192),* the early 
studies of child development are based largely upon more or 
less incidental observations of single children. In the greater 
number of instances no consistent plan has been followed 
with regard to time of recording. The records commonly in- 

* The numbers throughout the text refer to the bibliography on page 
469. 



Brief Historical Resume 5 

elude a mixture of remembered instances and facts noted 
down at the time of observation. Moreover, in many cases 
there is no clear distinction between the facts observed and 
the interpretations which are placed upon them. For these 
reasons, the child biographies have been less useful for their 
own content than for suggesting problems to be worked out 
by more adequate methods. Among the best of the diaries 
which appeared during the last quarter of the nineteenth 
century are those by Darwin (57), the Scupins (217, 218), 
the Sterns (234, 235, 236), Major (174), and Shinn (225, 
226). 

A serious limitation of the diary method soon became evi- 
dent to most persons who attempted to use it. Since there 
was no control of the situation in which the child was placed, 
it became necessary to describe not only the child's behavior 
but also the varying circumstances under which the re- 
sponses took place. With advancing age the number and va- 
riety of stimuli to which a child would respond multiplied 
rapidly, and the complexity of behavior-responses increased 
proportionately. Adequate observation and record of all per- 
tinent facts soon become impossible. It was obviously neces- 
sary to limit the field in some way if useful material were 
to be obtained. Towards the end of the century we accord- 
ingly find interest in the general biography, with its attempt 
to include all facts of importance regarding the child's de- 
velopment, shifting to the more specialized record of the 
development of behavior of some given type. Among these 
specialized studies, the records of language development, 
particularly the development of vocabulary, and the studies 
of children's drawings occupied a leading place. In these in- 
vestigations we note also an initial recognition of the need 
for group study. This tendency is especially evident in the 
work on children's drawings where many of the studies, even 
at this early period, were based upon large numbers of cases. 



6 Experimental Child Study 

A third type of large-scale investigation, popular at the end 
of the century, was the study of the concepts formed by 
young children regarding many items in their environment. 
Of these, Hall's study on the contents of children's minds 
on entering school (115) is one of the best known. 

The use of children as subjects in controlled investiga- 
tions of specific problems. During the last quarter of the 
nineteenth century, at the time when Darwin's influence had 
aroused intense interest in genetic and comparative psy- 
chology, as mentioned in a former paragraph, a second 
movement of equal or possibly even greater importance was 
occurring in the field of psychology. This was the develop- 
ment of the experimental method which had its origin in the 
laboratories of such men as Weber, Fechner, Helmholtz, and 
Wundt in Germany. The interest of this group centered 
largely about various problems of the sense organs and 
sensations. Their work was therefore closely allied to phy- 
siology on the one hand and to physics on the other. To 
them we owe a large part of our present knowledge of the 
psychology of sensation. Much of the apparatus at present 
in use in the psychological laboratories was developed by 
them. Their most important contribution, however, lay in 
the fact that through their work, psychology, which had 
previously been regarded as a branch either of physiology 
or of philosophy, was given a recognized place among the 
experimental sciences. Investigation took the place of specu- 
lation; demonstration replaced theory. However, in the work 
of the German laboratories of this period, child psychology 
had no place. Many factors, such as the widespread insist- 
ence upon the use of introspective method, the close demand 
upon attention, and the many long and fatiguing trials neces- 
sary to secure reliable data, contributed to make the use of 
children as laboratory subjects in experiments of this kind 
hardly practicable. Indirectly, however, the work of these 



Brief Historical Resume 



7 



laboratories had a profound influence upon the study of 
child development. The clear demonstration of the marked 
and sometimes quite unexpected changes which take place in 
performance when conditions are modified showed the need 
for control of the techniques of investigation, and for cau- 
tion in interpreting the results of studies in which such con- 
trol was lacking. Although it was apparent that the methods 
developed in the psychological laboratories of that period 
were not well suited for use with young children, the clear- 
cut nature of the results obtained led to many efforts to 
modify the methods in such a way as to make them ap- 
plicable for genetic research. One of the most active workers 
in this respect was Binet in France to whom we shall return 
in a later section. 

The work of G. Stanley Hall. It is doubtful whether any 
single man up to the present time has done so much to 
foster interest in the study of child development as G. Stan- 
ley Hall. Although his work has been severely and justly 
criticized from the standpoint of technique, nevertheless his 
enthusiastic and prophetic insight as to the possibilities of 
genetic research, made him for his time the unquestioned 
leader of the child study movement in America, if not in 
the world. His contribution can hardly be measured ade- 
quately in terms of his own accomplishment, since few men 
have had so great a gift for imparting to others their own 
enthusiasm. Among the eighty-one doctorates in psychology 
conferred by Hall during the period of his presidency at 
Clark University, we may note particularly the following 
names: Terman, Gesell, Goddard, Mateer, Blanchard anc 
Kuhlmann all of whom are active contributors to the stud) 
of child development and behavior at the present time. 

Hall's interest in children was dynamic and practical. Ii 
spite of his German laboratory training and the fact that hi 
founded the first psychological laboratory in America, th< 



8 Experimental Child Study 

work of which was largely modelled along Wundtian lines, 
his personal interest lay chiefly outside the field of sensation 
and psychophysics. He was interested in the whole child 
how he lived, thought, played and worked, his opinions, 
attitudes and emotions. In his zeal to throw light on some 
of these questions, he made such extensive use of the ques- 
tionnaire method originally devised by Galton that it be- 
came associated with his own name. The questionnaire as 
used by Hall was extremely crude. Both in content and 
form, the questions violated many of the modern rules for 
questionnaire construction. Nevertheless, in spite of the in- 
adequacy of his method, Hall was able to secure an enor- 
mous amount of valuable data concerning aspects of child 
behavior which had previously been little studied or under- 
stood. 

Hall's greatest work is Adolescence, published in two large 
volumes. Among the most important of his studies of 
younger children may be mentioned his Aspects of Child 
Life and Education (297), his study of children's fears 
(116), of anger (117), the content of children's minds on 
entering school (115), and a large number of shorter studies 
dealing with various aspects of play, attitude toward re- 
ligion, natural phenomena, social events and relationships, 
personality, etc. 

In interpreting his data Hall employed only the simplest 
methods. His statistical treatment is confined at most to a 
few percentages. In many instances only generalized state- 
ments with no quantitative material are given. In one re- 
spect, however, his method is worthy of particular note. 
Few investigators have examined the literature in the field 
with more thoroughness in order to relate their findings to 
those of other workers. In his Adolescence, for example, 
there are almost 4,000 citations from more than 1,200 dif- 
ferent authors, and even in his minor studies he always 



Brief Historical Resume 9 

adhered to the principle of relating his findings to those of 
previous workers. 

The development of educational psychology. In a previ- 
ous section we have pointed out that the earliest develop- 
ment of interest in children was to be seen in the field of 
education. From the eighteenth century on a steady increase 
may be observed in the development of educational theory, 
accompanied by extensive modification in educational prac- 
tice. Herbart, frequently referred to as the "father of scien- 
tific pedagogy," exerted but little influence upon educational 
theory or practice during his lifetime. A quarter of a cen- 
tury after his death in 1841., his theories became widely 
known through the work of Ziller and Rein. To him the 
educational psychology of childhood is indebted chiefly for 
the wholesome reaction against the extreme naturalistic 
dogma of the followers of Rousseau and Pestalozzi which 
set in toward the close of the nineteenth century. Rousseau's 
doctrine had been that all formal education is harmful, and 
that natural development alone can be depended upon to 
fit the child for his place in society. Herbart, in opposition, 
maintained that all development is profoundly influenced by 
the external conditions to which the developing organism is 
subjected, and that it is the task of the educator to provide 
such conditions as will make for the most healthy growth. 
Thus, through Herbart's influence, emphasis was shifted 
from the internal development of the child, over which the 
educator could have no control, to those external conditions 
shaping development for which the educator must assume re- 
sponsibility. Herbart's educational theory was thus both 
active and dynamic. 

Herbart was one of the first proponents of the view that 
all mental processes are unitary and cannot, except in a very 
artificial sense, be analyzed into such "faculties" as memory, 
imagination, judgment, etc. He strongly advocated the ap- 



io Experimental Child Study 

plication of the mathematical techniques used in other sci- 
ences to psychological and pedagogical data. However, he 
was more interested in the mathematical demonstration of 
abstract principles than in the organization and treatment 
of concrete data. 

In spite of the work of Herbart, for many years educa- 
tional theory and practice on the one hand, and scientific 
study and investigation on the other, proceeded in almost 
complete independence of each other. It was not until the 
close of the nineteenth century that any sort of effective 
liaison was established between the two. The union consti- 
tuted the new science of educational psychology. 

Since educational psychology was born out of the con- 
vergence of two well-developed lines of interest, its develop- 
ment or appearance is not signalized by any single event nor 
can its origin be traced to any one source. If we consider 
both direct and indirect influence, Hall had about as much 
to do with it as any one, although his interest, as we have 
seen, centered in the broader personal ancj social develop- 
ment of the child, rather than training in the formal school 
subjects. Among the other pioneer workers, we may mention 
particularly Cattell, who, as Wundt's first assistant at Leip- 
zig, carried out his investigations on individual differences 
in spite of Wundt's lack of sympathy with the problem. 
Much of the modern emphasis upon the statistical evalua- 
tion of material is to be traced to Cattail's influence. Al- 
though he was for a time a student of G. Stanley Hall, their 
respective contributions to educational psychology have been 
of a very different nature. Hall's intense interest in children 
led him to be somewhat careless in techniques of investiga- 
tion. Cattell had relatively little interest in children as human 
beings, but was greatly attracted by the possibility of meas- 
uring their development, even though his own work was 
carried out chiefly with adults and college students. His 



Brief Historical Resume n 

influence upon the study of child development, through the 
work of his students, has been very great. Among the latter 
we may mention particularly Thorndike, Woodworth, Dear- 
born, Hollingworth, Kelley and Gates. In Germany, Meu~ 
mann, under the influence of Ebbinghaus, carried out an 
extensive series, of learning studies among school children, 
and tests for measuring educational achievement soon fol- 
lowed. In spite of its late start, interest in educational psy- 
chology developed at so rapid a rate that in 1913 Thorndike 
(339) published a general compendium on the subject in 
three large volumes aggregating almost 1,200 pages. Of the 
348 references cited in his bibliography less than a third were 
published previous to 1900. 

The most outstanding characteristic of educational psy- 
chology, as it has developed in America, has been the growth 
of the testing movement and particularly the work in in- 
telligence testing. Although the first useful intelligence tests 
were developed in France by Binet and Simon, attempts at 
constructing such tests had been made in America at a con- 
siderably earlier date. In 1893 Gilbert (98) published the re- 
sults of a series of simple sensory-motor tests carried out 
with school children. During the same year Miinsterberg ex- 
hibited a number of tests at the World's Fair in Chicago. 
These tests were based upon the theories of Galton and 
Cattell which assumed that the more complex mental proc- 
esses were simply higher levels or combinations of the more 
elementary processes; and accordingly that adequate meas- 
urement of the higher mental functions might be obtained in 
terms of such simple performances as speed of tapping, re- 
action time, etc. The assumption, as we now know, proved 
to be wrong. In France, Alfred Binet, after an extensive 
series of investigations, covering a period of approximately 
twenty years, came to a very different conclusion. His find- 
ings had led him to believe that the higher mental processes 



12 Experimental Child Study 

must be measured directly and that they cannot effectively 
be reduced to simpler elements. With the publication of 
Binet's work, mental testing in America and elsewhere 
started off successfully in a new direction. 

Binet and the mental testing movement Although Binet is 
chiefly known for the intelligence tests which bear his name, 
his contribution to the study of child development and be- 
havior is far broader in scope. Almost twenty years elapsed 
between the publication of his first article on individual 
differences and the publication of his first intelligence scale 
in 1905. During this time, as stated in an earlier paragraph, 
he carried out more than fifty investigations of which the 
results have been published. These publications deal with 
many different topics, but throughout the list Binet's grow- 
ing interest in the measurement of individual differences in 
mental traits can be observed. He was one of the first to 
investigate the question of the relationship between physical 
and mental traits, and his conclusions at the end of a num- 
ber of careful studies were essentially the same as those 
held by the best authorities today; namely, that among 
individuals of the same age physical size is but slightly, if 
at all, related to mental traits (321). He conducted a large 
number of investigations on personality traits, the best 
known of which made use of his two daughters as subjects 
(18). In the search for diagnostic signs of intelligence he 
canvassed not only the fields of simple sensory discrimina- 
tion, reaction time, etc., with which Cattell and his co-work- 
ers in America were concerned, but also carried out extensive 
investigations on memory, imagination, attention, compre- 
hension, suggestibility, and so on. Even such unlikely fields 
as graphology and palmistry were not overlooked. 

In evaluating his results, Binet made frequent use of the 
comparative method, and particularly the comparison of 
extreme cases. For example, he asked teachers to select from 



^.o*. Brief Historical Resume 13 

lijli ;'i< i-Aii *-J 

among their students the five brightest and the five most 
stupid children, and then sought for tests which would differ- 
entiate reliably between these groups. He also made intensive 
studies of persons who had attracted attention through their 
ability in some highly specialized kind of mental perform- 
ance. His monograph on the psychology of lightning calcu- 
lators and great chess players is still a classic in its field. 

Binet has laid down for us three criteria of intelligence. 
It is interesting to evaluate his own work in terms of these 
three criteria. 

1. The power to take and maintain a given mental set. 
From 1886 to the time of his death in 1911 Binet's in- 
vestigations were closely centered about a single prob- 
lem the measurement of individual differences in men- 
tal traits. 

2. The power to make adaptations for the purpose of ob- 
taining a given end. We have seen how Binet canvassed 
almost the entire field of human behavior in his search 
for diagnostic instruments. 

3. The power of self-criticism. Of the many forms of be- 
havior investigated by Binet, only a very small per- 
centage was retained in his intelligence tests as finally 
published. He never hesitated to throw out any form 
of reaction which seemed unsuitable for his purpose 
merely because he had already spent a great deal of 
time in investigating it. 

As a result of the rapid growth of interest in the feeble- 
minded, public attention was promptly directed to Binet's 
work. Until the latter part of the nineteenth century, no 
clear differentiation between the feeble-minded and the In- 
sane had been made. With the more intensive studies of 
mental disorders which grew up during the latter part of 
the century, it became apparent that there were a certain 
number of individuals who, from birth onward, exhibited 
mental defects of a degree which made them incapable of 



14 Experimental Child Study 

adjusting themselves in the community. The need for early 
recognition and segregation of these persons became so ap- 
parent that, in 1904, the Minister of Public Instruction in 
Paris appointed a commission to study measures to be taken 
in the education of children who, by reason of mental defect, 
were unable to profit by ordinary instruction in the public 
schools. It was planned to remove these children from the 
regular classes and to provide instruction for them in a 
special school, admission to which was to be made on the 
basis of pedagogical and medical examinations. Binet's first 
scale was designed specifically to meet this need. During 
the same year the British goverment appointed the famous 
Royal Commission, the purpose of which was to ascertain 
the approximate number of mentally defective persons in 
England and Wales. Similar surveys of a less extensive na- 
ture were carried on in other countries, and social pressure 
was brought to bear from many sources in an attempt to 
provide more adequate institutional care for those who 
needed it. More objective methods of diagnosis were a 
primary requirement in such a program. In spite of the 
comparative crudeness of Binet's first scale, it was so far 
superior to anything previously used that It met with en- 
thusiastic acceptance. 

In the beginning, the use of intelligence tests was con- 
fined almost entirely to differentiating between the feeble- 
minded and persons of normal intelligence. It was soon 
found, however, that the method had a much wider range of 
applicability than had been at first supposed. The tests were 
useful not only in the differentiation of feeble-minded and 
backward children, but also as a means of selecting espe- 
cially bright children who might also profit by special in- 
struction. The "three track system" of education in which 
the bright, average, and backward children within the schools 
are segregated for separate instruction thus came into being. 



Brief Historical Resume 15 

The tests were also extended to cover a wider range of ages 
and abilities. The army tests for unselected adults, the col- 
lege ability tests, and the more recently devised tests for 
infants and preschool children are examples. Attempts are 
now being made to extend the technique of intelligence test- 
ing to cover other qualities of the individual, such as per- 
sonality and character traits. While these attempts have not 
as yet yielded results of equal value with the intelligence 
tests, a promising beginning has been made. 

The Freudian movement At the beginning of the present 
century there was developed in Austria a theory, which, 
because of its genetic approach to the study of personality 
maladjustment, requires some consideration here. This is 
the psychoanalytic movement originated by Sigmund Freud. 
Psychoanalytic theory is of interest to the student of child 
development chiefly because of the fact that it traces the 
great majority of the personality and emotional maladjust- 
ments of adult life to disturbances occurring during the 
period of infancy or early childhood; and also because of 
its insistent claim that the sexual instinct is present and 
active from the time of birth rather than from the age of 
puberty as was generally believed. It is doubtful, however, 
whether the material regarding childhood experiences which 
has been elicited by the psychoanalytic method can be re- 
garded as reliable. Both common observation and scientific 
experiment have shown that, with the passage of time, the 
memory of past events becomes extensively reorganized and 
modified as a result of later experience. Certain parts of an 
occurrence will be forgotten completely, others will be magni- 
fied out of proportion to the facts as they originally existed. 
Sometimes entire items will be transferred from one setting 
to another. There are few persons who have not at some 
time in their lives stated in all good faith that such or such 
a fact was told them by Mr. Brown when they really learned 



1 6 Experimental Child Study 

it from Mr. Smith, or who have never located in Philadel- 
phia an event which really took place in New York. The 
claim of the psychoanalysts that, by means of their tech- 
nique, memory transferrences of this sort can be corrected, 
and repressed memories brought back into consciousness 
has never been substantiated by checking up against actual 
facts. Moreover, even though their findings could be shown 
to be actually true for the individual cases studied, it would 
still be unsafe to assume that similar conditions would be 
found among the general population, since their data are 
derived almost wholly from the study of definitely abnormal 
cases. While the psychoanalytic technique may sometimes 
have therapeutic value, its usefulness for general scientific 
inquiry has yet to be established. It has served, however, to 
attract much attention to problems of child life and behavior. 

The behavioristic approach: Watson's experiments with 
infants. The increasing demand for precision of measure- 
ment and objectivity of record which is characteristic of 
scientific work in the twentieth century is illustrated by Wat- 
son's formulation of the principles of the behavioristic school 
of psychology in 1913. The fundamental tenet of this school 
is that only those facts which can be observed and measured 
by the methods employed in other sciences can furnish 
proper material for psychological research. The introspec- 
tive method, which up to this time supplied the great bulk 
of psychological data, was to be discarded. Its place was to 
be taken by studies of muscular and glandular behavior, 
the accuracy of which may be experimentally determined. 

The development of behaviorism marks the beginning of 
another great epoch in child psychology. Although Darwin 
had shown that a knowledge of child development is a neces- 
sary link in the understanding of the reactions of living 
organisms in general, so long as introspection was the method 
chiefly relied upon, child psychology could not advance 



Brief Historical Resume 17 

rapidly for lack of a suitable technique. Such a technique 
was provided by the behavioristic method. The work of 
Darwin made a comparative psychology necessary. Watson 
made it possible. 

To the student of child behavior, Watson's pioneer in- 
vestigations on the behavior of infants, and more particu- 
larly his experiments on the modifiability or conditioning 
of emotional behavior in early life are especially significant. 
For the first time, the origins of behavior are looked upon 
as an essential part of a psychological system. Since adult 
behavior is the outcome of earlier experiences operating 
upon native tendencies it cannot be understood without a 
knowledge of the stages through which it has passed. 

Tlie modern period. We have traced the broad outlines of 
the development of child psychology from its more or less 
vague recognition by the early educators to its integration, 
by Darwin, into the general field of scientific inquiry and 
the formulation by Binet and Watson, of practicable methods 
of procedure. This brings us essentially to the present time. 

Before proceeding to a detailed account of modern 
methods of investigation it seems well to make a brief survey 
of the outstanding changes which have taken place. If we 
contrast the work of the past few years with that carried 
on previous to 1920, there are certain changes in methods 
and points of view which stand out in clear relief. These may 
be characterized briefly as follows: 

1. A general agreement that children are legitimate sub- 
jects for scientific investigation. This change in attitude 
is a direct outgrowth of the discovery of techniques 
which are suitable for use with children. 

2. Emphasis upon objectivity. Increasing realization of 
the advantages of the behavioristic approach in the 
study of young children has resulted in a more inten- 
sive search for methods of investigation which will re- 
duce errors of observation to a minimum, and which 



1 8 Experimental Child Study 

will keep a sharp line of demarcation between the facts 
observed and the interpretations which may be based 
upon them. 

3. Extension of all methods downward. Previous to 1920 
only a few scattered investigations had been carried 
out with children below school age. The increasing use 
of infants and preschool children as subjects in many 
different types of investigation has been one of the 
most notable developments of the past few years. 

4. Mass attack upon problems. Whereas, previously, 
single forms of reaction were studied without reference 
to other characteristics of the individual, we now find 
an increasing tendency to study the same children 
simultaneously from as many angles as possible. In 
some cases special organizations are being set up, in 
which children are studied from the standpoint of 
physical growth, health-habits, mental, emotional and 
social development, home environment, etc., by a group 
of specialists each trained in his own particular field. 

5. Extension of investigation into many fields. With the 
broadened interest in child development and behavior 
characteristic of recent years, certain general types of 
interest have become sufficiently crystalized and their 
major objectives so clearly formulated as to be com- 
monly referred to as "movements." Among the fore- 
most of these we may mention the health movement, 
the welfare movement which is concerned chiefly with 
the socially handicapped, the mental hygiene move- 
ment in which interest centers in problems of individ- 
ual adjustment, and the experimental movement which 
is concerned primarily with fundamental problems of 
growth and development, rather than with their im- 
mediate application to social or individual betterment* 
Each of these groups has developed a more or less 
characteristic method of approach and has worked out 
certain technical procedures in accordance with Its 
particular needs. 



Chapter 2 

FUNDAMENTAL PRINCIPLES OF 

DEVELOPMENT 



rather tlian discontinuity is cliaracter- 
istic of all development. Although the current use of 
such convenient terms as "developmental level/ 7 "growth 
stages," "the period of infancy/ 5 "of early childhood," "of 
adolescence," etc., sometimes gives the impression that devel- 
opment proceeds by a series of rapid changes from one well- 
defined stage to another, it is important for the student to 
realize from the outset that no such series of marked growth 
changes exists in nature, and that the expressions which 
have just been quoted are nothing more than convenient 
terms for marking off certain parts of a continuous process 
for purposes of examination and study. The only reason for 
making such divisions at all is that the entire process is so 
long and involved that it is impossible to get anything more 
than a hazy idea of it unless we divide it up in some way 
and study it a little at a time. 

In making such divisions it is customary and convenient 
to use as the division point the average age or time at which 
certain prominent events in the field under consideration take 
place. For example, persons interested in physical growth 
and development frequently make the following rough divi- 
sions: the prenatal period which is often further subdivided 
into the periods of the ovum, the embryo, and the fetus; 
the postnatal period which is divided into infancy, covering 
the time from birth to the assumption of the erect posture 

19 



2O Experimental Child Study 

at about twelve to fifteen months, early childhood lasting 
from about fifteen months to six years, middle childhood 
from six to ten years, late childhood or the prepuberal period 
as it is sometimes called, which lasts from about the age of 
ten to the time of puberty,* and adolescence which extends 
from the age of puberty until the time when physical growth 
is terminated, that is, about eighteen in girls and twenty in 
boys. These divisions are convenient for the anatomist be- 
cause, in a general way, they mark off periods of slow or 
rapid physical growth. During infancy and early childhood 
growth is rapid; during middle childhood it is much slower; 
during the prepuberal period the growth rate again becomes 
rapid, and following puberty it slows off gradually and con- 
tinuously till the final adult standard is reached. The change 
from one period to another, however, is not abrupt but 
gradual and continuous. The educator may make a different 
sort of division, such as the ^preschool period, the kinder- 
garten period, the primary school or grade school period, the 
junior high school period, the senior high school period, the 
college period, etc. Back in the nineties, when the recapitula- 
tion theory was in full swing it was fashionable to make a 
division of stages in child development along lines which 
were supposed to parallel the cultural history of the race. 
There was the "stone age period," the "cave man period," 
the "big Injun period," etc. Persons interested in the play- 
behavior of children sometimes refer to the running and 
chasing age, the baseball age, etc. Play interests, however, 
like other developmental phenomena, come into being and 
disappear gradually. Although they may be more prominent 
at certain periods of life than at others, there are no sharply 
defined stages set off by their presence. 

Because of the fact that development is continuous, we arc 

* Puberty is reached at about thirteen or fourteen years in girls and 
fourteen or fifteen yean in boys. 



Fundamental Principles of Development 21 

continually in search of landmarks by which we can de- 
scribe its progress. The inexperienced person is therefore 
likely to place great stress upon such developmental events 
as the coming of the first tooth, the time when the first step 
is taken unsupported, etc. Although such events as these are 
important in the sense that they furnish objective and clear- 
cut points of reference from which later progress along the 
same line can be measured, we must not lose sight of the 
fact that they are in reality only part of a continuous de- 
velopmental sequence. Indeed, the most recent studies in 
mental and physical growth have shown rather conclusively 
that even birth itself should be regarded as only a con- 
spicuous incident in the developmental progress of the 
human being. 

Increase of factors witii age. We can characterize the es- 
'sential difference between the child and the adult very sim- 
ply. In contrast to the child who is developing the adult 
is at a maintenance level. Changes in adult behavior are 
brought about only as a result of experience.* Since adults 
seem in general somewhat less plastic, that is, less easily 
affected by experience, even these changes are of less im- 
portance. In the case of the child, on the other hand, we 
have to deal with the very complex phenomenon of an or- 
ganism whereof the different parts are growing at different 
rates, and which is at the same time extremely sensitive to 
many environmental influences. For these reasons, both the 
opportunities for scientific investigation of phenomena and 
the technical difficulties involved In carrying out such in- 
vestigations are greatly increased in the study of child be- 
havior as compared to adult behavior. 

Because of the underlying age factor all developmental 
processes are interrelated. It is therefore highly important 
to distinguish between those processes or functions which 

*This is true only until the onset of senescence. 



22 Experimental Child Study 

have no relationship other than the fact that they are chang- 
ing with age, and those which are related in other fashions. 
For example, if we measure the size of vocabulary and the 
length of index-finger in a group of children who range in 
age from two to twelve years we shall find that those chil- 
dren who have the longest index-fingers also tend to have 
the largest vocabularies, but this is only because both the 
length of index-finger and the size of the vocabulary are 
increasing with age. If we compare the length of index-finger 
with the size of vocabulary in children who are all of exactly 
the same age we shall find little or no relationship between 
the two. If, however, we, compare the length of the right 
index-finger with that of the left index-finger in a group of 
children of the same age we shall find that those children 
who have long right index-fingers tend also to have long 
left index-fingers. That is to say, there are factors other 
than age which affect the length of the index-finger, and 
these factors, whatever they may be, affect the length of 
both index fingers in approximately the same degree. If, in 
a similar way, we compare the size of vocabularies with grade 
placement in school we shall find that even among children 
of the same age there is some tendency for children with 
large vocabularies to be in higher grades than those with 
small vocabularies; that is, the two factors tend to vary 
together. We cannot say to what extent this may be the 
result of a tendency to consider the size of vocabulary in 
determining promotion, to the more complex curriculum of 
the upper grades acting as a stimulus to learning new words, 
to the effect of some general underlying factor such as in- 
telligence, or to a combination of all these and other factors 
which might be mentioned. We can only say that a relation- 
ship exists which cannot be entirely accounted for upon the 
basis of age. We note also that this relationship is consider- 
ably less close than that which we found between the length 



Fundamental Principles of Development 23 

of the index fingers on the two hands. Presumably, there- 
fore, in addition to factors which tend to affect both in the 
same way, there are other factors operative which may 
affect one without producing any change in the other. 
(,/ It is also important to note that developmental relation- 
ships change somewhat from age to age. This is because of 
the fact that diiferent aspects of development may proceed 
simultaneously for a time but reach their maxima at differ- 
ent periods. For example, walking is a developmental proc- 
ess which reaches complete or practically complete develop- 
ment in early childhood and undergoes little change there- 
after. Progress in vocabulary, however, although beginning 
(in the sense of reaching a level at which we can measure 
it) at only a slightly later age than walking, continues to 
increase long after the time when any measurable changes 
in walking have ceased to occur. During the period when 
both are developing, some relationship between the two 
kinds of ability will appear because of the underlying age 
factor. Thereafter such a relationship ceases to be present. 

We may formulate this principle as follows: In any trait, 
after the maximum has been reached, developmental rela- 
tionships to other traits disappear. Relationships based upoa 
factors other than age will remain even after the develop- 
mental period is over. 

I/ It is probable that growth proceeds most rapidly during 
the early years of life. We know that this is true in the case 
of physical growth where adequate methods of measure- 
ment are available. In regard to mental growth we are less 
certain. It is true that by the age of six years the brain 
and nervous system have attained ninety per cent of their 
adult weight, and differentiation of cell structure within the 
brain seems to be at a corresponding level so far as our 
present microscopical analysis shows. However, reasoning 
from structure to function is always hazardous. Mental 



24 Experimental Child Study 

growth may be dependent in large measure upon facts not 
revealed by our present microscopes. Common observation, 
however, lends additional weight to the hypothesis of the 
early acceleration of mental growth. When we consider that 
during the first few years of life the child acquires practically 
all the basic tools of adult behavior, walking, speech, funda- 
mental habits, bodily coordination and manual dexterity, as 
well as most of the basic mechanisms for social adjustment 
in an extremely complex environment, it unquestionably ap- 
pears as though early development proceeds at a rate which 
is never again equalled. Attempts at measuring the form of 
the mental growth curve in terms of standardized test scores 
has, however, yielded inconsistent results. Thorndike (248) 
as the result of such a scaling technique comes to the conclu- 
sion that by the age of three years the child has attained 
two-thirds of his ultimate mental "altitude." Thurstone 
(251), however, using a somewhat different method of scal- 
ing, finds the curve of mental growth to be approximately 
a straight line from birth to maturity. We may therefore 
say that while the weight of evidence seems to be in favor 
of early acceleration of mental growth, the matter has not 
yet been irrefutably established. 

Development is marked by a serial order. One of the most 
thoroughly demonstrated principles brought out by studies 
of child development up to the present time can be stated 
as follows: Although children vary greatly in rate of devel- 
opment, the order of development as marked by the succes- 
sive appearance of various developmental events varies but 
little from one child to another. This sequential order is ap- 
parent at all ages and in all functions. A few examples may 
be mentioned. The ability to follow a horizontal movement 
with the eye develops at an earlier age than the ability to 
follow a vertical movement, and a vertical movement can be 
followed before a circular movement. In the eruption of 



Fundamental Principles of Development 25 

teeth the incisors precede the molars, and the lower central 
incisors practically always appear before the upper ones. A 
child can draw a circle before he is able to draw a square, 
and the ability to draw a square develops from two to three 
years before the ability to draw a diamond. An infant learns 
to creep upstairs considerably earlier than he learns to 
reverse the process and come down again, either backward 
or forward. Later on he will be found to walk upstairs using 
only the alternate treads, although he must still come down 
one step at a time. He is able to feed himself with a spoon 
long before he can spread butter on his bread. He can think 
of ways in which two objects are different approximately a 
year before he is able to tell you ways in which they are 
alike. Almost an endless number of similar examples may be 
cited. 

Although variations from the usual sequential order do 
occur they are relatively infrequent. Generally speaking, 
when a child is found to be unable to perform one of the 
tasks in such a developmental series we run little risk in 
inferring that he will likewise fail on one which ordinarily 
develops later, particularly if the two events in the series 
are normally separated by a considerable lapse of time. 
Children have occasionally been known to succeed on a test 
of giving similarities in spite of failure on the test of giving 
differences, but this does not often occur. No case has ever 
been reported of a child who was able to draw a diamond 
but not a square. 

Practically, as well as theoretically, the law of the con- 
stancy of developmental order is of the greatest importance 
for the study of child development. Consider, for example, 
what would happen to the ordinary mental test if it were 
actually necessary to try out individuals on all possible kinds 
of performance. A lifetime would hardly be sufficient to com- 
plete the task. Recognition of this principle and study of 



26 Experimental Child Study 

the order in which various phenomena tend to appear has 
made it possible for us to select a series of tests so graded 
in difficulty as to enable us to secure a fairly accurate knowl- 
edge of an individual's mental standing within a compara- 
tively short period of time. 

Development proceeds from generalized to specific re- 
sponses. People sometimes think of growth as a building up 
of larger processes from smaller ones, as a "putting to- 
gether" rather than a "bringing out." The modern position 
which is supported by a considerable amount of experi- 
mental evidence, is just the opposite. Growth is a process 
of unfolding, of the development of specific functions from 
more generalized types of response. 

In mental development this progression is noticeable. At 
first a general response to a total situation is made. Later on 
the child becomes able to respond to certain specific features 
in the situation and to give less attention to others. For 
example, comprehension of speech seems to develop from a 
stage in which the child is able to make a general response 
to the total situation tonal inflection, facial expression and 
bodily attitude, plus the actual form of the words used. By 
progressive stages in which more and more of the accom- 
panying situation can be dropped out, a point is reached at 
which the word alone serves as an adequate stimulus for 
the response. Nor does the period of differentiation end 
here. With increasing experience, words which at first had 
only a highly generalized meaning convey finer and finer 
subtleties of thought. For the little child, any, winged biped 
Is a "birdie" or a "chickie," all food is "dinner," and all 
timepieces are "tick-tocks." With advancing development 
these generalized responses become more specific. A countless 
number of similar examples might be cited. 

Integration accompanies differentiation. In the foregoing 
paragraph it was pointed out that development proceeds 



Fundamental Principles of Development 27 

from the generalized uncoordinated responses of the in- 
fant to the specific and highly differentiated behavior of 
the adult. There is, however, another aspect of the picture. 
Parallel with the process of differentiation which is the re-* 
suit of development) there is going on a process of integra- 
tion or recombination of responses which is the result of 
experience. Although we may distinguish between these two 
processes theoretically it is impossible to do so in actual 
practice, since experience without development or develop- 
ment without experience are alike impossible. It is impor- 
tant to realize, however, that the complexity of the integra- 
tive or reorganizing process is directly dependent upon the 
degree of differentiation which has taken place. It is fruitless 
to attempt to teach either the profound idiot or the child 
of eighteen months to make the fine distinctions needed to 
tell the differences between a robin and a wood thrush, or 
between his right shoe and his left. On the other hand, de- 
velopment alone in the absence of experience or training 
would never yield such specific items of information. As 
a result of progressive differentiation, the individual gains 
the ability to respond to more specific factors in the en- 
vironment; as a result of experience these responses become 
organized into the characteristic patterns of response which 
we call "habits," "personality traits" and so on. 

The same situation will induce different responses in dif- 
ferent individuals or in the same individual at different 
times. From the foregoing discussion it should be clear that 
children in whom the process of developmental differentia- 
tion has reached different stages will, upon the whole, show 
certain characteristic trends in their responses to any given 
situation from which the level of development may often be 
inferred. At the earlier stages certain specific types of re- 
sponse will not yet have been differentiated out of the gen- 
eral complex, and will therefore not appear. For the same 



28 Experimental Child Study 

reason, certain organized reaction patterns will not be pres- 
ent, since the specific reactions needed to make up the gen- 
eral pattern are not as yet completely available. An example 
is furnished by the definitions of objects given by children 
of different ages or different stages of mental development. 
The average child of two or three years has a generalized 
reaction toward the stimulus word chair. When asked, "What 
is a chair?" he will point it out without hesitation or show 
his recognition of its purpose by going and sitting on it, 
but it is unlikely that he will be able to tell you anything 
more about it. If forced to make a verbal statement he can 
only say, "A chair is a chair," or "That's a chair." By the 
age of four or five, however, differentiation has progressed 
to a point at which the child is able to single out some fea- 
ture of the general response for particular attention. With 
most children the "use" factor is one of the first to be dif- 
ferentiated. This gives rise to the well-known "use" defini- 
tions of early childhood, such as "a chair is to sit on," "a 
pencil is to write with," etc. As differentiation proceeds, in- 
tegration goes on in like manner. The partial features which 
have become differentiated from the total situation are re- 
combined and reorganized in various ways. Objects are now 
grouped into general classes on the basis of certain features 
which they possess in common. The early definitions in terms 
of a single differentiating feature or characteristic may now 
be replaced by the complete formal definition with classifica- 
tion of the object according to its genus. A chair is a piece 
of furniture, a horse is an animal. 

It is important to realize that whatever the level of de- 
velopment and however generalized or specific the response 
may be, it is always a response of the whole individual and 
not of some special "faculty," such as memory, imagination, 
perception, or what not. Through progressive differentiation 
and integration, new combinations of partial features in the 



Fundamental Principles of Development 29 

situation become capable of arousing reactions which are 
more specifically adapted to these features, and the charac- 
teristics of which are more clearly defined. An organism 
which originally was capable of making only one general- 
ized response to a given total situation gradually becomes 
sensitive to various partial features and is thereby capable 
of responding, now to certain aspects and now to others. 
Although these responses differ in kind according as they 
are induced through different combinations of partial ele- 
ments, like the more generalized responses of an earlier 
period they still involve the organism as a whole. For this 
reason, a change in a single feature of the situation may 
modify the entire reaction pattern which is displayed. Within 
the limits set by differentiation, the particular pattern of 
response which is displayed by the individual at any given 
moment will be determined largely or wholly by his previous 
experience in corresponding situations and by his physical 
condition at the time. 

It is important to bear in mind, therefore, that when 
modern psychology uses such terms as "memory," "percep- 
tion," "motor coordination," etc., the reference is made to the 
kind of situation to which the individual is called upon to 
respond and not to the response itself as any sort of mental 
faculty which operates as a unit. Nevertheless, there are 
certain kinds of situations which it is convenient to group 
together upon the basis of the general characteristics of the 
response which they tend to elicit from the reacting organ- 
ism. When we speak of investigations of "memory," for 
example, we do not mean that we are studying some one 
part of the individual's mental equipment, but rather that 
we are concerned with certain aspects of his general be- 
havior rather than others, and that we are setting up certain 
kinds of situations which are designed to bring these par- 
ticular aspects of behavior into clearest relief. Every kind 



30 Experimental Child Study 

of mental process is modified to some extent by previous 
experience and thus involves memory. The difference be- 
tween a formal experiment in memorizing and the observa- 
tions of everyday behavior which involve memory is that 
in the former case such variable factors as the manner in 
which the stimulus is presented, the kind of stimulus given, 
the number of repetitions, the intervals between stimulus and 
response, etc., are controlled by the experimenter, and thus 
made uniform for all individuals participating in the experi- 
ment. Furthermore, since the experimenter is commonly in- 
terested in certain features or aspects of the response rather 
than others, he centers his attention upon the observation 
and recording of these partial elements and ignores other 
features which do not fall within his particular line of inter- 
est at the time. In like manner we speak of experiments on 
sensation, imagination, and so on. Again, the basis for classi- 
fication lies, not in the subject himself, nor in the particular 
kind of response elicited, but rather in the kind of situation 
which has been set and in the selecting of partial elements 
in the response for observation and recording. When used in 
this way, such expressions as "memory," "imagination," 
"reasoning," and so on are convenient and useful, but the 
student must not lose sight of the fact that these terms are 
only modes of classification and do not represent independent 
mental processes of any kind. 



Chapter 3 

MODERN METHODS OF CHILD STUDY 



development of methods from problem require- 
-*- ments. Let us suppose that an intelligent and conscien- 
tious mother, after reading a book on the health-care of 
children, finds that her child is taking less than the recom- 
mended amount of sleep. She endeavors to correct the de- 
ficiency by putting the child to bed at an earlier hour and 
by trying to increase the length of the nap, but without 
much success. In the belief that the best way to go about 
correcting a difficulty is to ascertain its cause, the mother 
finally decides to write out a systematic account of all the 
facts in her possession regarding the child's sleeping habits. 
With all the evidence before her, It should be, she thinks, 
a relatively easy matter to find out where the fault lies. 

She begins with the family history. The child's father is 
a light sleeper, and one of her own sisters is very nervous 
and often complains of insomnia. Is there an hereditary 
factor involved? Perhaps, but it seems best to look further. 
During the child's first winter there occurred a long visit 
from a doting grandmother who, in spite of protests, often 
used to rock the baby to sleep. Possibly the child became so 
"conditioned" to rocking at that time that it has been diffi- 
cult for her to go to sleep without it. The books mention 
such cases. She is an only child and is therefore put to bed 
by herself much earlier than the other members of the fam- 
ily. It may be that in staying awake till a later hour she is 
unconsciously trying to imitate the grown-ups whom she 

31 



32 Experimental Child Study 

so much admires. Or perhaps she is disturbed by noises 
from outside. Although she has a room by herself it is not 
completely isolated from the noise of the household. Last 
winter she had whooping cough and was frequently wakened 
during the night by coughing. Were bad sleeping habits 
set up at that time? Recently she has been having her dinner 
at night with the family instead of at midday as was her 
former custom. Can this have anything to do with the 
matter? 

Before the mother has gone very far in setting down pos- 
sible causes it becomes evident that in any individual child, 
each form of behavior is closely bound up with all others, 
and with a multiplicity of different factors in the personal 
history and home background. It is not surprising, then, 
that attempts to arrive at the solution of a concrete difficulty 
by means of incidental observations, even when these ob- 
servations are systematically combined into a descriptive 
case history, are subject to many sources of error. The range 
of possibilities is so great and the opportunities for verifica- 
tion so few that the findings are likely to be interpreted 
largely or entirely in terms of personal bias. Since it is im- 
possible to set down everything, there is no guarantee that 
the facts of greatest significance will not be overlooked. 

The mother then begins to wonder how her friends suc- 
ceed in getting their children to take the recommended quota 
of sleep. She brings the matter up for discussion at a meet- 
ing of the Parent-Teacher Association and finds, to her sur- 
prise, that few children are actually sleeping as much as 
the books recommend. This raises the question of the ac- 
curacy of the standards laid down. Perhaps the requirements 
are too high. It is decided that it would be interesting and 
worth while to find out how much sleep the average child 
of each age actually does take, and how much children of 
the same age vary in their sleeping habits. After some dis- 



Modern Methods of Child Study 33 

cussion as to the best way in which this information could 
be secured, the mothers decide to send out a questionnaire 
to the parents of all the children in the school system, ask- 
ing them to keep records for a period of one week on the 
amount of time which their children spend in sleep* 

The results of the questionnaire show that at least for the 
children in the city studied, the standards prescribed are 
considerably higher than the amount of sleep usually taken. 
But the school nurse immediately points out that this does 
not necessarily mean that the standards are too high. It 
may be that most children sleep less than they should. How 
is this question to be answered? 

What are some of the possible results of taking too little 
sleep? In children, growth and nutrition might be affected. 
How do the children who take least sleep compare in height 
and weight, and in the weight-height index with those who 
take most? Measurements of height and weight are accord- 
ingly taken and the results compared with the sleep records. 

But lack of sleep may affect the child in other ways. He 
may become more nervous and irritable, or be lacking in 
physical energy. He may find it harder to give attention to 
his lessons or to persist at a task for long periods of time. 
There is no adequate way of measuring such characteristics 
as these, but it is possible to make judgments regarding 
them. A series of rating scales dealing with a number of 
traits of the kind just indicated are therefore prepared, and 
each child is rated on these scales by parents and teachers. 

It is then suggested that since recuperation from mental 
fatigue can best be brought about through sleep, failure to 
take the needed amount of sleep may actually retard the 
mental development of a growing child. Each child is there- 
fore given a mental test for further comparison with the 
sleep records. 

A mother whose child sleeps less than the average for 



34 - Experimental Child Study 

his age raises the question of the quality of sleep. Some 
children are very restless during the night; others sleep more 
quietly. Is it possible that ten hours of quiet sleep may have 
as much value for the child as eleven or twelve hours of 
restless sleep? In order to throw light on this question, 
a number of mothers volunteer to observe their children 
throughout one entire night in each week for a period of 
four weeks, and to record the number of movements made. 
Nap periods are also to be observed in the same way. The 
results of these systematic observations are to be compared 
with the length of sleep by way of check on the hypothesis 
that the more restless sleepers tend to sleep more hours than 
those whose sleep is quiet. They are also compared with 
the findings from the measurements of height and weight, 
the intelligence test scores, and the trait ratings in order to 
see what relationship, if any, exists between these factors 
and the degree of restlessness shown during sleep. 

After all these matters have been checked up, however, 
it is found that the differences in the amount of sleep taken 
by different children of the same age are still not completely 
accounted for. In discussing the matter, a number of pos- 
sible hypotheses are suggested. One mother thinks that the 
amount of time which the child spends in outdoor exercise 
during the day may affect his sleep. Another places great 
stress upon the temperature of the sleeping room and the 
amount of bed-covering. One thinks that a bedtime story 
has a quieting effect upon the child and causes him to go 
to sleep more quickly; another is quite certain that stories 
delay sleep. One believes that the evening meal should come 
just before bedtime, and cites as evidence the quickness 
with which young animals and infants drop off to sleep after 
being fed. Others think that the meal should be scheduled 
early enough so that at least an hour may elapse between 
the child's supper and his bedtime. 



Modern Methods of Child Study 35 

Some of these hypotheses could readily be made the sub- 
jects of controlled experiments. For example, one group of 
mothers might try the earlier supper hour for a time, then 
change to a later one; while a second group whose children 
were of similar ages might try first the later, then the earlier 
plan. The amount of sleep taken by the children in each 
group under each of the two schedules could be recorded 
and compared. The bedtime story hypothesis might be 
tested in a 'similar way, as could also, within limits, the 
temperature of the sleeping room and the amount of out- 
door play. While it is true that experiment in matters of 
this kind cannot be carried to a point which is in any way 
likely to interfere with the child's physical or mental well- 
being, there are many points where the question of optimum 
procedure is by no means settled, and upon which carefully 
conducted experimentation might at least shed some light. 

In running through this account of an hypothetical series 
of investigations, we are immediately impressed with two 
points. First we note that the method is in each case an out- 
growth of the problem to be solved and the devices avail- 
able for its solution. The method is fitted to the problem, not 
the problem to the method. Secondly, in their attempts to 
answer the question which they had set themselves to solve, 
our hypothetical group of mothers have followed much the 
same line of progress that science in general takes in in- 
vestigating a new problem. The problem is formulated from 
incidental observations on a relatively small number of cases. 
The gross facts are then ascertained by means of a survey 
of a large number of cases. After these facts have been de- 
termined, their relationships to each other and to such other 
facts as may seem to have a bearing upon their origin are 
examined. In the course of these investigations, certain 
hypotheses may be formed. The final step is to set up such 
crucial experiments as will check the soundness of these 



36 Experimental Child Study 

hypotheses as completely as possible, Throughout, progress 
is toward greater specificity in the formulation of the prob- 
lem, toward organization and definition of procedure and 
the isolation of single factors for investigation, and toward 
such control of conditions as will make for clear and unam- 
biguous interpretation of results. 

A third point which may be somewhat less evident is 
worth noting. If a group of parents and teachers sufficiently 
intelligent and persistent to carry out such a series of in- 
vestigations were actually to undertake a project of this 
nature, they might well come out with a greater feeling 
of ignorance than that which impelled them to start the in- 
vestigation. It is the way of research to raise more questions 
than it answers. The beginning student faced with the need 
of earning so many laboratory credits or of writing a thesis 
gropes helplessly for a "problem." Let him but undertake 
the solution of one and a dozen more spring up to confront 
him. It is a mistaken notion that in order to be worth while, 
an investigation must provide a final answer to the question 
with which it deals. Rarely will this be true. What usually 
happens is that while certain partial aspects of the question 
under consideration are answered by means of one investi- 
gation, at the same time the general interrelationships of all 
the parts of the problem are brought out and the direction 
which later research can most profitably take is made more 
clear. Thus, in the hypothetical case cited, the following 
facts were presumably established with reasonable certainty: 

1. The average amount of sleep taken by children at each 
age in the locality covered by the survey, and the ex- 
tent to which these figures conform to the theoretical 
sleep requirements laid down in certain standard books 
on child care. 

2. The relation of the amount of sleep taken to such fac- 
tors as physical growth and nutritional status, mental 



Modern Methods of Child Study 37 

development, and personality characteristics as judged 
by parents and teachers. 

3. The relation between amount of sleep and restlessness 
during sleep; and between restlessness during sleep 
and the factors listed above. 

4. The relationship between amount of sleep and certain 
factors in the child's daily schedule or in the condi- 
tions under which sleep is taken. 

Valuable as such information would be, and much as it 
would advance our knowledge of the part played by sleep 
in child growth and development, many important questions 
would still remain unanswered. A large proportion of these 
questions might easily be direct outgrowths of the findings 
of this study. Suppose, for example, it should be found that 
on the average children who are tall for their age sleep more 
than those who are short. Does this mean that the added 
growth is caused by the additional amount of sleep or that 
children who grow rapidly require, and therefore take, more 
sleep than those whose growth is slower? Or are the longer 
hours of sleep and the greater height merely evidences of a 
generally superior stock with its usual accompaniment of 
better home care? The same question may be raised with 
regard to other relationships which may be found. The 
establishment of a relationship does not, in itselj, afford 
evidence as to the causal basis for the relationship. We are 
not, therefore, provided with an answer to the fundamental 
problem involved, but are merely shown whether or not 
such a problem exists. In the example cited, if it were 
found that sleep and height are unrelated to each other, 
further investigation along this line becomes unnecessary 
save possibly as a check upon the accuracy of the original 
findings. 

In the study of child development, as in other sciences, the 
advancement of knowledge proceeds through a series of 



38 Experimental Child Study 

successive approximations. Problems are formulated, then 
methods are developed. In the working out of these prob- 
lems, new questions arise which necessitate other avenues 
of approach. No one method is adapted to all purposes nor 
may be applied under all conditions. Some methods, as we 
shall see, are more likely to yield clean-cut results than 
others, but each has its own possibilities and advantages, its 
own limitations and hazards. 

A more detailed account of methods is given in Part III 
of this book. 



PART II 
EXPERIMENTS 



Chapter 4 

NOTES TO THE INSTRUCTOR 

SECURING subjects. The organization of a course in ex- 
^ perimental child study presents certain problems not 
encountered in the ordinary psychological laboratory where 
the students themselves commonly act as subjects for the 
investigations, and the experimental periods may be of pro- 
tracted length. In carrying out experiments with children, 
the periods of work with any one child must be of short 
length, thus greatly reducing the amount of data which can 
be secured at a single sitting. The difficulty of securing sub- 
jects is also a serious problem. It is evident that school- 
children cannot be withdrawn from their class-rooms for 
experimental purposes too often, and that there is a limit 
to the amount of cooperation which can reasonably be ex- 
pected from teachers in the way of ratings, questionnaires 
and the like. Even in the nursery-school and kindergarten, 
where programs are usually more informal and curricular 
requirements less rigidly defined, too frequent interruption 
of the activities of the children is unwise. For these reasons 
it is well to build up as extensive a clientele of subjects as 
local conditions permit, and to arrange the investigations 
in such a way as to avoid excessive demands upon any one 
group. The following are suggested as sources from which 
subjects can frequently be secured: 

1. Individual children in homes known to the student or 
to his friends. 

2. Mother's clubs, parent-teacher associations, and simi- 
lar organizations. 

41 



42 Experimental Child Study 

A brief talk to groups of this kind can usually be 
arranged. The purpose of the proposed investigation 
can then be explained and the mothers invited to bring 
their children to the laboratory or to allow the worker 
to visit the home. If the invitation is couched in suit- 
able terms, and the requests made are not excessive, 
the response from such groups is likely to be very 
gratifying. 

3. Birth records and block surveys. 

If children of a particular age are desired, these can 
often be most advantageously located by an examina- 
tion of the official birth records of corresponding date. 
Calls can then be made at the homes and cooperation 
requested. If the situation is handled tactfully, and the 
request is of a reasonable nature, the number of re- 
fusals will usually be small. House to house canvassing 
may also be used when a somewhat wider range of 
ages is to be employed. 

4. Baby shows, state and county fairs, etc., often afford 
opportunities for carrying out investigations when only 
a single sitting of relatively brief duration is needed. 

5. Arrangements can often be made with public school 
authorities to permit children to bring younger broth- 
ers and sisters to school for research purposes. When 
this is done, every precaution should be taken to see 
that no additional burden is imposed upon principal 
or teachers. The investigator should arrange for the 
care of the children during any intervals of waiting or 
inactivity, as well as during the actual experimental 
periods. 

6. Churches and Sunday Schools with their affiliated or- 
ganizations afford another means of getting in touch 
with parents of young children in rather large num- 
bers. It is perhaps unnecessary to add the caution that 
in order to guard against possible offense, requests for 
cooperation are better made at the week-day rather 
than the Sunday services. 

7. Public playgrounds and parks attract many children 
from the "toddler" stage up. When methods and ap- 
paratus are simple, it is sometimes possible to find a 
secluded corner in which experimental work can be car- 



Notes to the Instructor 43 

ried out on the spot. When controlled observation of 
"natural" behavior is the method to be used (see Chap- 
ter 45)5 the playground itself becomes an ideal labora- 
tory. If these methods are not feasible, the informal 
atmosphere of the playground makes it easy to ap- 
proach mothers or other persons in charge of the 
smaller children and to arrange for cooperation on 
another occasion. 

8. Social agencies working with young children are usu- 
ally very willing to cooperate with research agencies 
or with individual research workers. Among these 
agencies may "be mentioned day nurseries, settlement 
houses, welfare organizations of all sorts, baby health 
clinics and milk stations, "behavior clinics" and child 
placing organizations. 

9. Although orphanages and boarding homes for young 
children will provide many cases, the range of ability 
is likely to be somewhat restricted. 

10. Pediatricians and family physicians can frequently be 
interested in a research project and persuaded to use 
their influence to secure cooperation among their pa- 
tients. 

11. Maternity hospitals and nursing homes for dependent 
or unmarried mothers afford opportunities for research 
work with young infants. 

12. Nursery schools, kindergartens, experimental schools, 
and "neighborhood play groups," both public and 
private, are among the most useful as well as the 
most obvious sources. When the cooperative class 
method of securing data is used, a stable group of 
this kind becomes practically an essential. The demon- 
stration or experimental schools connected with most 
teacher-training organizations afford ideal situations 
for training in experimental work, since it is possible 
in such schools to set up a well-organized body of 
records of the individual children which may be used 
as a source of much of the supplementary information 
suggested under the various experiments which follow. 
These records will also furnish material for many sup- 
plementary problems which can be worked out without 
the necessity of securing further data from teachers or 



44 Experimental Child Study 

children. In cases where the cooperation of a nearby 
orphanage or similar institution can be secured, much 
the same sort of record-system may be set up. 

Methods of organization. There are two general plans by 
which the laboratory work of a class in experimental child 
study may be organized; the individual project method and 
the cooperative or group method. The individual method is 
likely to be preferable for more advanced students but may 
also be used with less experienced students when the classes 
are small enough to permit fairly close supervision by the 
instructor. When this method is used it is usually desirable 
to divide the students into pairs. Each member of each pair 
is assigned a problem or selects one for himself. He then 
takes the complete responsibility for carrying out the in- 
vestigation, working up the data, and organizing the results 
in their final written form. His partner, however, is expected 
-to collaborate with him to the extent of securing whatever 
independent data are necessary for checking the reliability 
of the method. These results will be turned over to the 
main investigator for statistical treatment. In like manner, 
the first experimenter will secure the reliability data 
needed by his partner. In working with young children it 
will often be necessary to make use of hours other than the 
formal laboratory period. It is therefore wise to arrange 
partnerships between students who have similar schedules, 
particularly when the problem chosen is one which requires 
simultaneous observations. 

In case the institution has no connection with an experi- 
mental school in which class experiments can be carried 
out, the individual project method is likely to be the only 
one feasible. When used, it should ordinarily include at least 
one regular lecture period per week in which general prin- 
ciples of scientific investigation, statistical methods for the 
treatment of data, and other problems of general interest to 



Notes to the Instructor 45 

the class may be brought up for discussion. As the individual 
projects are completed, each one should be reported in full 
to the other members of the class. When time and the nature 
of the experiment permit, each student should try to observe 
one sitting of each experiment carried out by the other 
members of the group in order to familiarize himself with 
the methods employed. Each student should also be pro- 
vided with copies of all the record forms used in other ex- 
periments. In this way it is possible to hold each member 
of the class responsible for a knowledge, not only of his 
own experiments and those of his partner, but also of those 
carried out by the remaining members of the group. 

When the cooperative method is used the entire class 
collaborates in the securing of data for each problem. This 
has the advantage of permitting more detailed explanations 
of procedures both for the collection and treatment of data 
and of giving each student first-hand acquaintance with a 
fairly large number of different techniques. It is therefore 
preferable for beginning classes who have had relatively 
little experience with laboratory methods, and whose statisti- 
cal training is meagre. When circumstances permit it is well 
to use the group method during the first part of the course 
and to change to the individual method later on as facility 
in handling material is gained. When the group method is 
used, each student is responsible for writing up the results 
of each experiment in which the class participates. 

The experiments. In the following chapters will be found 
descriptions of a series of experiments and problems suit- 
able for the elementary student. For these experiments no 
previous training in laboratory methods or statistics is as- 
sumed. For the most part the problems suggested require no 
apparatus or equipment other than that which the students 
can readily prepare for themselves. As outlined the prob- 
lems are applicable to children within the range of ages from 



46 f Experimental Child Study 

nursery-school through the primary grades. In some cases 
they may be used with older children. While the instructions 
as given follow the plan of the cooperative rather than the 
individual project, the experiments are equally suitable for 
the latter method of approach if existing conditions seem to 
make this preferable. 

Since the greater number of the experiments described 
require several days' time for securing the data, unnecessary 
delay will result if work on one problem is always com- 
pleted before another can be taken up. Inasmuch as the data 
are usually collected outside the class-room, a good plan is 
to alternate the formal class meetings with free periods. 
The class meetings may then be devoted to explanations and 
discussions of methods of organizing and treating the data 
which have been secured for one problem, while the alter- 
nating free periods are spent in securing the data for the 
next. t 

It is not to be expected that any one group of students 
will be able to carry out the entire list of experiments de- 
scribed. Because of the great differences in laboratory facili- 
ties and in the number and age of the subjects available 
in different places, it has seemed wise to make this section 
sufficiently comprehensive to meet the needs of students 
working under a wide variety of conditions. Instructors 
should make such a selection of topics as seems best to fulfill 
the requirements imposed by the amount of time and the 
facilities available for their students. 

For advanced students who wish to carry out more com- 
prehensive investigations than those outlined in this sec- 
tion, a list of suggested topics will be found in Chapter 40, 



Chapter 5 

BECOMING ACQUAINTED WITH THE 
LITERATURE 

T7VERY scientific worker, no matter what his problem, 
*-' builds on the work of his predecessors. However new 
the problem appears, one is almost certain to find in scientific 
literature accounts of previous attempts to attack either the 
particular problem or others closely related to it. 

The history of science is to be found, not so much in text- 
books where scholars, for purposes of exposition, bring to- 
gether the results of many investigations, as in reports on 
problems made by research workers themselves. To know 
first-hand sources is important for grasping the problem and 
also for formulating methods, techniques and principles of 
interpretation. The student who begins his investigation by 
a careful study of the literature on the topic in which he is 
interested will find, not only that his understanding of the 
problem and its implications has been greatly broadened, 
but also that he will secure many useful suggestions as to 
the technical methods by which it can most profitably be 
attacked. 

But this is not all. A scientific contribution is never set 
off sharply from other investigations. To be most worth 
while it must coordinate and integrate the results of previ- 
ous work. In part, the task of the worker in interpreting his 
results is to fit them into those obtained in earlier studies. 
The new findings may then be seen in their true light. Order 
and meaning may thus be brought out of 'what was previ- 

47 



48 Experimental Child Study 

ously chaotic and inconsistent. No one can go far in science 
unless he develops the habit of reading the work of his con- 
temporaries and predecessors. Nor should he limit the read- 
ing of scientific material to his own particular field. Often 
significant contributions to technique and interpretation 
come from research outside the field in which a topic would 
seem logically to belong. 

In order to know the literature in a scientific field the 
student must locate the published work on his problem and 
others related to it. This involves first of all the building of 
a working bibliography or list of references. By consulting 
various indexes, journals of abstracts, textbooks, general 
reviews and the bibliographies appended to articles and 
monographs, the student can make a beginning. As he reads 
he will add other references. It is usually desirable to copy 
the references on small cards, taking care to write down 
exactly the author, title and place of publication. Since a 
title does not always give an accurate picture of what is 
contained in a scientific article or monograph, the inclusion 
of more rather than fewer titles is advised. 

The preparation of the bibliography is only the beginning. 
The next step is to work through the list of titles * by going 
to the articles themselves and determining by first-hand 
contact, whether or not they contain material of value. Some 
articles can be dismissed almost immediately with a mere 
scanning; others will take careful reading; some will be of 
such importance that they will be referred to many times. 

But the quantity of scientific literature is such that no 
person can keep in mind all that he needs. Notes become 
necessary. Each article should be abstracted or summarized 

* It Is a good plan to begin the reading with the articles published most 
recently and work backward. By this method the student is able to 
evaluate earlier work in the light of what has since been discovered. 
He thus avoids falling into many errors of procedure and interpretation 
which were not discovered at the time the earlier work was published. 



Becoming Acquainted With the Literature 49 

at the time it is read. In the preparation of abstracts or 
summaries a uniform method of note-taking is desirable. 
Methods vary from scholar to scholar. Some use cards, 
some bound note-books, some loose leaf note-books and 
some slips of paper which can be put in envelopes and filed. 
Whatever the method it should be planned in advance in 
order that the maximum return may be received. When the 
student first lays out a plan of note-taking, it may seem 
rather cumbersome. As he gains experience in its use he 
will find that it becomes simple and automatic. 

It is worth while for the student to devote some time to 
working out a method of note-taking. If he is to spend a 
considerable part of his life in scholarly pursuits his notes 
rank among the most important tools of his profession. If 
they are effective and accurate they will conserve time and 
enable him to attack significant problems without unneces- 
sary delay. The student should record every suggestion 
brought out by his reading as to possible new approaches 
to scientific problems. If unrecorded these ideas are likely 
to be forgotten. 

After completing his notes on a topic the student will 
find it desirable to integrate the material into a critical or 
factual review. Nothing clarifies thinking quite so much as 
the attempt to organize material in written form. The pn> 
cess of preparing a review gives the student a better under- 
standing of the problems to be attacked, the methods to be 
used, and the possible results which may be obtained, thus 
assisting him throughout the entire investigation. 

As a guide for the student in reading scientific literature 
the following outline * for the evaluation of a scientific arti- 
cle has been prepared. 

* The beginning student may not be familiar with some of the technical 
terms used here. They are explained in detail in the chapters dealing with 
specific experiments, and in the glossary. 



50 Experimental Child Study 

Criteria for the Evaluation of Scientific Work 

It is obviously impossible to lay down any hard and fast 
rules which can serve as substitutes for judgment and ex- 
perience in the evaluation of any piece of scientific work. 
There are certain general principles which it is well to keep 
in mind. The student should not lose sight of the fact that 
technique is not everything; that a brilliant idea, even though 
poorly carried out, may still constitute a greater scientific 
contribution than the most thoroughly developed piece of 
work upon a problem which is not in itself worth while. 
While bearing these points in mind, it is nevertheless de- 
sirable for the student to examine carefully and critically 
the scientific articles which he reads in order to determine 
their technical adequacy and the soundness of the conclu- 
sions drawn. 

I. The problem itself 

A. Purpose and aim: 

Has a definite objective been set for the problem, 
or does the report consist chiefly of loose records 
of random experimentation? 

It is true that significant findings have sometimes 
resulted from studies in which no definite ob- 
jective was laid down, particularly in the investi- 
gation of relatively new topics. A certain amount 
of preliminary exploration of the field is often 
desirable. An exploratory study is not to be con- 
fused with the haphazard collection of poorly 
organized facts occasionally to be met with in the 
literature. 

B. Orientation in the general scientific field: 

I. Is the problem one which may properly be 
attacked in the present state of our knowl- 
edge, or are there basic and essential under- 



Becoming Acquainted With the Literature 51 

lying factors which must be investigated, or 
techniques which must be developed before 
this problem can profitably be approached? 

2. Is the problem given a proper setting with 
reference to the work of previous investiga- 
tors? Does the author appear to be familiar 
with the literature? 

II. Experimental Procedure 

A. Methods: 

1. Is the general technique, including tools, units 
of measurement, etc., carefully thought out 
and well adapted to the solution of the main 
problem, or is there careless adoption of the 
methods used by previous investigators with 
little regard to their suitability? 

2. Have the data been systematically collected 
according to a definite plan, or do they consist 
largely of a haphazard array of facts from 
miscellaneous sources ? 

3. Has the procedure been kept uniform, or has 
it been varied to suit the examiner's con- 
venience, prejudices or impulses of the mo- 
ment? 

4. Have uniform methods been followed in han- 

dling the subjects, particularly as regards the 
control of attention and motivation? 

B. Subjects: 

1. Is the selection of subjects, as regards num- 
ber, age range, sex, socio-economic status, 
etc., carefully planned and adequate for the 
particular problem? 

2. Is the amount of data for each subject suffi- 
cient to establish reasonable reliability? 

3. Has needed supplementary information been 
secured? 



52 Experimental Child Study 

C. Records: 

1. Were records taken at the time of observation 

or at some later period? 

2. Was a uniform plan of recording followed 

throughout? 

3. Have negative items and omissions as well 
as positive Items been recorded in all cases? 

III. Treatment of Data 

A. Are the statistical procedures employed: 

1. Mathematically sound? 

2. Well adapted to the solution of the problem? 

B. Has the extent of the experimental error: 

1. Been ascertained and reported? 

2. Been reduced to a minimum by appropriate 
weighting or elimination of unsuitable items 
or by better control of experimental condi- 
tions ? 

Consider here both possible sources of error, such 
as inaccuracy of the measuring instrument, in- 
expertness of the experimenter, and unfavor- 
able conditions under which the experiment was 
carried out, and the probable direction of error; 
whether variable or constant. 

IV. Presentation of results 

A. Organization and literary style: 

1. Is the article clearly written and well organ- 
ized as to content? 

2. Is there clear differentiation between theo- 
retical material and actual findings? 

3. Are table headings, graph titles, etc., clear or 
ambiguous ? 



Becoming Acquainted With the Literature 53 

4* Has tabular matter been so arranged as to 
bring together for convenient comparison 
those items which it is desired to compare, or 
is it necessary to shift from table to table or 
from end to end of the same table in order to 
interpret the results? 

B. Completeness of information: 

1. Have all essential facts entering into 'the set- 
up of the problem including procedure, sub- 
jects, time limits, etc., been described with 
sufficient detail and clearness so that another 
investigator could reproduce the experiment 
exactly? 

2. Has all information necessary to the inter- 
pretation of results been presented; i.e., if 
correlations have been used, is the group dis- 
persion stated as well as the P. E. of r? If per- 
centages have been used, is the number of 
cases stated? etc. 

V. Interpretation of results 

A. Extent of generalization: 

1. Do the facts presented warrant the conclu- 

sions drawn? Has adequate allowance been 
made for chance variation? Consider here the 
reliability of the method, the number and 
selection of subjects, the possible existence of 
correlated factors for which no allowance has 
been made, the possibility of correlations be- 
tween errors as a source of spurious reliabil- 
ity, etc. 

2. Have all the conclusions which might justifi- 
ably have been drawn from the results been 
pointed out, or have significant facts or trends 
been overlooked? 



54 Experimental Child Study 

B. Integration in the general scientific field: 

1. Has the extent of agreement or disagreement 
with the findings of previous workers on the 
same problem been pointed out? 

2. Has the possible significance of the findings 
for other related problems been noted? 

VI. Final evaluation in the light of all the above points 

A. Type of problem: 

Would you classify this piece of work as pri- 
marily 

1. A contribution to experimental methodology? 

2. A contribution to fundamental knowledge in 
the field? 

3. A contribution to practical diagnosis or pro- 
cedure? 

4. Suggestive of further problems? 

5. Of little or no value? 

State reason for your classification. 

B. To what extent has the problem attacked been 
solved? 



Chapter 6 

THE CONDUCT OF AN INVESTIGATION 

The Collection of Data 

IF the course in experimental child study is to serve its 
purpose, certain general rules for the securing of ac- 
curate data must be grasped and followed. The most im- 
portant of these may be outlined as follows: 

1. Be sure that all materials are in order. Since children 
fatigue and lose interest quickly unless the procedure 
runs smoothly and automatically, it is essential that 
instructions be thoroughly memorized in advance. Al- 
ways try out the procedure with an adult before at- 
tempting it with a child in order to make sure that 
the technique has been thoroughly grasped. 

2. Follow the procedure outlined. It is impossible even 
for an experienced investigator, much less a beginning 
student, to tell without experimentation what changes 
in response are likely to be introduced by even small 
changes in procedure. For example, the instruction 
"Tell me what you see in this picture," will usually 
call forth a very different type of response from "Tell 
me what this picture is about." The first question is 
likely to be answered by simple enumeration of the 
objects in the picture, while the second is likely to 
lead to a description of the action portrayed. When 
a uniform procedure is used the first type of response 
is characteristic of younger or more backward children, 
and is therefore regarded as inferior to, or less mature 
than the second type. A slight change in the wording 
of the stimulus-question may thus completely invali- 
date the results obtained from an experiment. Failure 
to control tonal inflection, direction of glance, and 

55 



56 Experimental Child Study 

postural changes which may serve as secondary cues 
by which the subject may guide his responses, are 
quite as serious errors as changes in the verbal In- 
structions. Young children, to whom language is still 
a comparatively new acquisition, are far more respon- 
sive to non-verbal cues of this sort than most people 
realize. The experimenter must therefore be continu- 
ally on his guard to avoid glancing in the direction of 
the expected response, (or, conversely, in the direc- 
tion of the wrong response, since the suggestion thus 
given may cause a timid or overdocile child to make 
an incorrect response when he would otherwise have 
made the correct one), and to make sure that his facial 
expression does not indicate to the child whether or 
not he is on the right track. A maze problem, for 
example, might easily be made worthless by careless- 
ness in this respect. 

3. Take records in a systematic fashion from the be- 
ginning. Prepare record forms in advance. Never use 
loose sheets or odd bits of paper with the expectation 
of copying afterward. If the recording is at all elabo- 
rate, it is best to have the sheets mimeographed, since 
this insures absolute uniformity of arrangement and 
facilitates tabulation. If record sheets are prepared by 
the students themselves, make sure that the same form 
is used by all. The preparation of a good record sheet 
demands time and forethought, and should not be left 
to the inspiration of the moment. 

The record sheet should be arranged in such a way 
that later statistical treatment of the data will be 
facilitated. In general, items which are to be brought 
together for comparison should be near one another so 
as to avoid the necessity of searching about the sheet 
in order to locate them. Items should be grouped in 
such a fashion as to make them stand out visually. 
This can be done by the employment of conspicuous 
subheads which divide the sheet up into blocks, or by 
spacing between items and sections. In planning the 
record forms be sure to allow ample space. Notes are 
often rendered obscure or even useless by unnecessary 
crowding. In addition to the formal items, space should 



The Conduct of An Investigation 57 

always be left on the record sheet foi recording any 
unusual conditions, such as interruptions, poor coop- 
eration on the part of the subject with probable rea- 
sons, etc. Do not sacrifice time to save paper. 

In order to economize time in record-taking, it is ad- 
vantageous to build up a system of abbreviations or 
code symbols for terms frequently used, but care 
should be taken to avoid such indiscriminate use of 
abbreviations that notes cannot be read after they be- 
come "cold/' Make a list of all abbreviations used 
even in rapid note-taking, and place it in the front of 
your note-book where it will be convenient for refer- 
ence. Every abbreviation used anywhere in the notes 
should be found in this list. The following will be 
found useful. 

E Experimenter incomp incomprehensible 

S Subject verbal response 

RH Right hand Ti, T2, etc. First trial, sec- 

LH Left hand ond trial 

R Refusal L Laughter 

Si Silence C Crying 

dk "don't know" Int Interest * 

no comp apparent failure At Attentiveness * 
to comprehend instructions Ef Effort* 

4. Label all records clearly and completely. This rule ap- 
plies quite as much to the original data as to the final 
tables. The labelling should show the exact meaning 
of all data included in the table, and unless the sta- 
tistical methods employed are completely obvious, 
notes showing how the figures were obtained should 
be appended in all cases. It is unsafe to rely upon 
memory for facts of this kind. The motto, "Label 
everything," should hang on the walls of every labora- 
tory. 

5. Be sure that figures are written legibly. Examine your 
customary manner of writing the digits for the fol- 

* These characteristics may be graded roughly as follows: Marked 
degree + + +, moderate degree + +, slight degree +, somewhat 
lacking , decidedly lacking , extremely lacking . 



58 Experimental Child Study 

lowing or any other bad habits: failing to close the o 
so that it looks like a 6, adding an extra curl to the 
2 making it look like a 3, carrying the lower part of 
the 3 back upon itself so that it may easily be mis- 
taken for a 2, failing to add the upper bar to the 5 
so that it is likely to be mistaken for a 3, shortening 
the upper part of the 7 until it looks like a i, or failing 
to close the loop of the 9 so that it resembles a 7. All 
these are unpardonable sins in any sort of quantita- 
tive work. The most painstaking investigation can be 
invalidated by faulty computation, and computation 
cannot be expected to be correct if the basic data are 
copied incorrectly. It makes little difference whether 
an investigator's figures are artistic or not. It makes a 
great deal of difference whether or not his figures are 
so sharply differentiated from one another that they 
can be read correctly without a moment's hesitation 
or doubt. 

The Preparation of Work Sheets 

Final tabulations and summaries can frequently be made 
directly from the original record forms, particularly if they 
have been carefully prepared and the data are not too com- 
plex. Occasionally time will be saved by transferring the 
original data to work sheets. The work sheet may be a code 
slip to which data are transferred in order to permit rapid 
sorting, reassembling, and resorting; a master sheet or large 
ruled form to which the data are transferred, or a note- 
book. If the data are to be combined in many different ways 
the code slip is preferable. This is usually a narrow sheet 
of paper or a card on which all the results for each subject 
are entered in systematic fashion with corresponding items 
always in the same location. A narrow slip is better than a 
wide one since it brings each item near a margin and thus 
makes it easy to locate. Code slips can be sorted according 
to one category, tabulations made, re-sorted according to 



The Conduct of An Investigation 59 

another and so on, with a minimum expenditure of time 
and energy. 

If only a small number of items are to be compared with 
each other, the master sheet may be used. It consists of a 
large sheet of paper ruled in columns, on which the names 
of the subjects are entered down the left hand margin, and 
their scores or responses under appropriate categories in the 
columns opposite. The master sheet has the advantage of 
compactness and of suggesting cross comparisons that are 
not immediately discernible on the code slip. 

The tabulation book does not differ in principle from the 
master sheet. It is useful when the number of subjects or 
the amount of data for each subject is so great that the 
master sheet would have to be very unwieldy in order to 
take care of all the data. 

The principles previously enumerated with regard to rec- 
ord forms apply with equal force to work sheets of all types. 
All entries should be labelled carefully and completely. The 
data should not be crowded, should be arranged in uniform 
fashion throughout, and the entries should be legible. Here 
as elsewhere, care in planning the original forms will more 
than pay for itself in later saving in time and effort. 

Summarizing the Results 

In the actual handling of data there are a number of 
procedures which save time and energy on the part of the 
investigator. Suppose that the student has collected data 
with reference to children of both sexes. In his anxiety to 
find out what his material shows, he may summarize for the 
whole group of children in the beginning and later be forced 
to work through the data again in order to treat the ma- 
terial with reference to boys and girls separately. Had he 
summarized for the sexes separately at the outset, the table 
for the sexes combined could have been obtained by simple 



60 Experimental Child Study 

addition and thus much time would have been saved. In 
general it is best to determine in advance the smallest divi- 
sions in which the data are to be handled, summarize for 
those divisions, and then combine the results in order to 
obtain the wider generalizations. 

Often a much clearer comprehension of relations is gained 
from charts or graphs than from tables. For this reason 
it is a good plan for the student to form the habit of plotting 
as many of his findings as lend themselves to graphic treat- 
ment. Here we are not emphasizing the value of graphic 
methods in the presentation of data so much as their value 
in bringing the investigator to a clear understanding of the 
phenomena which he is studying. In many instances the 
employment of a graphic method brings out relationships 
which would otherwise be overlooked. Thus a graphic an- 
alysis frequently suggests new possibilities of handling the 
material. 

Checking for Accuracy 

The handling of data is a complex job in which it Is easy 
to make errors and difficult to locate them once they are 
made. Every investigator, no matter how experienced, should 
check his results for accuracy with the greatest care. Every 
calculation, every transference of material from sheet to 
sheet, should be carefully checked. If possible this should 
be done by a different person than the one who made the 
original calculation or transfer since there is a tendency 
to make the same errors in going through material a second 
time. If the original calculations and the checking are done 
by the same person a different method should be employed. 
One may start adding at the top of the column rather than 
the bottom. Subtraction may be checked by addition; multi- 
plication, division or square roots by employing the process 
opposite to that originally used. 



The Conduct of An Investigation 61 

The investigator should also be on the alert for methods 
of checking his material by comparing the various relation- 
ships for consistency with one another. If the investigator 
is collecting data on boys and girls and finds that within 
the class intervals of his distribution there is a very large 
number of girls as compared with boys he should check the 
original data in order to make sure that the unusual number 
of girls is correct. The data obtained on boys is used here 
as a check for the material obtained on girls. If similar 
studies have been previously done by other investigators 
he should check his data in some detail against the published 
material and verify wherever a decided discrepancy occurs. 
Frequently an investigator works over his material in a 
number of different ways and so checks one relationship 
against another. While it is difficult to point out all the pos- 
sible checks which may be used, nevertheless the importance 
of being on the alert to utilize every device for checking 
or cross comparison can hardly be overemphasized. The 
test of an investigator is not to be found in the amount of 
data he handles, but rather in the care and precision with 
which he handles each of its separate phases. Alertness in 
checking, care in labelling, precision in the manipulation of 
numbers, are three of the virtues which every person who 
is undertaking to carry on scientific work should cultivate. 



Chapter 7 

METHODS OF HANDLING CHILDREN IN 
EXPERIMENTAL SITUATIONS 

THE person who is contemplating scientific investigation 
with young children as subjects, must not only be 
familiar with the general principles of research but must also 
be skilled in the handling of children. No matter how perfect 
an experiment may be from the technical standpoint, if the 
child's cooperation is not secured, results can have but little 
meaning. 

Because of the difficulties involved in holding the young 
child to a rigidly standardized experimental procedure, per- 
sons who have had little training in scientific methods are 
sometimes inclined to vary their procedure from day to day 
or from child to child according to circumstances. It should 
be unnecessary to point out the likelihood of serious error 
entering into results obtained by haphazard methods of this 
sort. While it is true that experimental procedures must be 
greatly simplified and must be carried out in an easy in- 
formal manner If their application to young children is to be 
successful, it is nevertheless possible to plan the procedure 
in such a way that uniformity of method can be insured with 
no lessening of the child's interest. Methods of controlling 
motivation will be discussed in more detail in a later sec- 
tion of this chapter. The matter is brought up at this point 
in order to emphasize the importance of considering the 
question of interest from the beginning; and of including in 
the standardized procedure whatever devices seem necessary 

62 



Methods of Handling Children 63 

or desirable for increasing motivation or controlling atten- 
tion. 

Preliminary adjustment of child to situation. A young 
child who is taken for the first time into a strange laboratory 
by a person with whom he is unacquainted cannot be de- 
pended upon to react immediately in an entirely normal 
fashion. Even children who show no particular signs of initial 
shyness need to be allowed sufficient time to become ac- 
quainted with their surroundings, so that the furnishings of 
the laboratory or the noises from without will not serve as 
undue sources of distraction. During this time it is better 
for the experimenter to avoid thrusting himself too ob- 
trusively into the foreground. He should endeavor rather to 
function simply as one of the objects or items in the situa- 
tion which the child may approach or examine at will. Such 
advances, when they occur, should be received cordially and 
with the suggestion (not too insistent) of further interesting 
things to be seen or done presently. By tactful following of 
the child's lead it is possible to work up to the actual ex- 
perimental situation as a natural sequence of events, rather 
than as a task which is unreasonably imposed upon the 
child by authority which he Is very likely to question. Much 
of the "artificiality" of the laboratory situation may be done 
away with by careful management of the child during the 
preliminary stages. The amount of time required for this 
preliminary preparation is usually not very great, and will 
be more than compensated for by the additional smoothness 
and speed with which the later work can be conducted, and 
by the greater degree of reliance which can fairly be placed 
upon the results. An unwilling, frightened, or excited child 
is not likely to react in a typical manner. 

A suitable manner on the part of the experimenter will 
do much to facilitate the handling of children who are 
difficult to manage. Negativistic children in particular, should 



64 Experimental Child Study 

never be permitted to detect any signs of uncertainty or 
annoyance occasioned by their behavior. The experimenter 
should assume in all cases an attitude of casual, good-na- 
tured expectancy, and should make all suggestions in a firm 
low-pitched tone using words which suggest only one pos- 
sible alternative. "Now we are going to . . ." accompanied 
with a smile and general manner suggestive of some alto- 
gether delightful event to follow will bring forth a very 
different response from that likely to result from "don't 
you want to?" (causing the child to wonder whether or not 
he really 'does 'want to', or at least suggesting the possibility 
of another course of action). A bald "Do this," is to the 
stubborn child a direct invitation to a clash of wills, which 
can be avoided by more tactful phrasing of the request or 
by arousing an interest in some particular part of the task 
to be accomplished or in some event to follow its successful 
outcome. 

Care must be taken to prevent the voice from becoming 
high-pitched and to avoid the adoption of a patronizing or 
artificial tone. The latter is an unfortunately common habit 
among many persons when speaking to young children. The 
effect upon the child is always undesirable. It greatly in- 
creases shyness and self-consciousness, and among slightly 
older children frequently leads to "showing off" and similar 
means of attracting attention. Overactive and distractible 
children can often be recalled to the task in hand by the 
simple expedient of momentarily dropping the pitch of the 
voice. 

When children are to be called away from a nursery- 
school or kindergarten group to take part in a laboratory 
experiment, every effort should be made to select such occa- 
sions as will involve the least possible interruption of their 
activities. If it is necessary to take a child away from his 
play, a few moments must be spent in gradually diverting 



Methods of Handling Children 65 

his attention from the activity in which he has been engaged 
before inviting him to go to the laboratory. This may be 
done by engaging him in conversation, showing toys, etc. 
If properly managed, children who are being used frequently 
as laboratory subjects may be trained to look upon these 
occasions as special treats, while unwise handling may build 
up a habit of protest which will interfere greatly both with 
the experimental work and with 'the nursery-school routine. 
Children and teachers have rights which must be respected 
by the research worker. It is hardly necessary to add that 
when several research projects are being carried on simul- 
taneously, the experimental periods must be arranged in 
such a way that no child will have excessive demands made 
upon his time. 

Physical condition of cliilcL The extent to which results 
may be affected by changes in the physical condition of the 
child due to fatigue, minor illnesses such as colds, recent emo- 
tional outbursts, length of time since food was taken, etc., 
is a subject regarding which we have but little information 
at present. It has been shown (109) that irritability in young 
children, as indicated by the frequency of outbursts of 
anger shows rather marked diurnal variation, but that scores 
earned on the usual type of intelligence test are but slightly 
affected by the hour of the day at which the test is given 
(103). Studies using adult subjects and designed to deter- 
mine the effect of fatigue upon mental work have usually 
shown little consistent change in output with moderate de- 
grees of fatigue, but Thorndike (246) has shown that in- 
terest and motivation are likely to undergo marked diminu- 
tion as fatigue increases. Gates (85) found reliable though 
small diurnal variations in learning efficiency among ele- 
mentary school children and college students. 

It is important to realize that factors such as the above 
may play a much greater part in the reactions of young 



66 Experimental Child Study 

children than with older children or adults. Emotional con- 
trol is not well established at these early ages; hence, if 
the curve of "satis fyingness" for these children shows a 
form similar to that found by Thorndike for college students, 
it is very possible that the curve of "work" may also show 
a marked decrement, since little children are less able to 
bring other motivating factors into play to compensate for 
the loss of interest and satisfaction induced by fatigue. Much 
additional research is needed before positive statements can 
be made. In the absence of more valid information, it is the 
part of wisdom to keep all factors of this kind under as 
rigid experimental control as possible, by making all ex- 
periments at the same hour of the day, and avoiding occa- 
sions when the subject is not well or is emotionally dis- 
turbed, 

Place. There is decided advantage in carrying out experi- 
mental work in a place with which the child is at least fairly 
familiar. When this is impossible, sufficient time for adjust- 
ment to the new situation should always be allowed before 
beginning the actual experiment. The room used should have 
adequate light, heat, and ventilation, and should be free 
from interruption. Distracting outside stimuli (noises, etc.) 
are also to be avoided. Furnishings should be simple, attrac- 
tive, and few in number so that they will not serve as dis- 
tractions. 

Physical set-up of tie experimental situation. The ar- 
rangement of the situation should always be planned for in 
advance. As a rule the subject should be placed at the left of 
the experimenter, since note-taking with the right hand is 
thereby made more convenient and less conspicuous. The 
comfort and convenience of both participants should be con- 
sidered. All material should be kept In uniform arrangement 
planned to expedite its handling. If the material is at all 
involved, it is worth while to construct a special container 



Methods of Handling Children 67 

which will prevent items from becoming lost or misplaced. 
In any case, it is always necessary to check through ma- 
terial to be used before beginning the experiment in order 
to make certain that everything needed is in its place, and 
that all pieces of mechanical apparatus are in working order. 
Make sure that stop watches will not run down in the mid- 
dle of the experiment. 

Fore-exercises. Wherever the nature of the experiment 
permits, a sufficient amount of preliminary practice to ac- 
quaint the subject with the nature of the task to be per- 
formed is desirable. First reactions are likely to be unfavor- 
ably influenced by a number of factors, such as incomplete 
or incorrect understanding of instructions, lack of self-con- 
fidence, or timidity, incorrect focussing of attention, etc. The 
use of a suitable fore-exercise involving similar but not 
identical material will ordinarily bring about an appreciable 
improvement in the reliability of the findings. In the case 
of certain simple physical tests and measurements in which 
the practice effect is negligible, the fore-exercise may consist 
simply of one or more preliminary trials of the actual ex- 
periment by way of acquainting the child with the general 
procedure. Where used, the fore-exercise must be standard- 
ized as rigidly as any other part of the experiment, and 
must be uniform for all subjects. 

Verbal instructions. In planning the verbal instructions, 
clearness, simplicity, and brevity should be the aim. If any 
changes from the standardized wording are to be permitted, 
the exact nature of the changes and the conditions under 
which they are to be used must be defined in precise terms. 
This frequently involves a considerable amount of pre- 
liminary experimentation in order to determine optimum 
wording of instructions. 

Tonal inflection is likewise important. Words or phrases 
to be emphasized should always be underlined on the out- 



68 Experimental Child Study 

line of procedure; pauses, where not completely obvious, 
should also be indicated. The rising or falling inflection of 
the voice at the end of a series of instructions may introduce 
a considerable element of variation in the results obtained. 
While absolute standardization of tonal inflection is an ideal 
exceedingly difficult of attainment the major factors, at least, 
can be controlled if the experimenter is willing to give suffi- 
cient attention to the matter. 

As a rule considerable leeway should be permitted in the 
way of incidental remarks or comments in order to preserve 
an atmosphere of easy informality. However irrelevant con- 
versation is likely to prove a source of distraction, while 
remarks about the experiment itself unless very carefully 
guarded may function as secondary cues which are likely 
to affect results. An attempt should therefore be made to re- 
duce the number of such comments to the minimum neces- 
sary to keep the child happy and at ease. This is usually 
much less than is realized by the inexperienced worker who 
frequently attempts to cover his own lack of ease by un- 
necessary verbiage. 

Supplementary instructions. Under this head should be 
included all illustrations of procedure, gestures, suggestive 
pauses, changes of facial expression, direction of glance, and 
expressions of approval or disapproval including smiles, 
nods, etc. Persons lacking experience with young children 
frequently fail to realize the extent to which the child's re- 
sponses are conditioned by secondary cues of this kind. Up 
to the age of two or three years such factors are probably 
quite as significant elements in the situation as are verbal 
instructions. Undoubtedly they play an important part at all 
age levels. It is likely that many inconsistencies in the re- 
sults of experimental work are attributable to lack of con- 
trol of factors of this kind. Although, as in the case of tonal 
inflection, precise regulation of minor variations in these 



Methods of Handling Children 69 

matters is very difficult, the more significant items, at least, 
can be kept uniform. 

Number of trials allowed. Both the number of trials on 
each item and the number of repetitions of the entire ex- 
periment should be uniform for all subjects. If a second 
trial is to be allowed under any conditions (such as failure 
to understand instructions, interruption from outside source, 
fluctuation of attention, or failure due apparently to lack 
of effort), the circumstances under which such additional 
trials are to be given, and the number of trials to be per- 
mitted must be defined. The same principle holds with 
regard to the repetition of instructions when, for any reason, 
the subject fails to respond on the first occasion. 

Time limits. Time limits must be defined in all instances. 
It is also necessary to decide In advance what procedure 
is to be followed when a child who has not completed the 
task ceases to make an effort before the expiration of the 
allotted period. If, under such circumstances, the experi- 
menter sometimes waits until the period is over, sometimes 
urges, reminds, or offers an incentive for the child to con- 
tinue, and on other occasions passes on directly to the next 
phase of the experiment without waiting until the standard- 
ized time has elapsed, consistent results can hardly be 
expected. Because of the marked distractibility of little chil- 
dren and the loss of interest and effort likely to result from 
a long wait, especially if the task in question is truly beyond 
their power, it is often desirable to set a minimum as well 
as a maximum time limit. This will insure general uniformity 
of procedure, without inducing fatigue or boredom in the 
less capable subjects. 

Time limits should be short because of the limited at- 
tention span of young children. Rules for regaining the 
child's attention during moments of distraction should be 
formulated in advance. The investigator should make sure 



yo Experimental Child Study 

that the child Is giving attention each time a new stimulus 
is presented unless attention is itself being studied. The 
intervals between the presentation of successive stimuli may 
vary according to circumstances, unless the length of the 
interval is likely to affect the results. 

Incentives and other methods of controlling motivation. 
Every effort should be made to set up the problem in such 
a way that it will have intrinsic interest for the children. A 
natural interest is always more reliable than one aroused 
through artificial devices not closely related to the total situa- 
tion. In the latter case there is danger that the interest 
may be confined to the devices and therefore not carry over 
to the experimental situation. When special devices are used, 
they should be introduced in such a way that they seem to 
the child to be an intrinsic part of the task rather than an 
unrelated adjunct. The successful completing of a stylus 
maze may be marked by the ringing of an electric bell which 
has been wired in circuit; the number of successes in a 
learning experiment may be marked by pasting an equal 
number of stars on a prepared chart. On the other hand 
withholding of rewards for disobedience or naughtiness is a 
practice which is usually undesirable. Failure to secure the 
expected reward then takes on the nature of a punishment 
which is likely to turn the child against the entire situation. 
If material incentives are used at all they should be simple 
in nature and should either be assigned upon a basis which 
is entirely objective from the child's point of view and so 
arranged as to enable him to observe his own progress from 
day to day, or else be given uniformly at the end of the ex- 
perimental period. Studies carried on at the Institute of 
Child Welfare of the University of Minnesota have tended to 
show that children place special value upon things made 
for them in their presence, particularly if there is a con- 
nection apparent to the child between the incentive offered 



Methods of Handling Children 71 

and the task performed. In a learning experiment with the 
Young Slot Maze carried out by McGinnis (173) in which 
the path is traced by means of a set-in metal shoe which is 
to be taken to a painted clown at the goal, outline tracings 
of the "man and shoe" were made and given to the children 
at the close of each day's sitting. These drawings continued 
to be prized throughout a fifteen-day series of trials. In 
another experiment involving the placement of large rings 
in certain positions on a wooden frame, paper rings of vari- 
ous colors were cut out and given to the children at the 
close of each day's experiment. In this case, the change in 
the colors provided an additional source of interest. 

No kind of artificial incentive, however, can make up for 
an unfortunate attitude or manner on the part of the ex- 
perimenter. Harshness on the one hand or sentimentality 
on the other, a shrill or rasping voice, nervousness expressed 
as fussing or nagging any or all of these may upset the 
most carefully planned experiment, or outweigh the effect 
of the strongest incentive which it is feasible to offer. More- 
over, the experimenter must not fail to show his own keen 
interest in the task and in the child's performance. Praise 
will be more effective and less likely to result in too much 
self-confidence or "showing off" if directed toward the 
achievement rather than toward the child. A hearty "That 
was splendid" will usually be productive of increased ef- 
fort; a fulsome "My, what a smart boy you are" may pro- 
duce quite the opposite effect. The importance of making 
only positive suggestions has been mentioned previously. 
Punishment, reproof, scolding, or negative criticism are not 
likely to be effective methods of handling young children. 

While the above suggestions on the management of chil- 
dren in an experimental situation will be found generally 
helpful, it is impossible to lay down a set of formal rules 
which will make an effective substitute for actual experience. 



72 Experimental Child Study 

No one who lacks first-hand experience in the everyday 
management of young children should attempt to use them 
as subjects in a controlled experiment until such experience 
has been gained, or at least until systematic observation of 
the methods used by skilled nursery-school or kindergarten 
teachers has been made. What to do when a child is timid, 
shy, or frightened; how to recognize the beginning signs of 
fatigue or boredom; how to arouse and maintain interest in 
a task which has little intrinsic attractiveness ; how to handle 
the negativistic child or the one who is unduly distractible, 
are likely to become very acute questions indeed with the 
person who is unskilled in child management. Learning to 
handle children wisely and effectively is a part of the basic 
technique of research in child development. Until this tech- 
nique has been attained little progress can be made. 



Chapter 8 

THE STUDENT'S REPORT OF AN EXPERIMENT * 

AS each experiment is completed, the student is expected 
to prepare a formal written report to be submitted to 
the instructor. Reports should be typewritten or written in 
neat and legible longhand with ink on standard size (8^4 by 
ii inches) note-book paper. The left-hand margin should 
be at least two inches in width to provide for criticism by 
the instructor. Cross-section or ruled paper should be used 
for all long tables (except where these are typewritten) and 
for all graphs. The latter may be drawn in colored inks or 
crayon. 

Unless otherwise instructed, the reports should conform 
to the following plan of organization : 

1. Title of experiment. 

2. Name of experimenter and of partner if any. 

3. Date of beginning experiment. Date of submitting com- 
pleted report. 

4. List of readings on topic."f 

Give complete bibliographical references as follows. For 
books give author, title, place of publication, publisher, date 

*When the entire class is cooperating in the carrying out of an experi- 
ment, the instructor will find it convenient to post a tabular form on 
which results may be entered as soon as possible after they are collected. 
A definite date by which all records entering into the final summary must 
be available should be set, in order that the class as a whole may not 
be handicapped by the tardiness of one or two individuals. 

tThis may be placed at end of report if instructor prefers. 

73 



74 Experimental Child Study 

and number of pages. Indicate which parts of the book were 
read if it was not read as a whole. 

Example: 

Baldwin, B. T., and Stecher ? Lorle: The psychology of 
the preschool child. New York, D. Appleton and Co., 1925, 
Pp. vii + 305. (First four chapters were read.) 

For articles in periodicals, give author, title, name of jour- 
nal, year, volume number, and pages. 

Example: 

Jones, Mary Cover: The development of early behavior 
patterns in young children. Ped. Sem. 1926, 33, 737-785. 

Only those references actually read by the student should 
be included in this list. When the individual project method 
is used, the student will be expected to make a fairly com- 
plete survey of the literature on his topic. When the entire 
class cooperates in carrying out the experiments, the number 
of projects in which each student takes part will be con- 
siderably greater than when the individual method is used. 
While, under these circumstances, the reading on each topic 
will necessarily be less extensive, at least two or three of 
the most important references should be covered. 

5. Statement of problem and review of previous Investi- 
gations covered in the literature cited. Show how the 
present experiment is related to these investigations 
and point out any differences in procedure or purpose. 

6. Complete description of experiment including appara- 
tus or material used, method, number and character- 
istics of subjects, etc. Cite any difficulties and sources 
of error which were encountered in carrying out the 
investigation, and if possible show how they might 
have been avoided or more adequately handled. 



The Student's Report of an Experiment 75 

7. Presentation) analysis and discussion of results. Or- 
ganize the findings in tabular form with appropriate 
table-headings. Supplement the tables by graphs when- 
ever the data can be brought out more clearly in that 
way. Be sure to label all tables and graphs clearly and 
completely. 

Each computation should be scrutinized carefully, first 
for its mechanical accuracy since errors in arithmetic may 
upset the soundest of conclusions, and secondly for the rela- 
tion of its result to the other parts of the experiment and to 
the general purpose for which the investigation was designed. 
Although the numerical findings are the framework of the 
report, this framework is not complete without a superstruc- 
ture of interpretation. The superior student is likely to be 
distinguished from the rank and file, not only by the ac- 
curacy of his work, but also by the extent to which he is 
able to interpret his data, to see its implications, its weak- 
nesses and its possibilities, and to note possible improve- 
ments in techniques, or promising trends for future study. 

In- the discussion of results, take particular pains to inter- 
pret all the findings clearly and concisely. Do not attempt 
to force the figures to come out in any predetermined way. 
If the results are at variance with expectation, are incon- 
clusive or otherwise disappointing, try to discover the rea- 
son without juggling them around to make them fit some 
theory of your own. Unsatisfactory results may arise from a 
number of causes. First of all, look to your arithmetic. Are 
the computations correct, and have the correct formulas 
been used? Next consider the matter of procedure. When 
a number of persons collaborate in the collection of data, 
great care is necessary to insure uniformity of method. In- 
consistencies in results may be due to carelessness or mis- 
understanding of the method on the part of one or two 



76 Experimental Child Study 

persons. Remember, too, that human behavior is very com- 
plex, that no two individuals are exactly alike and that 
all of us at times react in ways which are not typical of our 
usual behavior. It is to be expected, therefore, particularly 
when the number of cases studied is not large, that varia- 
tions from the normal or typical reactions may produce in- 
consistent or unusual results. The exceptional event some- 
times occurs. But it has a cause and does not occur fortuit- 
ously. Results at variance with the usual findings should not 
be regarded as wrong, but rather considered correct (assum- 
ing that technical errors are ruled out) -under the conditions 
in which the experiment was carried out and for the sub- 
jects studied. It is the student's task to ascertain whether 
differences in experimental conditions or in the composition 
of the experimental group account for the unexpected re- 
sults. 

8. Compare the results obtained with those reported by 
other investigators in the references cited. Try to ac- 
count for any significant differences. 

9. Summarize the findings briefly and concisely at the end 
of the report. 



Chapter 9 

THE MEASUREMENT OF BODILY DIMENSIONS 

THE study of child development begins naturally with 
physical growth, first because bodily dimensions are 
objective and can be seen and measured directly; and sec- 
ondly because instruments for measuring these dimensions 
are already available from the physical sciences. Before men- 
tal development or social behavior can be studied effectively, 
much time must be spent in developing techniques by which 
the results of observation and experiment can be recorded 
in terms which will have unmistakable meaning. When we 
say that a certain child is 49 inches tali, we are making 
an exact statement which can be understood in only one way. 
When, however, we wish to describe his mental, social, or 
emotional level, no such precise terms are at hand, even 
though much progress toward the establishment of quantita- 
tive methods for the study of mental traits has been made 
during the past few years. 

However, we are not interested in the physical dimensions 
of the child's body simply because they can be easily meas- 
ured. Growth in size is intimately tied up with many other 
factors. We naturally think first of health, since failure to 
make normal growth is suggestive of poor nutritional status 
or of some other undesirable physical condition. But this is 
not all. Size undoubtedly plays some part in determining 
social behavior since the child who is relatively large for his 
age finds it easier to dominate his companions (all other 
things being equal) than the one who is small. On the other 
hand, the child who is exceptionally large physically but 

77 



78 Experimental Child Study 

is mentally no brighter than the average is sometimes much 
embarrassed by finding himself the largest child in his class 
at school. He may thus develop an unwarranted feeling of 
inferiority which would not have arisen had he been the 
usual size for his age. Physical growth is thus seen to be 
closely bound up with the child's general development and 
social adjustment, and needs to be studied not only for its 
own sake but as a means of bettering our understanding of 
the child as a whole. Children do not grow physically on one 
day, mentally on the next, and socially on the day follow- 
ing. Growth of all kinds takes place simultaneously. It is 
only by studying the interrelationships of growth factors that 
an adequate understanding of the whole can be reached. 

In order to make accurate measurements of the dimen- 
sions of the separate body parts some knowledge of human 
anatomy is needed. Certain gross measurements can, how- 
ever, be taken by the untrained student. Among the most 
valuable of these are standing and sitting height and weight. 
Methods of measuring height are described in Experiments 
i and 2. Since the taking of weight measurements requires 
only a good scale and the exercise of care in placing and 
reading the balance, no formal experiment on weight is in- 
cluded. In recording weight it is important to specify whether 
it was taken with or without clothing, and if the former, the 
kind and amount of clothing, (as "light weight indoor 
clothes," or "heavy woolen suit, heavy shoes and under- 
wear," etc.) should be stated. 

Experiment No. I 
Measuring the Standing Height 

Using a stadiometer (either standard model or home- 
made *) measure the standing height of each of the children 
* If a regular stadiometer is not available, paper scales can be secured 
at a small cost from the Child Welfare Research Station of the University 



The Measurement of Bodily Dimensions 79 

in the experimental group. The subject should stand erect 
with heels against the wall, arms at side, and chin level. 
Bring the horizontal bar of the stadiometer down firmly 
upon the top of the head and take the reading. If the home- 
made stadiometer described in the footnote is used, a right- 
angle triangle or a book with stiff binding should first be 
placed with one side of the angle pressed firmly against the 
wall, slightly above the level of the subject's head, and from 
this position be brought down gradually until the base 
presses against the subject's head as shown in Fig. la. Avoid 
tilting the instrument in such a way that it will distort the 
reading of the scale. This is very likely to result if a flat 
object is held in the position shown in Fig. ib. Make three 
measurements in immediate succession and take the average 
of the three as the child's height. Divide the children into 
age groups and find the average or mean height for each age 
and sex by adding together all the measurements for each 
age and sex group and dividing by the total number of cases 
in the group. This method of finding the arithmetic mean is 
known as the long method. The formula is: * 

2 (measures) 






(j) 



of Iowa, or an ordinary carpenter's wooden rule of at least six feet In 
length (to provide for the measurement of adults as well as children) 
may be fastened securely in a vertical position against the wall at a point 
free from projections such as a baseboard. A third though somewhat less 
satisfactory substitute can be prepared as follows: Secure a length of 
heavy brown manila gummed paper about i-ij4 inches wide which is 
used for sealing parcels. Upon this strip of paper mark off a linear scale 
in divisions at least as fine as Y% of an inch (using a steel ruler or other 
accurately calibrated measure). An extra space of three or four inches 
should be left at each end of the scale to allow for pasting to the wall. 
Select a portion of the wall which is free from any projection and attach 
the slip of paper at this point, being careful to place it in an exactly 
vertical position, and moistening it as little as possible so as to avoid 
stretching. Be sure that the zero point on the scale is exactly even with 
the floor. 



80 Experimental Child Study 

where the Greek letter Sigma (2) means "the sum of," M 
is the arithmetic mean or "average" as it is popularly called, 
and N is the number of cases in the group. 





FIGURE I. 

Correct and incorrect methods of measuring standing height with home- 
made stadiometer. 

Are the boys or the girls of a given age in this group 
taller? Is this in accordance with the usual findings for 
young children? (See references at end of chapter). 

Are the gains in height uniform from age to age? What 
is the average yearly gain in height for this group of 
children? 



The Measurement of Bodily Dimensions 81 

Experiment No. 2 
Measuring the Sitting Height 

These measurements may be taken on the same occasion 
as the measurements of standing height, thus obviating the 
necessity of interrupting the activities of the children a sec- 
ond time. In taking these measurements, the subject should 
sit on the floor with legs extended straight in front, and the 
back (including the hips) placed firmly against the wall, 
hands at side. The measurement is then taken in the same 
way as in the case of standing height.* 

Find the mean sitting height for each age and sex. What 
proportion of the mean standing height is the mean sitting 
height for each age and sex group? What general growth 
trend in the ratio of sitting to standing height is shown by 
these figures? This is sometimes referred to as the law of 
anterior-posterior development. The head portions of the 
body are precocious in their development as compared to 
the extremities. At any given stage of the developmental 
period, the head and trunk will have completed a greater 
proportion of their total growth than the limbs. As age 
advances, the legs gradually catch up to the upper portions 
of the body with the result that the sitting height of the 
adult is a smaller proportion of the total height than it is 
in the young child. 

*At least four different procedures have been used for measuring sitting 
height (a) with the subject's legs extended in the way described above, 
(b) with the legs hanging unsupported from the knee, (c) with the knees 
bent and feet planted squarely on the floor as when sitting in the ordinary 
chair of correct height, (d) and with the knees drawn up against the 
body. Since each of these measures will yield slightly different results 
from any of the others it is important to ascertain which method has 
been followed in comparing experimental results with those reported in 
the literature. The amount of the difference can readily be ascertained by 
measuring the same subject several times in each position. 



82 Experimental Child Study 

Experiment No. 3 

A Comparison of the Experimental Error in 
Measuring Sitting and Standing Height 

Following the procedure just outlined, measure the sitting 
and standing height of each of two members of the class, 
designated Subject A and Subject B. If the group contains 
as many as sixteen students, it may be divided into two sec- 
tions. The students in the first section should then take the 
measurements of Subject A and those in the second section 
the measurements of Subject B. If the class is small, each 
student should make both measurements for both subjects. 
Each student should make his measurements independently, 
without knowledge of the results obtained by other members" 
of the class. The subject should change position between 
each successive measurement, so that the experiment in- 
cludes placing the subject in the required position as well as 
the actual taking of the measurements. 

Problems. I. Find the mean of all the measurements 
taken for each dimension of each subject. These means may 
be regarded as the best approximations available for the true 
measurements. 

2. Find the mean experimental error of each measurement 
by subtracting each of the individual measures from the 
mean (disregarding signs) and then finding the mean of 
these differences. Express this absolute experimental error 
as a percentage of the true measurement. Do this for each 
measurement of each subject. The results obtained are 
known as the per cent of experimental error. 

3. Upon the basis of these results, what would you say 
with regard to the relative accuracy with which the two 
dimensions under consideration lend themselves to measure- 
ment? State possible reasons for this difference. 



The Measurement of Bodily Dimensions 83 

4. Is there a consistent difference (i.e., taking the same 
direction for both measurements) in the absolute experi- 
mental error obtained for the two subjects? In the percent- 
age of experimental error? What possible explanations can 
you suggest? 

5. Find the ratio of the sitting height to the standing 
height for the two adult subjects. Compare with the ratios 
found for the children in the experimental group. How 
closely do the results check with the ratios reported in the 
literature? 

If time permits it is worth while to find the experimental 
error of these measurements for one or more kindergarten 
or nursery-school children. As a rule, both the absolute and 
the relative experimental error of measurement will be 
slightly greater for children than for adults because of the 
greater difficulty in getting a child to take and maintain an 
entirely uniform posture from one trial to another. 

REFERENCES 

The student is referred to the following titles in the 
bibliography at the end of this book (special attention should 
be given the starred references) : 

8*, 10*, 144, 272*, 298*, 330*, 342, 343. 



Chapter 10 

MAKING FREQUENCY DISTRIBUTIONS 

FIGURE 2 shows a group of 15 children arranged in 
order of height. They are standing in a row against a 
wall, on which lines have been drawn six inches apart. This 
makes it possible to see at a glance how many children in 




FIGURE 2. 
Children of different heights arranged by class-intervals. 

the group are between 30 and 36 inches in height, how 
many are between 36 and 42 inches and so on. If we count 
the number of cases in each of these groups we find it to 
be as follows: 

30-36 inches 2 

36-42 inches 3 

42-48 inches 5 

48-54 inches 3 

54-60 inches 2 

When a set of measurements or other numerical facts is 
arranged in the manner shown above, with all cases falling 

84 



Making Frequency Distributions 85 

between successive limits thrown into single groups, the list 
or table resulting is called a frequency distribution, and the 
distances within the limits thus defined are known as class 
intervals. 



u 

5 

4 

8 
8 

o 
-3 



J> 

1, 

1 
























































































30 36 42 48 54 
to to to to to 
35.9 419 479 53.9 59.9 

Height in inches 



FIGURE 3. 
Histogram showing data of Figure 2. 

Figure 3 shows the same facts in another way. In this 
case the boundaries of each class interval are indicated on 
the base line or abscissa of the graph; the smaller values at 
the left and the larger values at the right. The number of 
cases falling within each interval is indicated by the height 
of the class interval or the ordinate. Thus the fact that there 



86 



Experimental Child Study 



TABLE I 

PHYSICAL MEASUREMENTS OF CHILDREN BETWEEN THE AGES 
OF SIXTY AND SIXTY-THREE MONTHS 



BOYS 





^) 

a 


feo 
. " 

^^ 

. 
<s S 

M K-j 

OQ^ 


S?.3 

H-SP 

ki ^ 

iotC! 


<u 
i ^ 

f 


"3f 

^1 


s 
<a 
ex, 

CO 

S 

K 
^ 


ki 
< 

5P 
^j 

fe 


I 


113.8 


63-1 


52-5 


IIO.O 


19.25 


2 


1 10.6 


62.0 


514 


110.4 


18.42 


3 


iiS-9 


64.7 


51-8 


116.3 


19.61 


4 


107-5 


60.0 


5M 


106.4 


17-34 


5 


117.2 


65.0 


53-i 


118.2 


23.20 


6 


108.1 


61.8 


50.0 


107.3 


18.10 


7 


III.2 


62.6 


52.2 


112.3 


19.26 


8 


106.8 


58-7 


49-8 


106.2 


17.14 


9 


116.3 


65.0 


S2-7 


117.3 


20.21 


10 


109.2 


61.7 


S3-o 


110.4 


18.64 


ii 


108.4 


61-3 


50-3 


109.1 


18.32 


12 


116.1 


64.9 


54.0 


115.3 


22.00 


13 


110.3 


62.2 


52-4 


1 1 1.2 


I9.l6 


14 


1 12.2 


62.9 


52-9 


II3.I 


19.00 


*5 


III.7 


62.4 


52-6 


II2.8 


20.14 


16 


I03.I 


57-i 


Si-4 


104.3 


16.42 


17 


I07.S 


59-3 


50-3 


I07.I 


16.18 


18 


II4.6 


63-4 


524 


II5.6 


22.13 


19 


H5-3 


64.0 


54- 1 


117,2 


23.11 


20 


II2.8 


63.0 


50.2 


1134 


20.50 


21 


1 12.2 


62.8 


53-3 


1 12.2 


20.42 


22 


1 10. 1 


61.4 


Si.8 


III.3 


I9-5 1 


2 3 


III.4 


62.5 


52-6 


1094 


18.62 


2 4 


II5-I 


64.1 


S3-i 


II4.2 


21.13 


^S 


109.3 


61.3 


53-7 


I08.I 


20.14 



Making Frequency Distributions 87 



TABLE i (Continued) 

PHYSICAL MEASUREMENTS OF CHILDREN BETWEEN THE AGES 
OF SIXTY AND SIXTY-THREE MONTHS 

Girls 



s 

<4l 
<-, 
SS 

Cj 


txi 

S " 
--s: 

g.SP 

<sS C^ 

k! 


^ 

|-g 

."*-* ^ 

cofcj 


*a 

.fe 

CJ S 

xs^S. 

s 

Oj *- 

^8 


s 

<3 

, 
CO 

g 

K 

^ 


+0, 

*< 

r 1 
fe 


I 


109.6 


62.0 


50.6 


108.2 


18.39 


2 


110,5 


62.3 


50.9 


107.4 


17.24 


3 


II4.6 


64.0 


52.1 


II2.6 


19.36 


4 


II2.3 


62.5 


51.0 


110.4 


20.42 


5 


I07.I 


60. 1 


49-8 


105.1 


16.38 


6 


105.2 


594 


48.2 


102.2 


15.21 


7 


I03.I 


56.0 


47.1 


IOI.3 


13-19 


8 


1 10.6 


59-6 


49.2 


107.5 


18.14 


9 


109.7 


61.7 


50.2 


108.2 


17.16 


10 


in. i 


62.8 


SO-3 


III.3 


19.24 


ii 


1 10.8 


62.1 


Si-4 


IIO.I 


21. 16 


12 


111.3 


63.0 


5I-S 


1094 


23.21 


13 


112.4 


63.2 


52-3 


1 10.2 


19.14 


14 


113.6 


63.8 


50.6 


III. I 


20.13 


IS 


110.4 


62.4 


50.0 


108.4 


18.41 


16 


108.2 


61.2 


49-2 


107.3 


16.28 


i? 


107.1 


60. i 


49.8 


106.5 


17.14 


18 


109.6 


61.0 


50-4 


I08.I 


18.39 


19 


112.3 


62.6 


Si-i 


III.3 


19.21 


20 


111.5 


63.1 


50.6 


IIO.I 


19.30 


21 


IIO.2 


62.1 


5i-3 


109.5 


18.41 


22 


IO9.I 


61.8 


52.2 


109.2 


17.22 


23 


112. 1 


63.2 


50.6 


III.O 


17-39 


24 


II0.5 


63.0 


SO-S 


108.1 


18.24 


25 


IIO.6 


63-3 


51.0 


107.4 


18.05 



88 Experimental Child Study 

are two cases in the interval 30-36 is indicated by making 
that column two units high, and so on. 

It will be noted that in this case the greatest number of 
cases is found in the middle interval, while the number 
either of very tall or of very short children is decidedly less 
than the number who are of medium height. This form of 
distribution in which the cases tend to cluster about the mid- 
point is much more frequent than any other in biological 
measurements of all kinds. In its most typical form it is 
known as the normal frequency distribution or the normal 
probability curve. Much of the data with which we have to 
deal is distributed in a fashion similar to this, though the 
curves will not often be so symmetrical. 

Examples: Table I lists the results of a series of physical 
measurements taken upon a group of kindergarten children 
all of whom were between the ages of sixty and sixty-three 
months. All the children were of North European stock. All 
measurements were taken without clothing. A stadiometer 
was used for measuring sitting and standing heights. The 
sitting height was taken with the legs extended straight out 
before the child; head circumference was taken by means of 
a tape placed horizontally around the head just above the 
top of the ears; arm span was taken from finger tip to finger 
tip with the child standing and the arms extended horizon- 
tally at the level of the shoulders against a calibrated meas- 
uring beam. The group was composed of twenty-five boys 
and twenty-five girls. All measurements are expressed in 
metric units to facilitate computation. The linear measure- 
ments are given in centimeters, weight in kilograms and are 
listed in the order in which the children happened to be 
measured without attempt at arrangement. 

If we wish to organize the results of any single series of 
measurements so as to give a clear picture of the group as 
a whole, our first task is evidently that of grouping those 



Making Frequency Distributions 89 

measurements which are of nearly the same value into single 
classes. In other words, we need to organize the material 
into class intervals as was done in the example at the begin- 
ning of this chapter. The simplest way of doing this is first 
to find the total range of the measurements included (that 
is, the difference between the largest and smallest measure- 
ments), and then to decide upon a class interval of a size 
which will make the kind of distinctions necessary for the 
particular problem under consideration. For reasons which 
will be apparent later on, it may be said that if the problem 
is to make a graphic analysis of the form of the distribu- 
tion, from 5 to 9 class intervals will usually be sufficient. 
For purposes of statistical treatment a somewhat finer divi- 
sion, say from n to 21 class intervals is preferable. If the 
number of class intervals is large, only a small proportion of 
the cases will fall within any one interval and the curve will 
therefore be comparatively flat. If the number of intervals 
is smaller, those measurements which are most nearly alike 
will tend to fall within the same interval so that the general 
form of the distribution will be more clearly seen. This is 
particularly true when the number of measures is small. We 
may illustrate this by arranging the data of Column I 
(standing height for boys) in two ways, first using a class 
interval of I cm. and secondly, one of 2.5 cm. The total 
range of the measures is first found by subtracting 103.1 
cm. (the height of the shortest child in the group) from 117.2 
cm. (the height of the tallest child). The difference is 14.1 
cm. Since it is more convenient to fix the boundaries of our 
class intervals in round numbers, we may set our lowest 
division point at 103.0 and proceed by i.o centimeter inter- 
vals thereafter. In preparing a frequency table it is cus- 
tomary to place the lowest value at the bottom as shown 
in Table 2. 

The lowest class interval will then include all cases 



Experimental Child Study 



TABLE 2 

FREQUENCY DISTRIBUTION OF MEASUREMENTS OF STANDING 

HEIGHT OF BOYS: GROUPED BY CLASS-INTERVALS 

OF ONE CENTIMETER 

(Data taken from Table i) 



Class interval 


Cases 


/ 


117.0-117.9 


i 


I 


116.0-116.9 


ii 


2 


115.0-115.9 


in 


3 


114.0-114.9 


I 


i 


113.0-113.9 


I 


I 


112.0-112.9 


in 


3 


111.0-111.9 


in 


3 


110.0-110.9 


in 


3 


109.0-109.9 


ii 


2 


108.0-108.9 


ii 


2 


107.0-107.9 


ii 


2 


106.0-106.9 


I 


I 


105.0-105.9 




O 


104.0-104.9 




O 


103.0-103.9 


I 


I 



measuring from 103.0 to 103.9 centimeters, the next, those 
measuring 104.0 to 104.9 centimeters, and so on. The fre- 
quency table itself may now be prepared as follows: The first 
child in the list measured 113.8 centimeters. This should be 
indicated by making a tally mark opposite the class interval 
113.0 to 113.9. The next child measured 110.6 centimeters. 
This is indicated by a similar tally mark opposite the class in- 
terval labeled iio.o to 110.9. Each of the other cases should 
be indicated in a corresponding fashion until the entire list 
of 25 has been included. After the checking has been com- 
pleted, the list should be gone over a second time and a dot 
placed above each tally mark as the cases are checked off 
in order to insure accuracy. The number of cases in each 



Making Frequency Distributions 91 

class interval should then be counted and entered in the 
column labelled /. 

These results may now be shown graphically in the form 
of a frequency surface or histogram such as Fig. 4. The 
preparation of such graphs will be greatly facilitated by the 
use of cross-section paper. Select paper which is ruled ac- 



Number of coses 

O ro O) 4= 











































































































































o o o 
o o o 



CTv 
O 



~ ~ ~ Height in centimeters 

FIGURE 4. 

Histogram showing distribution of standing-height of twenty-five 

five-year-old boys. 
Measurements grouped by class-intervals of one centimeter. 

cording to a decimal system, i.e., either in centimeters and 
millimeters or in inches and tenths of an inch. The succes- 
sive steps in preparing a frequency surface may be out- 
lined briefly as follows: 

1. Mark off a base line the length of which is an even 
multiple of the number of class intervals to be in- 
cluded. . . 

2. Note the greatest number of frequencies in any single 
class interval. With this in mind, select a unit of 
height which will give a pleasing proportion to the 
curve. For example, in Fig. 4 each class interval is 
represented by a horizontal base of five millimeters 
and each frequency within an interval is represented 
by a corresponding vertical space of five millimeters. 
It is not, however, necessary to have the unit repre- 
senting the frequency equal to that of the class inter- 



92 Experimental Child Study 

val, and unless the total number of cases is small the 
latter will ordinarily be much smaller than the former. 

3. Directly below the base line, write neatly the range of 
values included within each class interval. Note that 
the extremes should be represented as of an equal 
length with the others, even though this involves the 
extension of the range to a point somewhat beyond 
that at which the last frequency actually occurs. The 
lowest value should be placed at the left of the base 
line, the highest value at the right. 

4. At each class interval, count a sufficient number of 
vertical units to represent the number of frequencies 
within the class interval. Indicate the height of the 
column thus obtained by a pencil mark. 

5. After the chart has been thus laid out in pencil, go 
over it neatly with ink, using a ruling pen if possible. 
Label clearly. The wording of the title should be con- 
cise, but should state all the facts necessary for the 
interpretation of the chart. 

It will be seen that when as many as 15 class intervals 
are used for a distribution containing only 25 cases, the 
form of the curve appears to be rather flat, without any very 
clear tendency for the cases to center about one point rather 
than another. Table 3 and Fig. 5 show what happens when 
the data are grouped by intervals of 2.5 cm. 

TABLE 3 

FREQUENCY DISTRIBUTION OF MEASUREMENTS OF STANDING 
HEIGHT OF BOYS: GROUPED BY INTERVALS 

OF 2.5 CENTIMETERS 

(Data taken from Table i) 

Class interval f 

115.5-117.9 4 

113.0-115.4 4 

110.5-112.9 7 

108.0-1 10.4 6 

105.5^107.9 3 

103.0-105.4 i 



Making Frequency Distributions 93 

While the data are not so symmetrical as those shown In 
Figure 3, the tendency toward a piling up of cases in the 
center of the group with a smaller proportion at the ex- 
tremes is apparent. When, as in this case, there are more 
cases at one extreme than at the other we say that the dis- 
tribution is skewed toward the end at which the smaller 



7 

s /- 

<o D 

*o 5 



* <j> *r CD j- CD 

o o ^ ~ ~ 

O tO O 10 O O 

o o o 2 5 



FIGURE 5. 

Histogram showing distribution of standing-heights of twenty-five 

five-year-old boys. 
Measurements grouped by class-intervals of 2.5 centimeters. 



proportion of cases appear, or toward the opposite end from 
that at which the extreme cases are massed. 

In preparing a frequency table, the checks or tally-marks 
should be grouped by fives, with the fifth check crossing the 
others at an opposite angle. The groups of five should be 
separated from each other by a space which is at least equal 
to two or three check marks, and the successive groups in 
each class interval should be placed exactly below each 
other. When this is done, the tally marks themselves will 



94 Experimental Child Study 

show the form of the distribution almost as clearly as a 
formal graphic analysis. This is well illustrated in Table 4, 
which shows the distribution of scores made on the Mc~ 
Carty test of drawing ability (171) by 244 second grade 
boys between the ages of seven and seven-and-a-half years. 

TABLE 4. 

DISTRIBUTION OF THE SCORES MADE ON THE MCCARTY TEST 
OF DRAWING ABILITY BY 244 SECOND GRADE BOYS 



Score 


Cases 


r 


19-20 


// 


2 


17-18 


m 


5 


15-16 


JMLWUftLfNLmiltttW 


35 


13-14 


MMMmmmmmm^/ 


51 


11-12 


Mwmmmmmmmwwmmmwmmw//// 


94 


9*10 


m mi mi rwtww m nit 


39 


7-8 


W1WIII 


13 


5-6 


m 


5 




Total 


244 



By inspection of the tally marks alone, it is seen that the 
curve approaches the normal frequency distribution rather 
closely, since by far the greater number of cases are clus- 
tered near the midpoint with only a small proportion at 
either extreme. There is a very slight positive skewness, 
shown by the greater scattering of cases at the upper end 
of the scale and by the massing of cases somewhat nearer 
the lower than the upper end. 

Exercise. Arrange the data of each column in Table I in 
the form of frequency tables, using a system of classification 
in which the data are grouped into from n to 21 class 
intervals of equal length; then reorganize the material into 
frequency tables in which a uniform class interval of one 



Making Frequency Distributions 95 

centimeter is used for the linear measurements and one 
kilogram for the weight measurements without regard to 
the range of measures in the group. Draw histograms to 
show the data according to both plans of organization. Keep 
the frequency tables for use in the statistical exercises of 
the following chapter. 

REFERENCES 

The student is referred to the following titles in the 
bibliography at the end of this book: 
397-* 



Chapter n 

A SHORT METHOD FOR FINDING THE MEAN 



method of finding the average or arithmetic mean 
JL by summing the individual measures and dividing by 
the number of cases, which was described in Chapter 9 
is suitable for use only when the number of cases is small. 
In dealing with larger groups, particularly when the meas- 
urements themselves are expressed in terms of several digits, 
the adding becomes very laborious and a more convenient 
method is needed. The procedure commonly used is known 
as the short method of finding the mean by the use of an 
arbitrary origin or, as we sometimes say, by working from 
a "guessed mean." In using this method, the data are first 
arranged in the form of a frequency distribution as described 
in the last chapter. If the original measurements are fine 
enough to permit it, the distribution should be planned to 
include from u to 21 class intervals in order to prevent 
undue loss in accuracy from grouping. As an illustration 
we may take the distribution of the measurements of stand- 
ing height in which a class interval of I cm. was used. We 
wish to find the mean of these measures by the short method. 
By inspection of the frequency distribution it is possible to 
guess with more or less accuracy at about what point the 
mean will fall. This will be somewhere near the midpoint 
of the distribution if the data are distributed evenly, but if 
there are a greater number of cases near one end than the 
other, the mean also will be moved towards that end of 
the curve. In this case, since there are rather more cases 

96 



A Short Method for Finding the Mean 97 

near the upper end of the distribution than at the lower 
end, we may guess that the mean will fall somewhere be- 
tween m.o and 111.9. An inaccurate guess does not affect 
the accuracy of the computation; it means only that the 
work of computation will be slightly increased since we 
shall have to deal with somewhat larger numbers. It is a 
good plan to set off the class interval chosen as the guessed 
mean by heavy lines as shown in Table 5. 

TABLE 5 

COMPUTATION OF MEAN STANDING HEIGHT BY THE SHORT 

METHOD 



Intervals 


Cases 


/ 


X 


fx 


117 O II7.Q 


/ 


i 


+6 


6 


116 o 1 16.9 


// 


2 


+5 


10 


IIC.O IIC.Q 


/// 


3 


+4 


12 


II4..O- II4..Q 


/ 


I 


+3 


3 


I jq O II3.Q 


/ 


I 


+2 


2 


112 0112.9 


/// 


1 


+ T 


3 












III.OIII.9 


/// 


1 


O 














1 10 o 1 10.9 


/// 


1 


I 


3 


109 0109 9 


// 


2 


2 


4 


108.0108.9 


// 


2 


3 


6 


107 O I07.Q 


// 


2 


4 


8 


106 0106.9 


/ 


I 


5 


$ 


IOC O IOC.Q 






-6 




IOA 0104.9 






7 




j0<? 0103.9 


/ 


I 


8 


8 













S(+fx)= 36 

(-f X )=34 
Difference = 
2 cm. 

Correction (c) 



25 

.08 of a class 
interval. 



We shall now assign a numerical value to each class in- 
terval in terms of its distance above or below the guessed 
mean. Starting from the mean as a zero point, we number 
the successive steps above and below this point as shown in 
the column labeled x (Table 5). From now on these x 



98 Experimental Child Study 

values will be used for all computations exactly as if they 
were the true measurements of those cases. In the column 
headed fx we record the product obtained by multiplying 
the number of cases (/) in each class interval by the new or 
x value which we have given to that class interval. Thus in 
our top class there is one case whose measurement has an x 
value of 6. The fx value for this interval is therefore I X 6 
= 6, and this is entered in the fx column. The values of the 
remaining class intervals are listed in like manner. Values 
above the guessed mean are counted as plus, those below 
the guessed mean as minus. 




FIGURE 6. 

Graphic representation of the data in Table 5 to illustrate the location 

of the mean. 

Turn now to Fig. 6 which represents graphically the facts 
shown in Table 5. Here we have a series of weights set 
irregularly at intervals along a rod which is to be balanced 
upon a support. The problem is to find the point at which 
the fulcrum should be placed so that the weights with their 
present arrangement will exactly balance each other. This 
point corresponds to the true mean. It is the point which 
divides the measurements in such a way that the sum of the 
measurements on one side exactly equals the sum of the 
measurements on the other side of the point of division. If 
we now check the accuracy of our guessed mean according 
to this criterion, we find that the sum of the + fx values 
is 36 while the sum of the fx values is 34. The difference 
is 2. Since the number of cases is 25 it follows that the 



A Short Method for Finding the Mean 99 

average amount which must be added to the minus values 
or subtracted from the plus values in order to achieve a 
balance is 2/25 of a class interval. 2/25 of i.o centimeter 
Is .08 centimeters. The fulcrum must therefore be shifted 
.08 centimeters toward the top of the scale. Had the excess 
been below instead of above the guessed mean, the correc- 
tion would have been subtracted. 

We have now determined how large a correction needs to 
be applied to the guessed mean in order to make it corre- 
spond to the true mean. Before we can do this, it will be 
necessary to turn back to the original data as given in Table 
i and consider a little more precisely just what these figures 
signify. It is important to realize from the beginning that 
any measurement of a continuous quantity, that is, a quan- 
tity such as length, time, weight, etc., which has no natural 
division points or breaks, always refers to a class interval 
and not to a fixed point. When the interval is very small, 
however, its boundaries are often implied rather than ex- 
pressed. Thus, when we say that John is 57^5 inches tall, 
we mean that in height he belongs somewhere in the interval 
between 57 13/16 and 57 15/16 inches (if we are measuring 
to the nearest eighth of an inch). In the case with which 
we are dealing the measurements are expressed in terms of 
.1 of a centimeter, but finer measurements than this might 
have been made if it had seemed profitable to do so. Ac- 
tually, then, what has been called 113.8 centimeters in the 
first measurement on the list really denotes a measurement 
which falls somewhere between 113.75 an d 113*85 centi- 
meters. All measurements falling within this range have been 
grouped together in the original measures and given the 
common value of 113.8 centimeters. When we arrange our 
data in class intervals we merely impose a coarser system of 
grouping upon data which have already been grouped into 
finer units. In both cases the value ascribed to all cases 



ioo Experimental Child Study 

falling within the group or class interval is the midpoint of 
the group. We find this midpoint by adding J^ the size of 
the interval to the lowest value which would be included 
within that interval. Our guessed mean then would fall at 
the midpoint of the interval in.o to 111.9, and we have 
ascertained that it is necessary to shift this value 0.08 centi- 
meters higher up. The lower boundary of the class interval 
will be the lower boundary of the lowest score included 
within that class interval. The lowest score included within 
the class interval containing the guessed mean is m.o. The 
lower boundary of the measurement recorded as m.o is 
110.95. One-half the size of the class interval is l /2 (i.oo 
cm.) = .50 centimeters. The midpoint of the interval is 
therefore 110.95 + -5O or 111.45 centimeters. The true mean, 
therefore, when the error in guessing is corrected is 111.45 + 
0.08 centimeters (the amount of the correction) or 111.53 
centimeters. 

We may sum up the steps involved in calculating the mean 
by the short method as follows : 

1. Find the total range of the distribution by subtracting 
the lowest from the highest measurement in the series. 

2. If this range is sufficiently great to make it desirable 
to group these measures into coarser units, select a 
class interval of such a size that the total number of 
steps or intervals will be somewhere in the neighbor- 
hood of II to 21. 

3. Using these class intervals, prepare a frequency table 
with the measures increasing in size from the bottom 
of the table to the top. 

4. Enter the separate measures in the frequency table 
by placing a tally mark opposite the appropriate value 
for each case. Recheck this distribution to make sure 
that no errors have been made in placing the scores. 

5. Count the number of tally marks in each class interval 
and enter the sums in a column to the right labeled /. 

6. By inspection of the distribution, guess the approxi- 



A Short Method for Finding the Mean 101 

mate point at which the mean will fall, and set off this 
class interval by heavy lines. 

7. Taking the guessed mean as the zero point, assign 
values to each successive class interval in terms of 
distance above or below the mean. Enter these values 
in a second column to the right of the / column. This 
column is called x. 

8. Multiply the scores in the / column by those in the x 
column, and enter the products in a third column 
labelled /*. 

9. Find the difference between the sum of the -f- fx scores, 
(that is, those above the interval containing the guessed 
mean), and the fx scores (those below this inter- 
val). If the sum of the + fx scores is greater than the 
sum of the fx scores, the guessed mean is too low, 
and the amount of the correction must be added to 
the midpoint of the class interval containing the 
guessed mean. If the sum of the fx scores is greater 
than that of the + fx scores, the guessed mean is too 
high, and the amount of the correction must be sub- 
tracted from the midpoint of the class interval. 

10. Find the mean amount of the correction by dividing 
the difference between the + fx and the fx scores by 
the number of cases in the group. Multiply this result 
by the size of the class interval. 

11. Find the midpoint of the class interval in which the 
mean was guessed by adding one half the size of the 
class interval to the lower boundary of the lowest 
score included within that class interval. 

12. Add or subtract, according to its sign, the amount of 
the correction to the midpoint of the class interval 
within which the mean was guessed. The result will 
by the true mean. 

The formula for finding the mean by the short method is 

written as follows: 

. , . ... (Class interval) 2 fx , N 
M = Arbitrary origin + -^ U; 

where 2fx = the algebraic sum of the fx values, that is the 
difference between 2(-}-fx) and 2( fx). 



IO2 Experimental Child Study 

The advantages of the short method over the long method 
of finding the mean will become apparent as soon as the 
student has become moderately proficient in its use. Since 
the long method requires the handling of large numbers 
and often of decimals, the procedure becomes very laborious. 
The substitution of scale values expressed in terms of in- 
tegers of small denomination greatly reduces the labor of 
calculation, and thereby increases its accuracy. Moreover, 
as will be seen later on, the arrangement of the data in 
frequency distributions facilitates the carrying out of other 
statistical processes which we shall wish to use. 

Practice Exercises, i. Using the short method, find the 
mean of each of the other columns in Table I. Compare the 
sexes with regard to each of the separate measures. 

2. Compute the mean of the last column by both the long 
and the short method, and record the time required for 
each process. What is the difference between the means ob- 
tained by the two methods ? This difference may be regarded 
as the loss in accuracy due to grouping of the data. Express 
this grouping error as a percentage of the mean for the 
group. What is the time required for finding the mean by 
each method (including checking) ? * 

REFERENCES 

The student is referred to the following titles in the 
bibliography at the end of this book: 

384*, 396*, 397*. 

* It is a good plan to have different members of the class select different 
columns for the comparisons of time and accuracy. If this is done, the 
results for the class may be combined so as to show (a) the mean 
difference in the time required for computation of the mean by the two 
methods, and (b) the mean per cent of grouping error. 



Chapter 12 

SLEEP 

the growing child needs more sleep than the adult 
whose growth is completed is well known. During the 
first few weeks of life, the tiny infant sleeps most of the 
time; his waking time is confined almost wholly to the hours 
when he is being fed and bathed. As age advances the pro- 
portion of time spent in sleep gradually decreases; but most 
children continue to spend more than half of the twenty- 
four hours in sleep until they are well past the third birth- 
day (5). 

Because of the importance of an adequate amount of 
sleep for the child's physical and mental well-being, a 

TABLE 6 

TOTAL AMOUNT OF SLEEP (NIGHT SLEEP PLUS NAPS) TAKEN 
BY MINNESOTA CHILDREN AT DIFFERENT SEASONS (5) 

All 

Fall Winter Spring Summer Seasons 
Age hrs. min. hrs. min. hrs. min. hrs. min. hrs. min. 



i mo. -6 


mo. 


(Too few cases) 14 


55 


i5 


29 


15 


3 


6 mo.- 1 


yr. 


H 


I 


14 


31 


14 


15 


13 


37 




9 


i yr. -i^ 


jryr. 


13 


22 


13 


38 


13 


10 


13 


24 


13 


23 


ijyr. -2 


"yr. 


13 


20 


13 


20 


13 


o 


12 


39 


13 


6 


2 yr. -3 


yr. 


12 


38 


12 


47 


12 


47 


12 


37 


12 


42 


3 yr. -4 


yr. 


12 


8 


12 


13 


12 


5 


12 





12 


7 


4 yr. -5 


yr. 


II 


44 


II 


53 


II 


40 


II 


34 


II 


43 


5 yr.-6 


yr. 


II 


18 


II 


25 


II 


20 


II 


ii 


II 


19 


6 yr. -7 




II 


i 


II 


ii 


II 


2 


II 


2 


II 


4 


7 yr. -8 


yr. 


10 


55 


II 


3 


10 


59 


IO 


55 


10 


58 


103 



104 Experimental Child Study 

comparison of the amount of sleep taken by any child with 
the averages found by studying a large number of children 
of his age is well worth making. Fortunately, such standards 
are now available. Table 6 shows the average amount of 
sleep taken by Minnesota children during each of the four 
seasons of the year. These figures are based upon a week's 
record which was kept for approximately a thousand chil- 
dren at each season. It should be noted that these averages 
represent "time asleep" and not "time in bed," i.e.., the time 
required to go to sleep has not been included. 

Experiment No. 4 

The Amount of Sleep Taken by Young Children 

Request * the parents of the children in the experimental 
group (nursery-school, kindergarten or primary grades) to 
keep a record of the amount of sleep taken by the children 
during a period of one week. Prepared record forms should 
be provided for the purpose. The arrangement shown on the 
opposite page has been found satisfactory. 

Written instructions for keeping the records should ac- 
company the blanks, even when the interview method is used 
for securing cooperation. These instructions should point 
out (a) that time is to be recorded as exactly as possible 
(b) that in case the child lies down for a nap but fails to 
sleep, the time of lying down and of getting up should be 
recorded and a zero (o) placed in the space labeled "was 
asleep at," and (c) that no attempt should be made to 

* Care must be taken to arouse the interest of the parents in the 
project in order to insure their cooperation. Requests may be made by 
telephone, by letter, or by personal interview. The last method is likely 
to be most satisfactory if time permits. If the interview is used, it is 
well to secure the data on food preferences (see following chapter) on 
the same occasion. The results of the latter study can then be worked 
up in class during the week that the sleep records are being kept. 



Sleep 105 
Child's name Sex. . . . Age: Years . . . . Mo 





Sun. 


Mon. 


Tues. 


Wed. 


Tkurs. 


FrL 


Sat. 


Health: well } fair, ill 
















Day nap : was in bed 
at 
































Did he go willingly? 
















Was asleep at (Ar.) 
















Awake at (Ar.) . . . 
















Night Sleep: was in 
bed at 
































Did he go willingly? 
















Was asleep at (Ar.) 
















UD at (Ar.) 

















Record for week beginning with nap (if taken) on- 
Recorded by 



Date 



modify the child's usual schedule while the records are being 
taken. Although having the records made in terms of clock 
time rather than in hours and minutes involves some addi- 
tional labor for the investigator, such records are likely to 
be much more accurate than would be the case if the par- 
ents were asked to make the subtractions themselves. In 
treating the results, it is evidently necessary first to trans- 
mute the clock time records into time units for each day, 
and then to find the weekly averages for each child. Since 
this involves a separate retabulation of the data before the 
final organization can be made, it is well to prepare separate 
code slips for each child upon which the subtractions can 
be entered. These slips can then be sorted into age and sex 
groups. The following form is suggested: 



io6 Experimental Child Study 

Code Slip for Recording Children's Sleep 
Name 

Age: Yr Mo Sex. . . . Grade. , . . 

Night 





WFI 


BT 


w 


TBS 


LOS 


TS 


s 














M 














Tu 














W 














Th 














F 














S 














M 














MV 















Nap 





WFI 


BT 


w 


TBS 


LOS 


s 












M 

i\r 






















w 












Th 












F 












S 












M 












MV 













Sleep 107 

On this slip the state of health (well, fair, or ill) is to be 
recorded in the first column for each day, using the initial 
letter of the word only. "BT" in the second column stands 
for "bedtime" which is to be copied directly from the orig- 
inal record; "w" stands for "willingness" and is to be re- 
corded as + or ; "TBS" for "time before sleep" is to be 
obtained by subtracting the hour at which the child was put 
to bed from that at which he was judged to be asleep. 
"LOS" stands for "length of sleep," obtained by subtracting 
the hour at which the child is said to have fallen asleep from 
that at which he awakened. The last column in the section 
on night sleep is headed "TS" for total sleep in 24 hours. 
It is found by adding the length of the day nap to the length 
of the night sleep for that day. 

The weekly averages for each child are to be entered at 
the bottom of each column in the space marked "M" 
(Mean). Since there are only seven days' records in each 
average the long method will be preferable to the short 
method for finding these means. The spaces marked "MV" 
are for the recording of the mean variations, a term which 
will be explained shortly. 

I. Comparisons of the amount of sleep taken by indi- 
vidual children with Minnesota standards for different ages 
and seasons. When the data for each child have been sum- 
marized in this fashion, It will be found interesting to com- 
pare the results with the standards obtained for unselected 
children in Minnesota (5) (see Table 6) in order to ascer- 
tain which children are sleeping more and which less than 
the average for their age at the season of the year at which 
the records were obtained. Table 6 gives the standards for 
total sleep only. Other comparisons such as length of nap, 
average number of naps per week; usual bedtime, usual wak- 
ing time, etc., are worth making. For those the student is 
referred to the monograph cited. 



io8 Experimental Child Study 

II. Regularity of sleep habits of tie individual children. 
It Is important to know, not only how much sleep an indi- 
vidual child takes on the average, but also to know some- 
thing about how much his sleeping habits vary from day to 
day. While a single week's record is not long enough to 
yield an entirely typical picture in all cases, it is sufficient 
to be at least suggestive. There are many different ways of 
' computing and expressing the variance from an average, 
but one of the easiest to compute and understand is the 
average deviation from the mean (A.D.) or, as it is often 
called, the mean variation (M.V.). This is computed in 
exactly the same manner as the experimental error taken up 
in Chapter 9, i.e., each individual day's measurement is sub- 
tracted from the mean for the week (disregarding signs), 
and the mean of these differences computed in the usual 
fashion. When this difference has reference to the variation 
among individual measures within a group, we speak of the 
result as the mean variation or the average deviation from 
the mean. When the method has reference to the variation 
in measurements which are supposed to be the same, since 
they are taken on a single individual or object on a single 
occasion we refer to it as the experimental error. The mean 
variation, then, may refer either to the average amount of 
divergence from his own most typical performance or habit 
which is shown by the same individual on different occa- 
sions (as in the instance under consideration), or to the 
average amount of departure from the mean of a group 
which is shown by its individual members. It refers, there- 
fore, to differences which are presumed to be actually exist- 
ent, while the experimental error has reference only to dif- 
ferences arising from imperfect measurement of a fact which 
is presumed to remain constant during the period of meas- 
urement. The method of computation is identical for both. 

Find the mean variation of each child during the week 



Sleep 109 

of observation in each of the following: bedtime, time re- 
quired to go to sleep at night, length of night sleep, time of 
lying down for nap, time required to go to sleep, length of 
nap, and length of total sleep. 

Divide the cases into age groups. Then subdivide each 
age group into the 50 per cent taking most sleep in 24 hours 
and the 50 per cent taking least sleep by arranging the 
cases in order and dividing the group in half. For each 
group separately, find the mean of the individual mean 
variations in each of the factors listed in the foregoing para- 
graphs. From these results what would you conclude with 
regard to the importance of a regular schedule in increasing 
the weekly quota of sleep during early childhood? 

III. Additional exercises: (a) Arrange the individual 
averages for the children of each age group into frequency 
tables and find the group mean and the mean variation from 
the group mean for each of the measures listed. 

(b) Do the children whose health was recorded as "fair" 
or "ill" show any consistent tendency to sleep more or less 
than the averages for their ages? 

(c) Is there any difference either in the length of sleep 
or in the time required to go to sleep between the children 
who are said to have gone to bed willingly and those who 
went unwillingly. 

IV. The preparation of seriatim curves. A seriatim 
curve is a graphical representation of the changes which 
occur in a function during a continuous time period, either 
as a result of growth and development or as a result of 
other factors such as practice in the case of a learning ex- 
periment. Strictly speaking, a seriatim curve refers to changes 
in the same individuals, but the method may also be used 
for data in which the successive stages are based upon the 
measurement of different individuals, who, it is assumed, 
are similar except for the age factor. When either very large 



no 



Experimental Child Study 



groups or smaller groups of carefully selected individuals 
are used, the assumption that the differences found corre- 
spond on the average to the changes which would take 
place in any single group during the age period covered is 



ib 



\ 



14 



\ 



IE 



11 



10 



Night j/eep 




. o 

o 



o o b- co 
a g> $ o 



o 

*- 



o ^ o urv 

J s M a 



+* O 3* 

FIGURE 7. 
Seriatim curve showing relation of length of sleep to age. 

likely to be fairly safe. With smaller unselected groups the 
differences in the sampling of subjects at the various ages 
is likely to cause more or less irregularity in the curves, 
although general trends may still be suggested. 

The method of drawing a seriatim curve is shown in Fig. 
7 which depicts the age changes in the mean amount of 



Sleep 1 1 1 

sleep taken in 24 hours by Minnesota children between the 
ages of 6 mo. and 7 years n mo. This curve is based upon 
the averages for the four seasons. 

The time variable (in this case, age) is entered along the 
abscissa, the changes in amount or level of the function in 
question along the ordinate. The use of cross-section paper 
will facilitate the drawing of the curves. Note that the points 
indicating the means for the successive age groups are 
placed at the midpoints of the divisions separating these age 
groups. The student should be able to state the reason for 
this. 

If enough cases are available prepare seriatim curves 
showing the age changes in the mean amount of sleep taken 
in 24 hours by the experimental group. If the group includes 
ages in which there are usually daytime naps place a second 
curve on the same chart showing the age changes in the 
amount of night sleep. Compare with the findings in the 
Minnesota study previously cited. 

Draw similar curves showing age changes in bed time; in 
time of waking, in mean length of nap when nap is taken, 
in mean number of naps taken per week. 

V. Tlie calculation of the median and of tlie per cent of 
overlapping between two groups. We frequently speak of 
a measure which is regarded as the most typical single ex- 
pression of a group value as a measure of the central ten- 
dency of that group. The arithmetic mean or average is such 
a measure. There are other ways, however, of expressing 
the central tendency which for some purposes or under 
certain conditions may be preferable to the mean. Next to 
the mean, the median is the most commonly used of these 
measures. The median Is defined as the point above and 
below which exactly 50 per cent of the cases will fall. Thus, 
if all the cases are arranged in rank order from the lowest to 
the highest the score made by the middle person if the 



H2 Experimental Child Study 

number of cases is odd, or the point half-way between the 
two middle persons if the number of cases is even, may be 
taken as the median. When the number of cases is small, 
this method of arranging them in order of size and then 
counting through to find the midpoint is commonly em- 
ployed. It is known as the "counting method." When the 
number of cases is large and the data are arranged in the 
form of a frequency distribution a second method which 
will be explained later is commonly employed. If the cases 
are distributed in a symmetrical fashion, the median will 
be identical in value with the mean, but if the cases tend 
to cluster around one or the other extreme the two values 
will not coincide. The median is not affected by the occa- 
sional inclusion of one or two sporadic cases, i.e., cases which 
differ very greatly from the rest of the group, and for this 
reason is often to be preferred to the mean as a measure of 
central tendency. However it is affected to a greater extent 
than is the mean by chance shifting about of cases near the 
center of the group. For the latter reason it is, in most 
cases, a less stable measure than the mean, that is, the 
medians of two supposedly similar groups are likely to 
differ more from each other than the means of those groups. 
However, the median is less affected by inequalities in 
scaling (e.g.,, as in many kinds of mental test scores) than 
is the mean. Whether the mean or the median is to be re- 
garded as the more adequate measure will therefore depend 
upon the kind of measurement used and the distribution of 
cases in the sampling. For a more complete discussion of 
this point the student is referred to any of the standard 
textbooks on statistical methods. 

A special use of the median in the comparison of groups 
is known as the per cent of overlapping, that is, the per- 
centage of the cases in one group which equals or exceeds 
the median score of the other group. This method of com- 



Sleep 113 

parison has been much used because It is so easily calcu- 
lated and so readily understood. The method of computation 
is indicated by the name of the process. First, find the 
median score of the group which is to be used as the stand- 
ard. Then count the number of cases in the second group 
whose scores are equal to or greater than this amount, and 
express this number as a percentage of the total number in- 
cluded in the second group. Thus if the median number of 
naps per week taken by a group of two-year-old children 
is 7, and if II out of 33 four-year-old children, or 33 per 
cent, take 7 or more naps per week, then we may say that 
33 per cent of the four-year-olds equal or exceed the two- 
year-olds in median number of naps taken per week. 

Tables 7 and 8 show (a) the mean time of going to bed, 
(b) the mean time of falling asleep and (c) the mean time 
of waking both for day and night sleep for two groups of 
young children, one group between the ages of two and 
two-and-a-half years, the other between the ages of five and 
five-and-a-half years. The data are taken from records 
secured in the Minnesota study on the sleep of young chil- 
dren (5). Each item represents the mean obtained by averag- 
ing the records for seven consecutive days as recorded by the 
mothers on the blanks sent them. 

Exercises, i. What percentage of the five-year-old chil- 
dren equal or exceed the median of the two-year-olds In 
amount of night sleep? Compute the same value for amount 
of total sleep, for number of naps taken per week, for mean 
length of nap when nap is taken. Which of these measures 
shows the greatest percentage of overlapping, i.e., the great- 
est amount of difference between the two age groups? Note 
that the percentage of overlapping provides a method of 
comparing directly the amount of the difference between 
two groups even though the units of measurement are un- 
equal. 



Experimental Child Study 



TABLE 7 
ANALYSIS OF SLEEP RECORDS OF 25 TWO-YEAR-OLD CHILDREN 



Case 
no. 


NIGHT SLEEP 


DAY SLEEP 


M<?<m 
bedtime 


Asleep 
at 


Awake 
at 


Bedtime 


Asleep 
at 


Awake 
at 


No. of 
maps 
during 
week 


i 


8:32 


8:40 


8:24 


11:50 


11:57 


i:5i 


7 


2 


8:16 


8:37 


7:15 


12:25 


12:37 


2:25 


7 


3 


7:05 


7:22 


7:02 


12:50 


12:10 


1:42 


7 


4 


7:iS 


7:3i 


7:05 


1:05 


1:17 


3:04 


7 


5 


7:24 


8:08 


7:16 


1:36 


1:52 


2:58 


6 


6 


7:00 


7:22 


7:36 


1:20 


i:37 


3:08 


7 


7 


7:38 


7:54 


7:15 


12:10 


12:21 


2:28 


7 


8 


6:56 


7:07 


7:22 


1:28 


1:41 


2:56 


7 


9 


7:01 


7:09 


6:54 


12:34 


12:51 


2:18 


7 


10 


7:41 


8:05 


7:48 


i:i5 


1:30 


2:25 


7 


n 


8:07 


8:28 


7:38 


1:10 


1:25 


3:02 


5 


12 


8:28 


8:46 


6:S4 


1:08 


1:25 


2:10 


6 


13 


7'-3S 


7:47 


7:28 


12:15 


12:42 


2:18 


7 


H 


9:17 


9:37 


Z :I 


i:4S 


1:56 


3:25 


6 


IS 


6:30 


6:42 


7:18 


1:00 


1:21 


3:10 


7 


16 


7:21 


7:26 


7:14 


2:20 


2:28 


3^5 


7 


*7 


7:09 


7:22 


8:15 


1:15 


1:32 


2:58 


7 


18 


6:54 


7:06 


6:50 


1:42 


2:00 


3:iS 


6 


19 


8:19 


8:34 


7:15 


1:50 


2:02 


3.:3S 


7 


20 


8:01 


8:17 


7:40 


12:15 


12:38 


i:54 


6 


21 


7:i3 


7:21 


7:45 


1:00 


1:10 


2:56 


7 


22 


7:i5 


7:29 


7:30 


2:08 


2:15 


3:48 


6 


23 


8:00 


8:34 


7:10 


1:50 


2:08 


3:57 


6 


2 4 


7:58 


8:18 


7:50 


i:i5 


1:38 


3:10 


7 


25 


8:54 


9:36 


7:20 


1:41 


2:12 


3:56 


6 



Sleep 



TABLE 8 
ANALYSIS OF SLEEP RECORDS OF 25 FIVE-YEAR-OLD CHILDREN 





NIGHT SLEEP 


DAY SLEEP 


Case 














No. of 


no. 


Mean 
bedtime 


Asleep 
at 


Awake 
at 


Bedtime 


Asleep 
at 


Awake 
at 


naps 
during 
















week 


I 


7:Si 


8:00 


7:10 


... 


... 







2 


8:09 


8:24 


7:16 


* . . 











3 


7:11 


7:56 


7:50 




. . * 


. * . 





4 


8:14 


8:33 


7:02 


* . * 





. 





5 


7:55 


8:15 


7:32 


KIS 


1:38 


2:56 


2 


6 


9:28 


10:05 


8:05 


1:25 


1:48 


2:55 


6 


7 


8:09 


8:16 


7:45 


1:10 


1:32 


2:54 


3 


8 


7:44 


7:55 


7:iS 




. 


. . . 


o 


9 


7:24 


8:05 


7:30 











10 


7:19 


7:42 


7:10 


12:50 


1:17 


2:15 


4 


ii 


8:13 


8:26 


7:00 


, . * 






0' 


12 


7:41 


7:52 


7:48 


12:39 


12:52 


2:15 


7 


13 


7:30 


7:41 


7:25 











14 


8:09 


8:15 


7:30 




. . . 


* . . 





IS 


7:09 


7:29 


6:55 




. . . 


. . . 





16 


8:12 


8:32 


7:00 


12:50 


1:15 


2:05 


I 


17 


7:19 


7:37 


7:02 


i:3S 


1:56 


3:02 


3 


18 


7:34 


8:22 


7:10 




* * * 







19 


9^S 


9:35 


7:00 











20 


7:41 


8:00 


7:30 


1:00 


1=15 


2:25 


4 


21 


7:32 


7:55 


7:00 











22 


7:31 


8:22 


8:15 




. . * 







23 


7:45 


8:10 


8:00 


1:15 


1:30 


2:15 


2 


24 


8:10 


8:17 


7:iS 











2$ 


7:05 


7:25 


7:00 


1:20 


i:3S 


2:45 


3 



n6 Experimental Child Study 

2. Compare the mean time of going to bed for the two 
age groups. 

3. Compare the groups with regard to the mean length 
of nap when a nap is taken; the mean number of naps 
taken per week. 

4. Of the various single factors considered, which one 
would you say is chiefly responsible for the difference in the 
total amount of sleep taken by the two age groups ? 

Additional exercises for statistical practice. The data of 
Tables 7 and 8 may also be used for practice in finding the 
mean by the short method and in computing the mean 
variation from the mean. In case it is not feasible to carry 
out the investigation on the sleep of children in the local 
group, the data of Tables 7 and 8 may be used for the sta- 
tistical exercises described in the preceding sections. 

REFERENCES 

The student is referred to the following titles in the 
bibliography at the end of this book: 

5*> 25*, 72, 77, ^42*, 244. 



Chapter 13 

FOOD PREFERENCES 

faddism among children is one of the very common 
problems reported by the parent who is endeavoring 
to rear her child according to modern dietary standards set 
by the best authorities on child care and training. Feeding 
difficulties of one kind or another head the list of problems 
among the one hundred normal children studied by Foster 
and Anderson (76). Among these children, the percentage 
of children with feeding problems rises sharply to a peak 
at the age of three years and falls off more slowly there- 
after, but eating habits continue to be problems for more 
than a fourth of the children in this group up to the age of 
six years. 

Studies of the food preferences of children usually show 
that their likes and dislikes are not purely individual mat- 
ters, but that certain foods are quite generally unpopular 
while others are almost universally liked. That these dis- 
likes can be overcome by proper management (including 
special methods of preparing and serving the less popular 
foods) is shown by several studies carried out in nursery- 
schools, in which the number of objections to or refusals 
of food is usually much smaller than will be found for chil- 
dren in the home. Among the methods which have been 
found successful in handling cases of refusal to eat certain 
foods are, first to make sure that the unpopular food is pre- 
pared and served in as attractive a fashion as possible, and 
that it is given early in the meal (usually at the beginning) 

117 



n8 Experimental Child Study 

while hunger is still keen; secondly to serve rather small 
portions, particularly during the beginning of the period of 
training and to insist that these portions be eaten before 
other food is given; and finally and most important, to treat 
the child's meal period as a casual event, about which no one 
is going to become disturbed whether he eats or not. Many 
feeding problems arise because the child learns that by 
refusing food he can easily become the center of attention 
a position which to many children as well as to many grown- 
ups is sufficiently desirable to warrant some sacrifice. 

Experiment No. 5 

Food Likes and Dislikes 

Prepare a list of the most common foods regarded as im- 
portant in the dietary requirements of children. Include 
vegetables both starchy and leafy, cereals, protein foods, 
fats such as butter, common desserts, and fruit. 

Arrange a record form such as is shown on the opposite 
page. This form may be mimeographed or copies may be pre- 
pared by the individual members of the class. Each member 
of the class should secure one or more interviews with 
mothers of children in the experimental group (nursery- 
school or kindergarten).* On the basis of the mother's re- 
port, each item of food listed is to be classified according to 
the child's habitual attitude toward it under one of the fol- 
lowing categories: 

Likes it (I,), is indifferent toward it (/), dislikes but eats 
it (), refuses to eat it (J?), is never offered it (0). In case 
of cooked foods, ascertain also the method in which the food 
is usually prepared. Records for at least twenty-five children 

* If the cooperation of the parents for the sleep study is obtained by 
means of an interview, It is well to secure this information on the same 
occasion. The results can then be worked up during the week for which 
the sleep records are kept. 



Food Preferences 



119 



Attitude Toward Food 

Child 9 s name Age : years .... mo Sex .... 

Data collected by Information furnished by 



List of foods 


Child's attitude 




L 


I 


E 


R 


















































































































should be secured, and the findings will be more reliable if a 
greater number of cases can be included. 

Problems: Combine the results so as to show: 

1. Which foods are most generally liked? * 

2. Which are most often disliked? 

3. Is there any difference in the usual method of pre- 
paring any specific food between the groups by whom 
it is liked and those by whom it is disliked? 

4. Which foods are rarely offered to this group? 

5. According to accepted standards, which children have 
specific dietary deficiencies? 

* In computing the percentages of liking, disliking, etc., the number 
of cases to whom the food is never offered must be subtracted from the 
total number of cases in the group before computing percentages. 



I2O 



Experimental Child Study 



Graphic exercise. The making of bar diagrams. The pur- 
pose of the bar diagram is to afford a graphic comparison of 
the differences between two or more groups in regard to 
some specified measure. The manner of constructing these 
diagrams is very similar to that used in preparing the fre- 



10 



20 



PZJ* cent 
30 40 



60 



70 




FIGURE 8. 

Example of a bar diagram showing percentage of incomprehensible lan- 
guage-responses given by children of different ages. Adapted from 
McCarthy (170). 

quency surface described in the previous chapter, except 
that it is customary to show the frequencies along a hori- 
zontal instead of a vertical axis. Compute the percentages 
to be compared and decide upon a convenient unit of meas- 
urement. Draw horizontal bars of lengths corresponding to 
these percentages, separated from each other by a distance 
approximately equal to the width of the bars. Label each 
bar clearly. (See Fig. 8.) 



Food Preferences 121 

Arrange the foods listed in order of (a) liking, (b) dis- 
liking, (c) refusing. Construct three series of bar diagrams 
as described above, showing the proportion of children who 
react toward each of the foods in the manner indicated. 

REFERENCES 

The student is referred to the following titles in the 
bibliography at the end of this book: 

25, 58*, 9 2 > 130*. I9 1 * 2 49> 



Chapter 14 
RATE OF TAPPING 

THE "tapping test" is one of the oldest methods em- 
ployed for the study of individual differences in a 
behavior function. It has been used experimentally for 
many purposes for the study of fatigue, the effect of drugs, 
the determination of handedness, as a part of several indus- 
trial or "trade tests," etc. Upon the assumption that speed 
of motor action is related to intelligence, a tapping test was 
included in the early series of mental tests developed by 
Gilbert (98), but further investigation has shown that when 
children of the same age and sex are considered, tapping 
speed is at best but slightly related to intellectual differences 
as usually measured. However, since the rate of tapping 
increases fairly rapidly with age, a positive relationship be- 
tween standing on intelligence tests and tapping speed will 
ordinarily be found when children of different ages are 
studied. The student should be able to state the reason for 
this. In a comparison of the tapping rates of kindergarten 
children and college students, Goodenough and Tinker 
(112) found that the average maturity of performance of 
the children, when measured in terms of the per cent of the 
average adult speed attained by them, varied according to 
the muscle groups employed in the different methods of 
tapping which were used. For example, when the hand was 
strapped to a palm rest in such a way that only the fingers 
could be moved, the children averaged only 14 per cent 



Rate of Tapping 123 

as many taps with the little finger of the left hand as the 
adults were able to make in the same length of time (253). 
When whole arm and elbow movements were used as in the 
pencil tapping method about to be described, the children 
attained more than 50 per cent of the adult speed. Other 
methods involving chiefly wrist and hand movements yielded 
intermediate results. These findings illustrate the well-known 
principle that the larger muscle-groups are functionally in 
advance of the smaller muscle-groups during childhood, and 
that little children should not, therefore, be expected to 
carry out tasks requiring fine coordination of the smaller 
muscles. 

A number of different methods for measuring speed of 
tapping have been employed. One of the most convenient 
makes use of a metal plate on which the subject taps with a 
stylus. The plate is wired so that the taps are registered 
on an electric counter. See Fig. 9. If this apparatus is 
available it may be used instead of the paper and pencil 
method described in Experiment No. 6. However the latter 
method has been shown to be about equally reliable although 
the process of counting the dots is somewhat tedious. An 
ordinary key-drive adding machine is useful for measuring 
finger tapping and "this may be used either with or without 
a palm rest and strap for restraining accompanying move- 
ments of the hand and arm. A telegraph key Is sometimes 
used in the same way. Other methods complicate the simple 
tapping by requiring the subject to exercise care in placing 
his taps, as one tap in each of a series of squares, or by using 
some sort of a rhythmic sequence instead of a hit-or-miss 
method. Each of these variations has its advantages for 
certain kinds of problems. Experiment No. 6 describes one 
of the simplest of the standardized methods. This method 
has the further advantage of requiring no apparatus except 
pencil and paper. 



124 Experimental Child Study 

Experiment No. 6 
Rate of Tapping in Children and Adults 

Material: A number of sheets of cross-section paper and 
some soft blunt pencils. A stop-watch or ordinary watch 
with second-hand if the stop-watch is not available. 

Subjects: * This experiment may be carried out either with 
kindergarten children or with children from one or more 
of the primary grades. If time permits, two groups of chil- 
dren may be used, e.g., a group of kindergarten children 
and one of children from the third or fourth grades. The 
members of the class will serve as the adult subjects. 

Procedure: The method to be employed is the pencil tap- 
ping method described by Goodenough and Tinker (112). 
The subject is seated comfortably at a table with elbows 
resting upon its top. He is given a soft blunt pencil and a 
sheet of cross-section paper f is placed before him. The fol- 
lowing instructions are then given. 

"When I say 'Go/ I want you to show me how fast you 
can tap on this piece of paper with the pencil. Hold the 
pencil straight up in your hand like this (illustrating vertical 
position), rest the elbow on the desk, and tap just as fast 
as you can. Keep on tapping until I say 'Stop.' Do you 
understand?" 

The experimenter should demonstrate the procedure, and 
allow the subject a five second practice period in order to 
make sure that he understands the directions. A ten second 
trial is then given with each hand separately, using a sepa- 

* Experiment No. 7 described in the following chapter may be carried 
out on the same occasion as Experiment No. 6, since only a few minutes 
time is required for each. This does away with the necessity of inter- 
rupting the children more than once. 

tThe use of cross-section paper rather than plain paper will greatly 
facilitate the counting of the dots. 







B D 

FIGURE 9 
Different methods of measuring rate of tapping 



Rate of Tapping 125 

rate sheet of paper for each, and labeling so there will be 
no confusion. Two fresh sheets of paper are then supplied, 
together with an extra pencil. The experimenter then says, 
"Now we'll see which hand can tap the faster. Hold a pencil 
in each hand and when I say 'Go/ begin tapping with both 
hands at once as fast as you can. Keep on until I say 'Stop/ 
Ready, go." The time limit is ten seconds. Count the number 
of taps made with each hand as shown by the number of 
dots on the paper, and record the scores separately for right 
and left hand and for both unimanual and bimanual tap- 
ping. It is well to have blank forms for this purpose pre- 
pared in advance, as shown below: 

Name of subject Age Grade 

Trial Date Examiner 

Score in Unimanual Tapping Score in Bimanual Tapping 
Right Left Right Left 



Each subject should be tested twice on consecutive days 
by different persons working without knowledge of each 
others' results. The method and time limit is the same for 
both trials and for all subjects. 

1. Comparison of mean scores and of practice effect in 
children and adults, i. Using the short method, find the 
mean tapping score for each group of subjects with each, 
hand, for each method and for each trial. Keep the distribu- 
tions for use in a later problem. 

2. What percentage of the average adult speed has been 
attained by the children? Compute these percentages sepa- 
rately for each hand, each method, and for both trials. 

3. Is any effect of practice apparent when the mean score 
of the first and the second trials are compared with each 
other? Is this effect greater for the children or for the adults? 
For each group separately, find the per cent of practice effect 



ia6 Experimental Child Study 

by dividing the mean gain by the mean score on the first test. 
Do children or adults show upon the whole the greater 
percentage of practice effect? 

II. Variability in the tapping rates of cMldren and 
adults. Finding the standard deviation. In a previous chap- 
ter it was pointed out that it is quite as important to know 
how much individuals vary in regard to any type of per- 
formance as to know the central tendency or average of 
their performances. We have already learned how to com- 
pute one measure of such variability, the mean deviation 
or as it is sometimes called the average deviation from the 
mean. Another, and for many reasons a somewhat better 
measure of variability is known as the standard deviation 
which is usually written as S.Z). or o (Greek sigma). The 
standard deviation is defined as the square root of the mean 
of the squares of the deviations of the separate measures 
from the mean of the group. There are two important rea- 
sons why the standard deviation is in general to be preferred 
to the average deviation as a measure of variability. In the 
first place, it is usually a more stable measure, that is, less af- 
fected by chance fluctuations of sampling. Secondly, it is used 
in the computation of many other statistical facts as will be 
shown later on. We shall illustrate its computation by the use 
of data from Table i. 

Arrange the measurements in Column I of Table I in the 
form of a frequency distribution as shown in Table 5 and 
prepare columns f } x, and fx, as was done before. Our defini- 
tion calls for the sum of the squares of the separate devia- 
tions from the mean and then the average (or mean) of 
these squares, but since this procedure would involve the 
use of very large numbers and frequently of decimals we 
shall find a shorter method of arriving at the facts. This 
method makes use of the same two devices which were 
found to be convenient in computing the mean. That is, 



Rate of Tapping 127 

we shall make our computations from a guessed mean rather 
than from the true mean, and use the number of steps away 
from the mean as substitutes for the true value of each class 
interval. When both the mean and the standard deviation 
are to be computed for the same set of facts, the same 
guessed mean and the same class interval should be used 
for both series of computations. 

We now add a fourth column to our table which we shall 
call fx 2 . The values for this column are obtained by multi- 
plying the numbers in the fx column by those in the x 
column. Since the product of two numbers which have the 
same sign is always plus, all the values in the fx 2 column will 
be positive. The sum of these numbers divided by the 
number of cases in the group will be the mean of the squares 
of the deviations from the guessed mean expressed in terms 
of class-intervals. To this we must make a correction ac- 
cording to the amount of error which was made in guessing 
the mean. We previously found (page 97) that in this case 
the correction amounts to 2/25 or .08 of a class interval. 
This correction must first be squared in order to reduce it to 
units similar to those in the fx 2 column and its value sub- 
tracted from the uncorrected mean fx 2 . 

Note that the squared correction is always to be subtracted, 
since it can easily be shown that whenever the deviations 
are computed from any point other than the true mean their 
value will be increased above that which would be found if 
they had been calculated from the mean itself. The square 
of .08 is .0064. We therefore subtract .0064 from 12.00 and 
find the square root of the result. This is 3.46. We now 
have the standard deviation expressed in terms of class 
intervals. Since in this case each class interval is equal to 
i.o centimeter of actual measurement the true value of the 
standard deviation is 3.46 X i cm. or 3.46 cm. (See Ta- 
ble 9.) 



128 



Experimental Child Study 



TABLE 9 
FINDING THE STANDARD DEVIATION 
(Data from Column i, Table 2) 


Intervals 


f 


X 


fx 


fx 2 


TV = 25 


117.0-117.9 
116.0-116.9 
115.0-115.9 


i 

2 

3 


6 

5 
4 


6 

10 

12 


36 

So 
48 


V f i 

2, pc = 4~ 2 
c = +.08 

C 2 := 4"--64 


1 14.0-1 14.9 


i 


3 


3 


9 


^j]X" 300 

12. OO 


113.0-113.9 


i 


2 


2 


4 


AT ,11- 


112.0-112.9 


3 


I 


3 


3 


7V 25 



111.0-111.9 



110.0-110.9 


3 


I 


3 


3 


109.0-109.9 


2 


2 


4 


8 


108.0-108.9 


2 


3 


6 


18 


107.0-107.9 


2 


4 


8 


32 


106.0-106.9 


I 


S 


5 


25 


105.0-105.9 


O 


6 






104.0-104.9 


O 


7 






103.0-103.9 


I 


8 


8 


64 




Totals 



o = 3.46 X the value of 
the class interval or 3.46 
cm. since the class inter- 
+2 300 val in this case is I cm. 



The steps involved in computing the standard deviation 
may then be summarized as follows: 

1. Arrange the data in the form of a frequency distribu- 
tion and proceed with steps I to 10 inclusive as out- 
lined on pages looff. under the computation of the 
mean by the short method, except that the correction 
is to be left in terms of class-intervals. 

2. Add a fourth column called fx 2 . Multiply the values in 
the x column by the corresponding values in the fx 
column and enter the products in the fx 2 column. Di- 
vide the sum of the values in the fx 2 column by the 
number of cases in the group. 

3. Square the correction previously found and subtract 
from the result just obtained. Extract the square root 



Rate of Tapping 129 

and multiply by the size of the class interval used. 
The result is the standard deviation. 

The formula for finding the standard deviation by 
the long method is 



(3) 



(4) 



where 2fx 2 = the sum of the squares of the deviations of 
the separate measures from an arbitrary origin instead of 
the true mean and c = the amount of the correction, or the 
difference between the arbitrary origin and the true mean. 



S.D. (or o) = 
or by the short method which is commonly used 
S.D. (or o) = Interval 1 



V 



\ 



FIGURE 10. 

Showing the relative values of the average deviation (AD.} and the 
standard deviation (S.D. or or). 

Figure 10 shows the relative values of the standard devia- 
tion and the average deviation in a normal distribution. 
Remember that both these values are measured on the base 
line of the curve starting from the mean; and that the area 
which is set off by a given distance on the base line repre- 
sents the proportion of the total number of cases in the 
group measured which fall within the limits thus defined. In 
a normal distribution, 68.26 per cent of the cases will fall 



130 Experimental Child Study 

within the area lying between + i.oo S.D. and i.oo S.D., 
and 54.46 per cent between -f- i.oo and i.oo A.D. 

Problems. I. Using the distributions previously worked 
out in finding the means, compute the standard deviations 
of tapping rate for each group of subjects on each trial, 
keeping hands and methods separate. Do the children or 
the adults show greater individual differences In tapping 
rate? 

2. Compare the standard deviations of the first trial with 
those on the second trial for both groups of subjects. Upon 
the whole do individual differences in tapping rate appear 
to increase or decrease with practice? 

III. Relative as opposed to absolute variability. The co- 
efficient of variability. In comparing the variabilities of two 
groups with different central tendencies it is necessary to 
make some allowance for this difference in interpreting re- 
sults. A difference of one ounce in the weight of two mice is a 
significant amount, but an equal difference in the weight of 
two elephants would be regarded as trivial. Adults of the 
same sex and height vary in weight much more than do in- 
fants. It is evident that in order to express the variability of 
different groups in comparable terms, the size of the mean of 
each group must be taken into consideration. This is done 
by means of the coefficient of variability. The coefficient of 
variability may be regarded as analogous to the per cent of 
experimental error in that it is obtained by dividing the 
absolute variability or S.ZX by the mean of the group.* 

Problems: Express each of the standard deviations which 

* Some writers have recommended that the coefficient of variability as 
computed by the method just described be multiplied by 100. This has 
no effect except to change the decimal point, and is commonly not done 
except in those cases where the variability is so small in proportion to 
the mean that the decimal point is followed by two or more zeros. In such 
a case multiplying the result by 100 will remove the zeros and leave the 
significant figures for comparison. 



Rate of Tapping 131 

were computed in the last section as coefficients of variabil- 
ity. Make the same comparisons as were outlined in Prob- 
lems i and 2 of Section II. Do the results show a similar 
trend? 

IV. The tapping test as a rough measure of ha&dedness. 
A comparison of the scores made by the two hands will 
show that the tapping test may be used as a rough indica- 
tion of handedness. Prepare a series of handedness scores 
for each subject by subtracting the score made by the left 
hand from that made by the right hand. When the right 
hand exceeds the left the score is positive; when the left 
exceeds the right the score is negative. Four scores are then 
available for each subject, viz., those derived from the uni- 
manual and the bimanual tapping separately on each of the 
two occasions. Which subjects would be classified as right- 
handed by all four tests? Which as left-handed by all four 
tests? Which show inconsistencies from test to test? 

If possible secure from the home a statement as to the 
handedness history of each child. Ask parents to state 
whether the child has always shown a right-hand prefer- 
ence so far as they have observed, has always shown a left- 
hand preference, or has never shown any marked prefer- 
ence for either hand. Inquire also which children showed an 
early left-hand preference but were trained to use the right 
hand. What percentage of each of these cases falls within 
each of the three handedness groups as determined by the 
tapping test? 

V. The reliability of the tapping test By the reliability 
of a measuring device is meant the extent to which the de- 
vice tends to show consistent results upon consecutive re- 
measurements of the same subjects under similar conditions. 
The reliability with which the behavior of living organisms 
can be measured is affected by three general factors: the 
amount of the experimental error, the extent to which the 



132 Experimental Child Study 

behavior of the individual varies from time to time under 
similar circumstances, and the size of the sample of behavior 
which is measured. Thus if we attempt to measure the com- 
parative activity of each of a number of persons, the con- 
sistency or reliability of our findings will depend upon the 
accuracy of the method used, and also upon the extent to 
which individuals vary in activity from time to time during 
the period of measurement. Some individuals are on the 
average more active than others, but the same individuals 
are sometimes more active than they are at other times. 
Evidently if we secure only a very small amount of data 
for each subject, we may, by chance, select occasions for 
measuring certain subjects when their activity is not at all 
representative of their usual behavior. If we take one meas- 
urement on Monday and another on Tuesday the behavior 
on the two occasions may be quite different. In general 
It may be said that the larger the sample of behavior in- 
cluded in the measurements, the more adequate will be 
the result, and the closer will be the correspondence be- 
tween measurements taken on different occasions. More- 
over, if we are careful to take all our measurements un- 
der conditions which are strictly comparable for all sub- 
jects, we may expect the results to be more consistent 
than when such factors as hour of the day, fatigue, etc., 
are permitted to vary from subject to subject or from time 
to time for the same subjects. Since the amount of time 
available for any particular experiment is always more or 
less limited, a very practical problem arises in determining 
how much confidence we are warranted in placing in the 
results of any obtained measure from the standpoint of 
the amount of consistency to be expected upon reraeasure- 
ment. To what extent is generalization warranted? May 
we assume that children who show a low tapping rate on 
the first test are really inferior in this respect to those who 



Rate of Tapping 133 

tapped more rapidly on this occasion, or did they "just 
happen" to do poorly the first time? A comparison of the 
scores made on the two occasions gives us some idea as to 
the answer, but we need a method of reducing these com- 
parisons to a single numerical expression or statement. Such 
an expression is furnished by the coefficient of correlation 
between the two series of scores. Before describing the 
method of computing this coefficient we may consider some 
of its properties. 

In measurements of human beings and particularly in 
psychological measurements, we are usually less concerned 
with the absolute value of the measurements taken than 
we are with the extent of the differences between individuals 
revealed by them, or the amount of change introduced by 
known modifications of experimental conditions. In the 
matter of reliability we are not so much concerned with 
the gross amount of change which takes place from meas- 
urement to measurement as we are in the extent to which 
such changes as do occur affect the rank order of the indi- 
viduals making up the group. If the dispersion of the group 
is large, that is, if the individuals differ from each other 
in regard to the trait in question by rather large amounts, 
small differences between successive measures will not 
greatly affect their standing with reference to each other. 
If, however, the differences between individuals are small, 
then even small changes in measurement upon retest may 
disturb their relative standing very greatly. Since in our 
measures of reliability we are chiefly concerned with the 
question of changes in the rank orders of the subjects, we 
may use the frequency and extent of such changes as a 
criterion of the consistency of the measurements we are 
making. This method of determining the relationship be- 
tween two series of measures is known as the Spearman 
rank-order method; and its written symbol is the Greek 



134 Experimental Child Study 

letter rho (p). We shall use this method to determine the 
reliability of the tapping tests just described. For purposes 
of illustration the hypothetical values in Table 10 will be 
used. This table shows the tapping scores made on two 
consecutive occasions by fifteen kindergarten children. 

TABLE 10 

METHOD OF COMPUTING THE RANK-ORDER CORRELATION BE- 
TWEEN THE TAPPING SCORES MADE ON Two CON- 
SECUTIVE DAYS BY FIFTEEN KINDERGARTEN 
CHILDREN 

Sub- Score Score Rank Rank d d 2 
ject i 2 i 2 



A 


22 


26 


IS 


15 


o 













B 


IS 


17 


6-5 


8 


I 


5 


2.25 








C 


II 


12 


2 


2 







o 


96.5 


X 6 = 


579-0 


D 


19 


17 


12.5 


8 


4 


-5 


20.25 








E 


IO 


13 


I 


3 


2 




4 


IS 


X 15 = 


225 


F 


15 


17 


6-5 


8 


I 


-5 


2.25 


225 


i = 


224 


G 




24 


12.5 


14 


I 


5 


2.25 


224 


X 15 = 


336 


H 


18 


21 


ii 


12 


I 




i 








I 


16 


IS 


8.5 


5 


3 


5 


12.25 




579 


T *71 


J 


13 


14 


4 


4 


o 




o 




3360 


.172 


K 


20 


23 


14 


13 


i 




i 








L 


17 


16 


IO 


6 


4 




16 


i .172 = 


.828 


M 


16 


2O 


8-5 


ii 


2 


5 


6.25 








N 


12 


10 


3 


i 


2 




4 




p = 


.828 


O 


14 


19 


5 


10 


5 




25 









Columns i and 2 show the scores made on each occasion 
by each of the fifteen subjects. The first task is to rank 
each series of scores in order of their respective size. Rank- 
ing may be done either from high to low, or low to high, 
but the same procedure must be followed with each series 
of scores. In this case we shall make our rankings from 



Rate of Tapping 135 

low to high. On the first test the lowest score was made by 
Subject E who is therefore given a rank of I. (Column 3). 
The next lowest score was made by Subject C who is given 
a rank of 2, and so on for Subjects N, J, and O ? who are 
given ranks of 3, 4, and 5, respectively. Since Subjects B 
and F made scores of equal value, they are each assigned 
the average of ranks 6 and 7, that is 6.5. Likewise Subjects 
I and M receive the average of ranks 8 and 9 or 8.5 and 
Subjects D and G are given the average of ranks 12 and 
13 or 12.5. Note that the total number of ranks must always 
be the same as the total number of subjects in the group. 
The rank order of the scores on the second test are found 
in the same way and entered in Column 4. In one case here 
we have three subjects making identical scores. These are 
subjects B, D and F, each of whom makes a score of 17 
and therefore receives a rank of 8 which is the average of 
the three ranks 7, 8, and 9. 

We now proceed to ascertain the number and extent of 
the changes in the rank order of the different subjects on 
the two tests. This is found by subtracting the two ranks 
for each subject, disregarding signs. The results are entered 
in the column headed d (standing for the difference in 
rank). Each of these differences must be squared* and 
the squared value entered in the column headed d 2 . The 
sum of the d 2 column Is then multiplied by 6 and the prod- 
uct divided by N (N 2 i) (where N is the number of 
cases in the group). The difference between this quotient 

*A convenient device for- squaring numbers ending in 5 may be noted 
here. Multiply the number preceding the 5 by the next higher number 
in the original series. Write 25 after the product. This will be the square 
desired. For example, the square of 6.5 is 6 X 7 (the number preceding 
the 5 multiplied by the next higher number) or 42, +."25 which is 42.25. 
Likewise, the square of 4.5 is 20.25 (4X5 with 25 in the next two 
digit places). The 25 will of course always be a decimal if the final 5 is 
a decimal. 



136 Experimental Child Study 

and i is the rank order correlation coefficient. The complete 
formula then is 



Let us consider the meaning of this coefficient a little 
further. If there is perfect correspondence between the rank 
orders of each of the cases on the two tests the correlation 
will be + 1.00. Under these circumstances we should say 
that the test has perfect reliability, since no changes have 
occurred which were of sufficient magnitude to disturb the 
relative positions of the subjects from one occasion to 
another. If there is no correspondence between the ranks 
on the two occasions, that is if a subject testing very high 
on one occasion is no more likely to do so on the second 
occasion than another who at first ranked very low, the 
correlation will be zero. If the positions of the subjects were 
exactly reversed from one trial to another so that the high- 
est ranking subject on the first test became the lowest on 
the second and so on the correlation would be i.oo. As a 
rule, correlation coefficients of values intermediate between 
these extremes will be found. It is important for the student 
to realize from the beginning that the size of a correlation 
coefficient obtained in this way is simply an indication of 
the degree of correspondence between the rank orders on 
two successive measurements of the subjects who differ 
from each other to the extent indicated by their respective 
scores tn the experiment under consideration. If a different 
group of subjects were selected who resembled each other 
in the trait measured more closely than did the members 
of this group, differences between the successive scores of 
the same gross amount as those in the example given would 
disturb the rank orders to a much greater extent, and the 
correlation would therefore be lowered. If, on the other 



Rate of Tapping 137 

hand, an even more heterogeneous group were used, differ- 
ences of the amount shown would be less likely to affect 
the rank orders and therefore a higher correlation would be 
expected. It is impossible to compare correlation coefficients 
directly, without reference to the dispersions of the groups 
from which they have been derived. In speaking of correla- 
tions, therefore, the nature of the sampling of subjects from 
which the coefficients were derived must always be stated 
clearly. Thus, we may say that a given test or measurement 
has a reliability of .83 for kindergarten children between 
the ages of 5 and 6; of .91 for children in grades i, 2, 3, etc. 
Simply to state the reliability coefficient of a test without 
reference to the amount of difference existing between the 
subjects who are to be classified by its use is meaningless. 
At first thought, it may seem to the inexperienced person 
that this dependence of the reliability coefficient upon the 
dispersion of the group measured makes the coefficient itself 
very difficult to interpret. A little consideration, however, 
will show that this very property gives it a more precise 
and more general meaning than would otherwise be possible. 
In the case of the scores listed in Table 10, for example, 
we are not made much the wiser by being told that the 
subjects varied in their performance from one test to the 
other by amounts ranging from 2 to -f- 5 points. These 
differences might be quite insignificant or they might be 
great enough to upset completely any conclusions as to indi- 
vidual differences which might be drawn from the measure- 
ments. It was pointed out in an earlier section that differ- 
ences of as much as an ounce in the weight of two 
individuals, or in two consecutive measurements of the same 
individual may be highly significant in the case of mice and 
quite trivial in the case of elephants. The reliability coeffi- 
cient tells us how adequately a given measuring device 
distinguishes between individuals who differ from each other 



138 Experimental Child Study 

by amounts which are known or can be described. It is 
to be expected that coarse distinctions can be made more 
readily than fine ones. If we find, therefore, that one 
measuring device has a reliability of .80 when used with 
unselected children between the ages of five and six, while 
another device has a reliability of .80 for children who 
range in age from five to fifteen years, we can say at once 
that if the characteristic measured is one which changes 
with age, the first device is considerably more accurate than 
the second, since it makes the fine distinctions necessary to 
arrange five-year-old children in their correct rank-order 
as accurately as the second makes the coarse distinctions 
which are all that are necessary in the second case. The 
description of the group tells us in a general way how fine 
are the distinctions which the measurement or test in ques- 
tion has been called upon to make; the magnitude of the re- 
liability coefficient tells us how effectively it makes these 
distinctions. 

The student must also be careful to avoid confusing the 
numerical significance of the correlation coefficient with 
any sort of percentage value. This point will be taken up 
more fully in connection with the Pearson product-moment 
formula which will be described in a later chapter. For the 
present, it is sufficient to note that in the example given, 
a correlation of + .83 is obtained between the two series 
of scores although only three of the cases maintain exactly 
the same rank order on both occasions, and in one case 
the change in rank is as great as five places, which is 1/5 
of the entire range. Nevertheless, it is true that on the 
average the subjects ranking low on the first test continue 
to rank low on the second, and vice versa. For many kinds 
of relationships, we may say that the percentage of identical 
factors determining standing on the two occasions is Indi- 
cated by the square of the correlation coefficient. Thus, in 



Rate of Tapping 139 

the case under consideration where the correlation is + -83 
it may be said that 69 per cent (.83 2 = + .6889) of the 
factors determining individual differences in performance 
were the same on the two occasions. However there is no 
substitute for experience. Continued practice in computing 
correlation coefficients, noting the amount of difference found 
between ranks with correlations of different magnitude, will 
give a more concrete understanding of the meaning of these 
coefficients than can possibly be obtained in any other way. 
Problems : I. Find the reliability of the tapping-scores for 
each hand by each method, and for both groups of subjects. 
Is there any consistent difference shown (a) in the compara- 
tive reliability of the tapping performance of adults and 
children? (b) in the reliability of the unimanual as com- 
pared to the bimanual tapping? (c) in the comparative re- 
liability of the test for the two hands ? 

2. Find for each group the reliability of the total tapping 
scores when the sum of the four scores^ (right and left hand 
for both unimanual and bimanual tapping) on each trial 
are combined to give a single score. This reliability coeffi- 
cient will ordinarily be higher than those for the single 
scores since chance errors in the individual scores will tend 
to cancel each other in the total. 

3. Find the reliability of the handedness scores for uni- 
manual and bimanual tapping separately, also for the total. 
The handedness scores are obtained by subtracting the num- 
ber of taps made by the left hand from the number made 
by the right on each trial. Positive scores indicate right- 
handedness; negative scores left-handedness. 

4. Do the tapping scores themselves or the handedness 
scores derived from them show the higher reliability? Can 
you. suggest any reason for the difference? 

5. Compare the results obtained in this experiment with 
those reported by Goodenough and Tinker (112). 



140 Experimental Child Study 

REFERENCES 

The student is referred to the following titles in the 
bibliography at the end of this book: 

24, 66*, 67* 89, 9S, 112*, 125, 135, 144, 209* 253*, 378*, 
382, 384, 387. 



Chapter 15 

GENERAL BODILY COORDINATION AND 

ACTIVITY 

IN the last chapter, the differences among children and 
adults in the speed of arm and hand movements were 
studied. Marked individual differences are also to be found 
in the control of the larger muscles of the legs and trunk. 
Some children move clumsily and balance badly; others 
are much more agile. Similar differences may be noted 
among adults. 

A number of devices for measuring bodily coordination in 
young children have been worked out. Among these may 
be mentioned particularly the "walking board" (10) which 
consists of a narrow board raised three or four inches above 
the floor. The test consists in having the child walk the 
length of the board without stepping off. A modification of 
the walking board test is described in Experiment No. 7. 

Experiment No. 7 

General Bodily Coordination in Walking a 
Twenty-five-foot Line 

Material: On a 27 ft. strip of white shelf paper, paste 
a 25 ft. length of gummed manilla paper i inch wide, which 
is used for sealing parcels. The gummed strip should estend 
down the center of the shelf paper, and a short length of the 
gummed paper should be pasted at right angles across each 
end to mark the starting point clearly. A stop-watch or an 
ordinary watch with a second hand is also needed 

141 



142 Experimental Child Study 

Subjects: Nursery-school, kindergarten, or primary grade 
children may be used. If time permits it is well to have two 
groups of subjects of different ages as in the preceding ex- 
periment. If the subjects used in the tapping experiment are 
also used here, both the walking experiment and the tap- 
ping test can be given on a single occasion, thus doing away 
with the necessity of interrupting the children more than once. 

Procedure. The experiment is carried out as follows: 
Spread the length of paper down a hall or other convenient 
place. With the child standing on the cross-strip at one 
end, give the following instructions: "Have you ever seen 
acrobats walk a tight rope in a circus? You know how they 
have a rope fastened to two posts away up in the air, and 
the acrobat walks along the rope without falling off? Let's 
make believe that this brown paper is a tight rope, and 
see if you can walk all the way from one end to the other 
without stepping off at all. You have to put one foot ahead 
of the other like this (demonstrate by taking a few steps), 
and you must be very careful not to step off the rope. 
When I say, 'Go/ start from your end and walk all the way 
down to this end as quickly as you can. Be sure not to 
step off the rope. All ready, go." With very young children a 
practice series may be needed to make sure that the child 
understands. 

Start the stop-watch when the child starts to take his 
first step. An ordinary watch with a second hand may be 
used if no stop-watch is available. Record the time to the 
nearest number of secondsijThe number of errors, that is the 
number of steps in which more than half the foot is off 
the paper strip should also be recorded. Allow three trials in 
immediate succession, and record time and errors separately 
for each trial. The test should be repeated on the following 
day by a different investigator, working without knowledge 
of previous results. 



General Bodily Coordination and Activity 143 

Problems: I. Find the reliability of the time scores by 
correlating the total time required for the three trials on 
the first occasion with the corresponding total on the second 
occasion. Totals should be found by adding the number of 
seconds required for each of the three trials. 

2. Find the reliability of the error scores in the same way. 
Does the length of time or the number of errors constitute 
a better method of differentiating between children of this 
age on the task in question? 

3. Using the rank order method, find the correlation be- 
tween time and errors on each of the two occasions. What 
does this suggest as to the relationship between these func- 
tions? 

4. If the same subjects were used for the walking test 
and the tapping test, find the correlation between total 
tapping scores (hands, methods, and trials combined) and 
the sum of the time scores on the two occasions. Do the same 
for the error scores. What relationship, if any, between gross 
bodily coordination and manual speed is suggested by these 
results ? 

Experiment No. 8 

Physical Activity as Measured by Distance Traversed 

Spontaneously in Free Play during a Constant 

Period of Time 

Prepare a chart of the playroom or playground used by a 
group of nursery-school, kindergarten, or primary grade 
children. This chart must be carefully drawn to scale and 
the position of a sufficient number of permanent features 
indicated to serve as landmarks. The chart should be mimeo- 
graphed, and should have space provided for recording the 
name of the child observed, the day and hour of observa- 
tion, the name of the observer, and other facts which may 
be of interest. A space for general notes should always be 



144 Experimental Child Study 

included. Students should work in pairs. Each pair is 
to. observe the activities of a single child simultaneously 
during a five minute interval, and record his progress from 
one part of the playroom or playground to another by 
means of a line traced on the chart. Pauses of fifteen seconds 
or longer should be indicated by numbered circles as shown 



Cupboards 



Jungle 
.gym ; 


.-* ~ -4 





FIGURE n. 

Showing a five minute record of the activity of one child 
Adapted from Thomas (245) 

Circles indicate pauses (15 sec. or more). 
A indicates beginning of record. 
Z indicates end of record. 

Pauses 

1. Looking out of the window 20" 

2. Talking to teacher 18" 

3. Climbing on jungle gym 95" 

4. Watching other children at work bench . . 35" 
Scale = 5 ft. = i inch. 

Distance traversed = 26 X 5 = 130 ft. 



General Bodily Coordination and Activity 145 

in Fig. ii. The length of the pauses and the activities occur- 
ring at these times should be recorded at the bottom of the 
chart. At the end of a five minute observation of one 
child, both students should observe another for five minutes, 
and so on to the end of the period. The experiment should 
be repeated on succeeding days until a total of not fewer 
than ten five minute observations have been secured for 
each subject. The greater the number of records, the greater 
should be the reliability of the total. If there are as many 
as ten students in the class, each student should aim to se- 
cure one five minute record for each child. If there are fewer 
than ten students, two records from each will probably be 
needed to make the data sufficiently reliable. 

Find the total distance traversed by each child during 
each five minute period by measuring the length of the lines 
with a chartometer.* If no chartometer is available, a fine 
thread may be laid along the line and subsequently meas- 
ured, but this method is more laborious and less accurate. 
Convert the measurements into the original units in terms 
of the scale used in preparing the chart. Note that this 
scale should not be too small, since a slight error in drawing 
on a small scale will produce a large error when the meas- 
ures are converted to the original units. 

It is evident that a method such as this does not give a 
complete picture of the actual energy expenditure, since 
the time spent on a "jungle gym" alone may readily in- 
volve more activity (though here recorded as a pause) than 
is required by the total amount of running about the room 
which is recorded. On the average, however, it is probably 
true that the most active children will move from one 
part of the room to another more frequently than do the 
quiet children. Marston (176) used a method somewhat 
similar to this in connection with his study of introversion- 

* Can be obtained from C. H. Stocking and Co., Chicago, III. 



146 Experimental Child Study 

extroversion in young children and Thomas (245) used it as 
one method of studying social behavior. 

Problems: i. Find the reliability of a single five minute 
observation of activity by correlating for each pair of stu- 
dents separately the distance traversed by each child ac- 
cording to one student's record against the corresponding 
record obtained by his partner. The result tells nothing as 
to the variability of the behavior of the same children from 
day to day, but it does indicate the extent to which their 
rank orders are likely to be disturbed through errors of 
observation, recording, and measuring. In other words, it 
indicates to what extent the experimental error alone affects 
the accuracy of discrimination. 

2. Have each student find his own mean experi- 
mental error by computing the mean difference between his 
own scores and those of his partner. What is the average 
experimental error for the group as a whole? What per- 
centage is the mean experimental error of the total range 
of scores, i.e., of the difference between the mean scores 
earned by the most active and the least -active children in 
the group ? The experimental error differs from the correla- 
tion between simultaneous observations in that the results 
are expressed in terms of the absolute or actual amounts 
of error in measurement. The correlation coefficient shows 
the extent to which the method makes it possible to arrange 
the results of the various observations in order of the true 
magnitude of the distances traversed. As has been pointed 
out before, the significance of an experimental error must 
always be interpreted in terms of the degree of precision in 
measurement which is needed for the problem at hand. For 
example, if we are interested in knowing how the amounts 
of physical activity as measured in this way vary at dif- 
ferent hours of the day, under different room temperatures, 
before and after naps, or in accordance with any other 



General Bodily Coordination and Activity 147 

known or measureable change in conditions, we shall require 
an instrument which is sufficiently ^precise to arrange the 
measurements in rank order with a relatively small number 
of displacements. If the differences between the separate 
measurements are large, so that only rather coarse dis- 
criminations are required, a comparatively accurate arrange- 
ment may often be secured in spite of somewhat large ex- 
perimental errors; but if the differences are small, so that 
fine discriminations are necessary for accurate arrange- 
ment, even small experimental errors may invalidate the 
results. 

We are often interested, however, not so much in the ac- 
tivity displayed by any given child at a given moment, as 
in securing a measurement which will tell us at least roughly 
how he compares with other children of his group with 
regard to his habitual or characteristic degree of activity. 
We may secure such a measure for each child by summing 
the scores obtained by all the observers on all the occasions 
that he was observed and taking the mean or average of 
these scores as affording an indication of his characteristic 
activity. If this is done for all the children in the experi- 
mental group, it will be found that the scores thus obtained 
differ considerably from child to child. We need to know 
how much confidence we are warranted in placing in these 
scores. In other words, what is the probability that if we 
were to secure the same amount of data for each of these 
children a second time under similar conditions the indi- 
vidual subjects would hold the same or approximately the 
same positions with reference to each other? Would the 
children who were found to be most active in the first series 
of observations also be the most active in the second series 
and vice versa? Problem No. 3 describes a method for 
answering this question. 

3. Find the reliability (or consistency) of the children's 



148 Experimental Child Study 

behavior from day to day by summing the scores obtained 
by half the observers for each child and correlating against 
those obtained by the other half. In dividing the observers 
for this purpose, the scores obtained by both members of 
an original pair should be placed in the same variable and 
the average of their observations used as the child's score 
for that occasion, in order to avoid the spurious result which 
would arise from correlating behavior with itself. 

The size of this correlation coefficient is a measure of the 
amount of dependence which can be placed in the combined 
observations of one-half the total number of observers. The 
student should note the size of the correlation coefficient 
obtained and compare with the number and magnitude of 
the changes in the rank order of the individual cases. The 
actual magnitude of these changes in rank order should, of 
course, be thought of in reference to the number of cases 
in the group, that is, the maximum change possible. The 
significance of the differences in rank order may be made 
more concrete to the inexperienced person if they are ex- 
pressed in terms of the number of cases which would be 
transferred from the most active to the least active twenty- 
five per cent, from the upper half to the lower half, etc. 

Since the correlation between independent halves of the 
observational series tells us only the reliability of one half 
the amount of data actually obtained, it is desirable to get 
an estimate as to the reliability of the total. If all the scores 
for each subject were combined, and the results correlated 
with a second series, what would be the most probable value 
of this correlation? The formula used here is known as the 
Spearman-Brown prophecy formula. It is written 

r * = 1 + ^-1)^ < 6 > 

Strictly speaking, this formula applies only to correla- 
tions derived by the product-moment method which is to 



General Bodily Coordination and Activity 149 

be taken up in a later chapter. Tlie symbol for the product- 
moment correlation is r. However, since results by the two 
methods usually agree quite closely, we shall not be doing 
much violence to our data if we substitute p for r in the 
prophecy formula which will then read. 



Here p nn is the most probable value of the reliability co- 
efficient which would be found if the number of observations 
for each child were to be increased n times; n is the number 
of times the length of the present sample Las been (theo- 
retically) multiplied; p ix is the obtained correlation between 
independent halves. In the present example, n = 2, since 
we are assuming that a second series of observations, equal 
in length to the first has been obtained for correlation with 
the first series. If the correlation between halves has been 
found to be .60, it is to be expected that the reliability of 
the total series as found by correlating with a hypothetical 
second series would be 

2 (.60) _ i. 20 _ 

i + .60 ~ 76o ~~ * 75 

4. By applying the Spearman-Brown formula as described, 
correct the reliability coefficient obtained for independent 
halves of the activity scores to the value which presumably 
would be found for the total series. 

5. Prepare a frequency surface showing the distribution 
of activity scores for the entire group. The mean of all the 
observational records for each child should be used as the 
score for that child. 

6. Using the same scale of measurement, prepare a second 
frequency surface showing the distribution of experimental 
errors for all the cases and all the observations. The ex- 
perimental errors, it will be recalled, are computed by sub- 



150 Experimental Child Study 

trading the scores made by the two simultaneous observers 
for each subject on each occasion. How does the range of 
experimental errors compare with the range of individual 
differences in the scores made by the different subjects? 

REFERENCES 

The student is referred to the following titles in the 
bibliography at the end of this book: 

10*, 38*, 54, 93*, 95, 126, 144, 225, 245% 261, 269, 272, 
308, 310,319, 33 1*> 378. 



Chapter 16 
COLOR DISCRIMINATION 

/l TpESTS of color matching or of color naming have been 
* much used in psychological laboratories as a means 
of gauging the speed of perceptive reaction. With little chil- 
dren, however, such tests serve a somewhat different pur- 
pose, since at these ages children have not yet learned to 
recognize colors with complete accuracy. The average child 
does not learn to associate colors with their correct names 
before the age of four or five years. Recent experiments ap- 
pear to show that red, yellow, and blue are learned at an 
earlier age than green. In standardizing the Merrill-Palmer 
tests in which a test very similar to the one described here 
was used, Stutsman (376) found that at the age of 24 
months, among the children who received partial credit red 
was always correct, blue was failed but once, yellow was cor- 
rect only once, and green was failed by all. The total number 
of cases and the number making complete failures is not 
stated. Somewhat similar results were obtained by Staples * 
in a study of the responses to color of children between the 
ages of six months and two years. Staples' method was to 
show the infant a large card on which were pasted two discs 
of colored paper, of equal brightness but differing in color, 
and to record for which disc the child reached or to which 
he pointed. She found a marked preference for red, yellow 
was next in popularity, while blue and green were chosen 
much less often. The finding of such marked differences in 
* Unpublished thesis, The University of Minnesota. 



152 Experimental Child Study 

reaction to different colors at these early ages suggests 
strongly that color perception is not fully developed at 
birth, and that even as late as nursery-school age, children 
do not react to all colors with equal readiness. However, 
these investigations, like most which have been carried out 
with young children up to the present time, need further 
verification with other groups. It is therefore well worth 
while to carry out additional investigations in this field to 
see whether similar results will be obtained. Experiment 
No. 9 describes one method by which the reactions of young 
children to different colors may be studied. 

Experiment No. 9 
Color Matching 

Material: Sixty one-inch discs cut from heavy colored 
paper, a tray for sorting, and a set of six small boxes with 
sliding covers into which the discs are to be sorted. Ten 
discs in each of the following colors should be prepared: 
red, yellow, blue, green, black, white. Boxes should be 
labeled by pasting an additional disc on the cover, using a 
different color for each box. 

Subjects: This problem may be carried out with children 
between the ages of two and five years. It is too easy for 
children beyond the age of five and therefore has relatively 
little value for them. 

Procedure: Seat the child at a low table and place before 
him the tray containing ten discs in each of the six colors 
including black and white, (60 discs in all) which have been 
thoroughly shuffled. The six small boxes are to be placed 
directly above the tray within easy reach, with the boxes 
irawn half-way out of the sliding covers to permit placing 
:he discs. The following instructions are then given: 

"Do you see this pretty ball?" selecting one of the discs 



Color Discrimination 153 

at random. "It belongs in one of these boxes up here (point- 
ing). In which box do you think it belongs?" 

If the child does not understand or points to the wrong 
box the experimenter should correct him by saying, "No, 
each ball belongs in the box which has a ball just like it on 
the top. Where is the one just like this? If child does not then 
point out the correct box, examiner shows him, saying, "See, 
here is the one. This ball is just like the one on the cover 
of the box." Examiner then selects another disc of a differ- 
ent color and repeats as before until one disc of each color 
has been placed in its appropriate box. As much help as 
necessary is given throughout this demonstration series. 
Examiner then says, "Now I am going to see how quickly 
you can put all the balls back into their own boxes. Find the 
boxes and put in the balls as quickly as you can, but be sure 
not to make any mistakes. Every ball must go in the right 
box. Do you understand? All right, go ahead." 

If the child stops to play or chatter before completing 
the task, urge him to continue by saying, "That's fine, 
you're doing splendidly. Hurry up and get them all back in 
their boxes." Record the total time required for placing all 
the colors and the number of errors for each color sepa- 
rately, i.e., the number of discs of each color which are 
placed in the wrong box.* The demonstration series is not 
counted. Do not correct errors after the demonstration series 
has been completed. When all the colors have been placed, 
ask the child to tell you the name of the color on tie top 
of each box. Record responses verbatim. 

I. Age differences in color matcMng. Problems: i. Clas- 
sify the children according to age, and prepare frequency 
distributions for each age group separately, showing the 

* If two-year-old children are used it is better to have only five discs 
of each color placed at a single sitting in order to avoid fatigue and loss 
of interest. 



154 Experimental Child Study 

total number of errors made in matching and the total time 
required for matching. What percentages of the children in 
each age group equal or exceed the median time score of 
the age group next older? What percentage equal or exceed 
the median error score? Thus, if the age range used has 
included children of three, four and five years, find the per- 
centage of three-year-olds who equal or exceed the median 
score of the four-year-olds, and also of the five-year-olds. 
Also find what percentage of the four-year-olds equal or 
exceed the median score of the five-year-olds. 

Upon the basis of these results would you say that the 
time scores or the error scores show a clearer developmental 
trend? 

2. Arrange the colors in order of matching difficulty as 
judged by the total number of errors made in matching by 
the entire group, also by each age group separately. Is the 
order of difficulty approximately the same at all ages? 

3. Find for each age group separately the rank order 
correlation between the time required for matching and the 
total number of errors made in matching. Upon the whole, 
do the most accurate children of any age take more or less 
time than those who make a greater number of errors ? 

4. Considering each color separately, divide the children 
into two groups; those who named the color correctly and 
those who did not. Age should be disregarded. Compare 
these groups as to the mean number of errors made in plac- 
ing each color. 

II. The standard error of tlie mean and the reliability 
of differences between the means of different groups* If 
we were to divide the members of this class into groups of 
five each, selecting each group purely at random, and then 
were to measure the height of each person and find the 
mean height of each group, it is unlikely that all the means 
would be exactly alike. If, on the other hand, we should take 



Color Discrimination 155 

all the college students in America, and after shuffling them 
thoroughly so that a random selection could be made from 
all parts of the country, were to divide this large and mis- 
cellaneous group into five subgroups, we should probably 
find that the mean height of each of the five groups would 
correspond very closely. The reason for the large differences 
between the means of the small groups as contrasted with 
the small differences between the means of the large groups 
is that when the measurements of many cases are combined, 
the number of very tall persons will usually be about equal 
to the number of very short persons. These differences will 
then tend to balance each other. When the number of cases 
is small the balance is likely to be less perfect, since the 
chance inclusion of one or two very tall or very short per- 
sons in such a group may greatly change the value of the 
mean. Errors of this kind are known as errors of sampling. 
It is evident from the example just given that they are 
more likely to be found in small than in large groups. It 
should be noted, however, that even in very large groups, 
sampling errors of importance may still be found if a selec- 
tive factor of any kind is present, that is, if the entire group 
has not been thoroughly shuffled previous to dividing it into 
subgroups. Thus, in the example given if all the students 
from such a state as Minnesota, (where, because of the large 
admixture of Scandinavian stock, the inhabitants tend to be 
distinctly taller than the average for the population as a 
whole) happened to be placed in one group, and all the 
Italians and Oriental students were placed in another group, 
significant differences would still appear between these 
groups in spite of the large number of cases included in 
each. 

When we wish to ascertain how much confidence we may 
place in a difference which is found to exist between two 
groups of subjects, we must take into consideration, first, 



156 Experimental Child Study 

the size of the group; secondly, the amount of variation 
which is ordinarily found between the members of such 
groups. We must also be able to state with reasonable assur- 
ance that the groups are closely similar or have been thor- 
oughly shuffled as regards all factors except the single one 
which has formed the basis for the division. 

Many years ago it was shown that the relative frequency 
of the occurrence of certain .eyents can be foretold with con- 
siderable accuracy, even though the individual events are 
determined purely by chance and therefore cannot be pre- 
dicted at all No one can tell in advance what will be the 
sex of any individual unborn baby, but if we know the 
birth-rate of a country we can predict with accuracy how 
many male and how many female babies will be born in 
a year. Again, provided the toss is made fairly, we cannot 
say whether a falling coin will show heads or tails, but 
when a large number of such tosses are made, we can state 
not only that the total will show a fifty-fifty ratio of heads 
and tails, but also approximately how many times one, two, 
three, or four heads will be thrown in succession. We can 
thus predict for the group as a whole what can not be pre- 
dicted with accuracy for the individual members of the 
group. Because of this principle, life insurance companies 
are able to function, gambling houses maintain a successful 
balance in spite of occasional "runs of luck" for individual 
patrons, traffic policemen can be stationed at the most 
crowded crossings before the day's traffic really commences, 
and the restaurant keeper can apportion his days' marketing 
on the basis of the usual food habits of his clientele, although 
he does not know what any individual customer may order. 
Whether we are aware of it or not, statistical method and 
particularly the theory of probability is used by every one 
of us in his daily living. Formal statistical devices merely 
furnish more precise ways of organizing the results of our 



Color Discrimination 157 

own experience and that of others in such a way as to yield 
more accurate prediction. 

Let us return to the question of the amount of confidence 
to be placed In a difference actually found between two 
groups divided in some known fashion. Suppose we were to 
find that on a test of speed in tapping the mean number of 
taps in a ten second period made by 25 four-year-old boys 
was 1 8 and the standard deviation 10.0. For 25 girls of the 
same age, tested in the same manner, the m^an score was 
16 and the standard deviation 8. We wish to know the 
probability that if other groups of similar age were tested 
in the same way, the boys would continue to make higher 
average scores than the girls. 

We first need to know how great differences we may rea- 
sonably expect to find between the means actually obtained 
for these two groups and the means of other samples taken 
from the same general population. We express the probable 
dispersion of the means derived from a series of successive 
samples of this kind in terms of the standard error of the 
mean,* which may be defined as the standard deviation of 
the theoretical distribution of the means of an infinite num- 
ber of groups similar to the one actually measured. It is 
obtained by dividing the standard deviation of the scores 
earned by the tested group by the square root of the num- 
ber of cases in that group. The formula is therefore: 



In the case under consideration the standard deviation of 
the boys* scores is 10 and the number of cases 25. 10 divided 
by the square root of 25 is 2. Following the same procedure 

*The term standard error refers to the standard deviation of a theo- 
retical distribution while the term standard deviation is used for the 
dispersion of concrete groups actually measured. 



i S 8 



Experimental Child Study 



for the girls we find that the standard error of their mean 
is 8 divided by the square root of 25 or 1.6. We now have 



J.U 

to 
i.o 

0.0 
40 
5X> 
10 

1.0 
0.0 














)r 


H' 






















S 


fes 

uiDKwxdirw 

tun but wnott 
,r than that 


n 

chcnurhor 
difference a 
direction end 


tri$" 
















- ? 


Uf 


-tfxjncnihar 

KSST 


3OD5C "*N 

Ortotar 


-^ 


--_ 
















































/" 


N 




*. 
























/ 




/ 


\ 




\ 




















/ 




/ 






\ 




\ 
















^ 


^-*- 


s 1 










\ 




X 


"*-. 









10 11 It 13 W 15 16 17 Ifi 19 10 t\ It 23 1A 25 26 

FIGURE 12. 
Showing the reliability of a difference between independent measures. 

the situation shown in Fig. 12 above, with the distribution 
of probable changes in the value of the two means for other 
similar groups expressed by the forms of the two lower 



3.U 
2.0 
i.0 
0.0 
4.0 
3.0 
LQ 
1.0 

on 






















l>- 


-s. 


->^ 1 I 










- 


<*\or 

$A 


cwih 
i&wm* 
'.\npy, 


of dux 

.*wu: 
d 


wfem 












<& 


V"- 1 

ihoocesrhat 
difference 13 
na diroctton 
r aater than 
jollq found 


choocoj th 
difference 
some direct* 
smoilcr the 
ocruallq fo 


H 










-^ 




BgS! 


>* 


*** 


th 


n sat 
of act 


on bat 1 ^-x,, 
m that 
und 


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- lll l .. 












































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'N 






































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/ 






\ 


















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\ 














^ 


' 










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ix 


x 














"X 


v^ 









Jl K 15 14 15 16 II 16 19 20 21 II 23 24 25 26 27 28 9 50 31 
FIGURE 13. 

Showing the effect upon the reliability of the difference of increasing the 
difference between the means. 

curves. Note that although the number of cases in each group 
is the same, the probability that large differences will be 
found between the means of different samplings of boys is 



Color Discrimination 



159 




15 16 IT ia 19 20 a tz 
FIGURE 14. 

Showing the effect upon the reliability of a difference of increasing the 
number of cases in the sampling. 



4.U 

3.0 
.0 
1.0 
0.0 
5.0 
4.0 
3.0 
2.0 
1.0 
0.0 

1 












in 


























A 

Ihoffrue 
m^Be&tw 

erihomhct 


^ 


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dxnca 

dtfhmr 
directii 


siholff 
sec u in 
aoond 


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1 \t 13 W 15 16 17 16 19 20 21 & 23 & Z 
FIGURE 15. 



Showing the effect upon the reliability of a difference of correlation 
between measures. 



160 Experimental Child Study 

somewhat greater than the corresponding probability for 
girls. This is as it should be, since in the group actually 
tested the boys were found to show greater individual dif- 
ferences (S.D. = 10) than the girls (S.D. = 8). The larger 
standard error is shown by the relatively flat curve of dis- 
tribution of probable means for the boys as compared to 
that for the girls.* 

Let us consider now what results would be obtained if 
we were to compare the mean of each successive sampling of 
boys with the mean of each possible sampling of girls. All 
samples are of the same size, in this case 25 for each sex. 
We begin by taking one random sample of 25 girls and 
finding the difference between the mean of this group and 
that of a corresponding group of 25 boys. This difference we 
may call D. We do the same with another pair of samples 
and call the difference D 2 . The process is continued until 
the difference between the means of each possible pair of 
samples has been ascertained. These differences would be of 
varying magnitude and it is probable that some would be 
in favor of the boys, others in favor of the girls. If they 

*A11 curves have been drawn with area of 1600 square units. The area 
represents the total number of chances; the height of the ordinate erected 
at any given point represents the proportion of the total number of 
theoretical means which would have the value indicated by the scores 
entered along the abscissa; the area cut off by an ordinate erected at any 
point represents the proportion of the total number of theoretical means 
which would have values greater (or less) than the score indicated by the 
point at which the ordinate has been erected. The student can easily plot 
curves of this kind for himself by referring to a table of the probability 
integral [The Kelley-Wood table given as an appendix in Statistical 
Method (390) or Pearson's tables (395)]. If this is done on millimeter 
paper the likelihood that the direction of the difference would be reversed 
in other samples drawn from the same population can be checked by 
counting the number of square millimeters in the difference curve which 
fall beyond the mean of the second group. The proportion which this is 
of the total area of the difference curve will correspond to the probability 
(percentage of an infinite number of samplings) that the direction of the 
difference will be reversed in succeeding trials. 



Color Discrimination 161 

were arranged in the form of a frequency table, however, 
it is likely that the distribution would follow the form of 
the normal frequency curve. The standard deviation of a 
curve obtained in this way is known as the standard error 
of a difference. However, since we have postulated that the 
distribution curves comprising the means of all the sam- 
plings for each sex are each made up of an infinite number 
of such samplings, a lifetime would be insufficient actually 
to prepare such a table. Fortunately a statistical short cut 
is available by which we can determine the standard error 
of the theoretical distribution of differences which is most 
likely to correspond to that between a single pair of samples 
actually obtained. We need to know the standard errors of 
the means of these samples, and the amount of correlation 
between the members of the two groups in the trait meas- 
ured.* If there is no correlation, the formula for the standard 
error of the difference is: 



o D = Voi 2 + <?2 2 (9) 

where 01 is the standard error of the mean of the first group 
and 2 is the standard error of the mean of the second 
group. 

Fig. 12 shows graphically how the standard error of a 
difference is interpreted in terms of probability. The lower 
curve on the left represents the standard error of the girls' 
mean in the example given on page 157. The right-hand 
lower curve represents the corresponding facts for the boys. 
The upper curve shows the theoretical distribution of the 
deferences between the means of successive samplings of 
boys and girls; each sample being made up of exactly 25 
cases. Since there is as much likelihood that either one of the 
obtained means from the samples actually tested is too high 

*For the derivation of the formulas given here, the student is referred 
to the discussion by Kelley (390) or Yule (403). 



1 62 Experimental Child Study 

as that It is too low, the midpoint of the difference curve 
is placed at the mean of one of the samples. It does not 
matter which one is chosen for this purpose, since all the 
curves are symmetrical. By applying the difference formula 
given above to the data given on p. 157 we find that the 
standard error of the difference in this case is 



The difference curve has therefore been drawn with a 
standard error of 2.56 but with the same area and on the 
same base as the curves showing the standard errors of the 
means for the sexes. The means of the two lower curves 
thus divide the difference curve into three parts. Fifty per 
cent lies to the right of the boys' mean. This represents 
the probability that in other samplings drawn from the same 
population the difference between the means of the sexes 
would be in the same direction and greater m amount than 
that actually found. The remaining fifty per cent of the 
chances is divided into two parts. The portion lying between 
the two means represents the probability that the difference 
lies in the same direction, (in this case that the boys would 
continue to be found superior to the girls), but is smaller 
than the amount actually found in the samples tested. The 
proportion falling below the girls' mean represents the prob- 
ability that in other samples the direction of the difference 
would be reversed, that is, that the girls would be found 
superior to the boys. The proportion which this area is of 
the entire area of the difference curve may be found from 
a table of the probability curve as follows: First divide the 
actual difference between the means of the two groups 
tested by the standard error of the difference curve. This 
locates the point of division of the "questionable" half of 
the curve in terms of its own dispersion, and the areas thus 
determined will be uniform proportions of the total, regard- 



Color Discrimination 



163 



less of whether the curve is flat (i.e., has a wide dispersion) 
or peaked (indicating a narrow dispersion). Find this value 

in the column of Table n which is an abridged form 
OD 

of the probability table showing the areas falling beyond 
any given point on the abscissa. Then read across the table 
to the corresponding value in the column marked "chances 
in 1000" which shows the proportion of the total area of 
the difference curve which is included in the portion falling 
below the mean of the second group. If the total area is 
assumed to be 1000, then this figure may be said to repre- 
sent the number of chances in a thousand that in other 
samplings drawn from the same population the direction of 
the difference would be the reverse of that actually found 
in the two groups which were tested. 

TABLE n 

SHOWING THE PROBABILITY THAT A DIFFERENCE WHICH is A 

GIVEN MULTIPLE OF ITS STANDARD ERROR WILL 

OCCUR BY CHANCE 



JD 

OD 


Chances 
in 

IOOO 


D 

OD 


Chances 
in 

IOOO 


D 

OD 


Chances 
in 

IOOO 


.00 


500 


.70 


242 


1.90 


29 


OS 


480 


.80 


212 


2.OO 


23 


.10 


460 


-90 


184 


2.IO 


18 


.15 


440 


I.OO 


158 


2.2O 


14 


.20 


421 


I.IO 


136 


2.30 


ii 


.25 


401 


I.2O 


115 


2.4O 


8 


30 


382 


1.30 


97 


2.SO 


6 


35 


363 


I.4O 


81 


2.6O 


5 


40 


344 


I.SO 


67 


2.7O 


4 


45 


326 


1. 60 


55 


2.80 


3 


.50 


308 


1.70 


45 


2.90 


2 


.60 


274 


1.80 


36 


3-oo 


I 



164 Experimental Child Study 

Suppose, now, that the difference between the two means 
were increased as indicated in Figure 13, where the mean 
for the girls remains at 16 but the boys' mean has been 
moved forward to 24. Since the number of cases and the 
standard deviations remain the same, the form of the curves 
representing the theoretical distribution of the means from 
successive samples (the standard error curves) is unchanged; 
the only difference is in their position with respect to each 
other. Likewise the form of the difference curve is identical 
with that of Figure 12, but because of the increased distance 
between the two means the portion of the difference curve 
which extends beyond the mean of the second group and 
represents the likelihood that the direction of the difference 
would be reversed in other samples is very small, only 
i/iooo of the total area. 

Now look at Figure 14. Here the difference between the 
two means is the same as in Figure 12, but the number of 
cases in the samplings has been increased to 100. The greater 
the number of cases, the more dependable is any statistical 
measure derived from them and the less likely is it to vary 
from sample to sample. This increased stability of the mean 
is shown in the relatively small spread of the two lower 
curves representing the standard errors of the two means, 
and it is likewise reflected in the smaller spread of the 
difference curve. Thus although the difference between the 
two means is the same as that shown in Figure 12, we are 
warranted in placing more confidence in an assumption that 
a "true" sex difference exists because of the greater stability 
of measures based upon larger numbers of cases. In the 
first case there are 218 chances in 1000 that the direction 
of the difference would be reversed in other samples; in this 
case the chances of reversal have been reduced to 59 in 
1000. 

In the three instances which have been given we have as- 



Color Discrimination 165 

sumed that there is no correlation between the scores made 
by individual members of the two groups. Suppose, however, 
that the successive samplings had been made up entirely of 
brothers and sisters, and that the trait measured was one 
in which a familial relationship exists. In such a case, the 
differences between the samples would be lessened in pro- 
portion to the amount of family-resemblance, and the stand- 
ard error of the distribution of differences will likewise be 
smaller than is the case when the variables are uncorrelated. 
The formula for the standard error of a difference between 
correlated measures is: 



4- Oo 2 __ 2T(J - ( IQ ) 

If r = o the last term of this formula drops out and the 
formula for independent measures remains. 

Figure 15 shows the effect of a correlation of +-75 be- 
tween the paired measures in the two samples when all 
other conditions are identical with those shown in Figure 12. 
The lower curves showing the standard errors of the two 
means are unchanged in form and position, but the standard 
error of the difference curve has been reduced from 2.56 to 
2.04 as a result of the correlation. This gives it a higher 
central peak and a shorter spread, and the area overlapping 
the second mean is thereby reduced from 218/1000 of the 
total to 164/1000. 

The difference formulas which have just been given apply 
not only to the difference between means but to the differ- 
ence between any two statistical measures whose standard 
errors are known. In using these formulas, computation may 
often be facilitated by combining the difference formula 
with that used for finding the standard errors of the meas- 
ures to be compared. For example, when the standard error 
of the difference between the means of two independent 
groups is the only value desired, we may substitute the 



1 66 Experimental Child Study 

formula for the standard error of the mean for o in the 
difference formula as shown below: 



The question of the reliability of obtained differences be- 
tween groups is one of the most important concepts in the 
entire field of measurement and experimentation, and the 
student should make sure that he has thoroughly grasped 
the underlying theory. Note that the assumption is always 
made that the two groups have been drawn from the same 
population and that this population has been thoroughly 
shuffled, so that the factor constituting the basis for the 
division is the only selective agent present. It is of the 
highest importance therefore that before applying these 
formulas, the nature of the sampling be examined carefully 
to make sure that the data are free from systematic errors 
of sampling. An additional point to be kept in mind is that 
the exceptional event sometimes really occurs, and that even 
though it be found that a given difference would occur by 
chance only once in ten thousand times, the present occasion 
may be the ten-thousandth chance. One occasionally finds 
statements in elementary treatises on statistical method to 
the effect that if a given difference is so many times its 
standard error it may be regarded as "significant"; the 
limits set for "significance" varying somewhat from text- 
book to textbook. Such statements are likely to cause 
erroneous concepts of the situation. There is no single point 
which divides the significant from the non-significant or 
the probable from the improbable, and it is well to recog- 
nize this fact from the outset. As the ratio of an actually 
found difference to its standard error increases, the likeli- 
hood that the direction of the difference would be reversed 
by further investigation decreases very rapidly. There is 



Color Discrimination 167 

no point at which such a reversal becomes theoretically im- 
possible, though the chances may be so few that we may 
with reasonable safety ignore them. It is better, therefore* 
instead of speaking about significant or non-significant dif- 
ferences, to speak of differences which by chance would 
occur with a specified degree of frequency as not over once 
in a hundred or once in a thousand times. 

Problems: I. Find the reliability of the differences be- 
tween the mean number of matching-errors made on all the 
colors combined by the children of each age. What is the 
probability that these differences are the result of chance? 

2. Find the reliability of the differences in the time re- 
quired for matching all the colors by children of different 
ages. Do the time scores or the error scores show the more 
reliable age trend? 

3. Find the reliability of the differences between the num- 
ber of errors made in matching the different colors. Are the 
age differences or the color differences more reliably estab- 
lished? 

4. Find, for each color separately, the reliability of the 
differences between the number of errors made in matching 
the color by those children who named the color correctly 
and those who did not. (See Problem 4, p. 154). 

REFERENCES 

The student is referred to the following titles in the 
bibliography at the end of this book: 

10, 30, 226, 228, 254*, 276, 376*, 384, 390*, 403*. 



Chapter 17 
PERCEPTION AS A SELECTIVE PROCESS 

observation teaches us that two persons look- 



ing at the same thing at the same time do not always 
"see" it in the same way. The artist may look at a machine 
and note chiefly its general form and symmetry, while the 
engineer, looking at the same machine observes the func- 
tional relationships of the separate parts to each other and 
pays little attention to their artistic proportions. The proof- 
reader notes errors in word-form which completely escape 
the observation of the ordinary reader who is interested in 
the subject-matter. If a dozen people inspect the contents of 
a crowded show window they will usually carry away widely 
different impressions of the objects displayed. Not only do 
individuals differ from each other with regard to their most 
characteristic modes of perception, but the same individual 
will perceive the same object differently from time to time 
according to his most recent experiences, his immediate 
physiological condition and so on. At the end of a long walk 
on a winter's day, one may enter a wayside lunch room and 
eat heartily without "seeing" the dirty table-cloth or "smell- 
ing" the stale odors of which at another time he would have 
been most unpleasantly conscious. Perception is thus a selec- 
tive process in which certain features of a situation are 
singled out for attention and others neglected. What these 
factors shall be, however, varies considerably from indi- 
vidual to individual, and in the same individual at different 
times. Among the factors which determine the nature of the 

168 



Perception as a Selective Process 169 

selective responses to partial elements in a situation, age 
undoubtedly plays an important part. It is therefore both 
interesting and valuable to compare the responses of indi- 
viduals of different ages to a situation in which the varia- 
tions of response are reduced to a single choice between two 
alternatives. 

Experiment No. 10 

The Relative Potency of Color and Form Perception 
at Different Ages 

The purpose of this experiment is to determine whether 
the perception of color or the perception of form plays a 
major part in the total apprehension of an object by indi- 
viduals of a given age, and whether this relative potency 
tends to change with age. Since the responses obtained will 
show considerable variation from time to time, clear-cut re- 
sults can be expected only if the number of subjects at each 
age is fairly large, say 20 or more as a minimum. Unless 
this number can be obtained, the experiment had better be 
omitted. 

Material: Four of the surface forms used by Brian and 
Goodenough (30) should be used. These forms are as fol- 
lows: a two inch circle, a two inch square, an equilateral 
triangle two inches on each side, and a diamond two inches 
on each side. These forms should be cut from heavy colored 
cardboard, or if the colored cardboard is not available the 
forms may be cut from plain cardboard and covered with 
colored paper. The colors to be used are red, yellow, green, 
and blue. One copy of each form in each of the four colors 
should be prepared, making sixteen pieces in the entire 
set. 

Subjects: If possible four groups of subjects should be 
used as follows: Nursery-school children between the ages 



i yo Experimental Child Study 

of two and three years, kindergarten children between the 
ages of four-and-a-half and five-and-a-half years, school chil- 
dren between the ages of seven and eight years and a group 
of adults or high school children. 

Procedure: The subject should be seated at a table facing 
the experimenter who says, "Now watch and see what I 
have to show you." A screen is then interposed while the 
experimenter arranges two of the figures differing both 
in form and in color behind the screen, placing them about 




J5UIE 




FIGURE 16. 
Illustrating placement of forms before child. 

eight inches apart and equidistant from the child. Con- 
stancy of distance and position can JDC easily insured by 
using as a base a sheet of neutral gray cardboard with 
crosses to indicate the points at which the forms are to be 
placed. When the forms have been placed in position the 
screen is removed and a third form, chosen so as to match 
one of the first two forms in respect to form and the other 
in respect to color, is placed in a position intermediate be- 
tween the first two figures and six inches nearer to the child. 
(See Fig. i6a). The experimenter then says, "Do you see 
these two things? And see this other one. Now which of the 



Perception as a Selective Process 171 

two things up here is just like this one?" (pointing to the 
single form.) The question may be repeated if the child 
does not seem to understand. 

As soon as the choice is made the experimenter should 
record it and then replace the screen. The third form is 
then removed, but the first two are left in their original 
positions. In place of the third form a fourth is substituted 
so chosen that the color and form combination is reversed 
from that used originally. (See Fig. i6b). A child who first 
chose the form on the left would then have to choose the 
one on the right or else reverse the apparent basis for his 
choice. After the choice has been made and recorded, the 
screen is replaced and an entirely new series of different 
form and color is presented, and both alternatives tried 
successively as before. This is continued until four different 
combinations of figures involving eight choices have been 
presented. The positions of the two upper figures should be 
changed systematically in such a way that a child who 
matches consistently on the basis of either form or color 
will be obliged to make his choices in the following order: 
left-right, right-left, left-right, right-left, etc. 

The experimenter must exercise great care not to suggest 
by glance or gesture which of the two figures is to be chosen. 
All comments on the child's performance must be deferred 
until the sitting is completed, since praise for the first reac- 
tions may cause the child to attempt to make his later 
choices on the basis of what he conceives to have brought 
forth the praise, and thus modify his performance. A cheer- 
ful encouraging attitude should, however, be maintained 
throughout. 

The experiment should be conducted in a brisk, lively 
fashion so as to discourage undue deliberation on the part of 
the subject, since it is desired to have the reaction represent 
the subject's first impression rather than a reasoned choice. 



172 Experimental Child Study 

Problems: I. What percentage of the total number of 
choices at each age are made on the basis of form? What 
percentage on the basis of color? 

2. Draw curves showing the age changes in the compara- 
tive percentages of form and color choices. 

3. What percentage of the total number of subjects at 
each age made all eight of their choices on the basis of' 
form? of color? Draw curves showing age changes in the 
percentage of entirely consistent choices. 

4. Compare these results with those obtained by Brian 
and Goodenough (30). 

Experiment No. n 

Individual Differences in Tactual Acuity 
among Kindergarten Children 

Prepare four samples of sandpaper ranging from very 
coarse to very fine. Each sample should be two inches square 
and should be glued to a separate base of heavy cardboard. 
The subject should be seated at a low table and blindfolded 
by the use of a pair of goggles with lenses covered with 
heavy paper. A paper napkin should be interposed between 
the child's eyes and the goggles in order to guard against 
possible infection. The napkin also makes It impossible to 
see the sandpaper from underneath the goggles. 

Place two of the samples of sandpaper on the table be- 
fore the child, and bring the fingers of his right hand lightly 
into contact with one of them. Say to him, "Here you have 
two pieces of sandpaper. One of them is rougher than the 
other. Feel them both carefully and tell me which is 
rougher." Move the child's fingers 'from one sample to the 
other as instructions are given. Record the choice, remove"" 
one of the samples and substitute a third. Say, "Now try 
these two and tell me which is rougher. Use the other hand 



Perception as a Selective Process 173 

this time." Alternate the position of the two samples so that 
the coarser one is sometimes at the right and sometimes at 
the left. Do not follow an exact order in rotation, however, 
since the brighter children are likely to "catch on" to such 
a system and be guided by it in making their choices. Con- 
tinue the experiment with each subject until each of the four 
samples has been matched with each of the others twice, 
once for each hand. Record the judgments for the two hands 
separately. Since there are four samples there will be six 
possible combinations or twelve judgments in all, six with 
the left hand, six with the right. 

Problems: i. What is the correlation between the number 
of correct judgments made with the right hand and the 
corresponding number for the left hand? What does this 
correlation suggest? 

2. When the scores for the entire group are combined, 
which hand shows the higher percentage of correct judg- 
ments? How reliable is the difference in the tactual acuity 
of the two hands ? Do the individual differences in the scores 
for the two hands seem to show any relationship to handed- 
ness? If the same subjects were used, compare the results 
obtained with those of Experiment 6, Chapter 14, on tap- 
ping. Otherwise a report from teacher or parent as to the 
child's usual hand preference may be secured. 

3. What is the relationship of tactual acuity to chrono- 
logical age within the kindergarten range? If mental test 
scores are available, find the relationship to mental age. 
Would you conclude from these results that a test of tactual 
discrimination such as this would be a useful element in an 
intelligence test for kindergarten children? 

4. Find the mean combined score on the two hands for 
the sexes separately. How reliable is the difference obtained? 

5. Draw bar diagrams showing the percentage of correct 
judgments for each pair of samples. 



174 Experimental Child Study 

REFERENCES 

The student is referred to the following titles in the 
bibliography at the end of this book: 

10, 30*, 225, 228, 335*. 



Chapter 18 

ATTENTION 

THE word attention as used by most psychologists has 
two aspects, the first referring to the limitation or 
narrowing of the range of stimuli to which the subject is 
responding, the second having to do with the Intensity of 
the response to the limited stimuli. We judge attention in 
others chiefly in terms of muscle tension. When the subject's 
eyes are fixated upon some object with only slight ex- 
ploratory movements as he examines one part of it after 
another, we say that he is giving attention to that object. 
As a rule, not only the eyes but the entire body is oriented 
in the direction of the stimulus object, and the more com- 
plete the orientation and the greater the apparent muscular 
tension, the more intense we judge the attention to be. 

An essential feature of the state of attention seems to be 
that the organism is not merely responding to a rather 
sharply defined stimulus object, but is, as it were, mobilized 
for further response. In large measure, then, attention is a 
preparatory reaction, an adjustment of the organism toward 
an expected event. 

There is a question whether the ability to give sustained 
attention is generalized, in the sense that persons who attend 
well to situations of one kind are more likely than others 
to attend well to stimuli of a different kind. The question is 
not easy to answer, since a given stimulus may not have the 
same interest value or "strength" for all persons who are 



176 Experimental Child Study 

subjected to it. The housewife listens with eagerness to a 
radio talk on how to remodel last year's dresses into this 
year's styles, while her husband is equally absorbed in 
the sports page of the newspaper. If the situation were 
reversed, so that the woman was obliged to turn her atten- 
tion to knockouts and batting averages while the husband 
was initiated into the intricacies of basques and boleros, 
each would find it far harder to keep the attention from 
wandering. Popular opinion, however, usually assumes that 
some people, either by nature or habit are "flighty," "dis- 
tractible" or "absent-minded" while others have great power 
of "concentration." It is interesting, therefore, to see whether 
the individual differences shown by young children in main- 
taining an "attentive" attitude in a situation likely to have 
strong interest value for all, appear to be related to their 
usual habits of attention as judged by their teachers. 

Experiment No. 12 
Sustained Attention in Waiting for a Delayed Stimulus 

Material: A series of three jack-in-the boxes, each of a dif- 
ferent kind. The ordinary commercial boxes which can be 
purchased at a small cost may be used, or a home-made 
variety consisting of an amusing toy fastened to a coiled 
spring the other end of which is attached to the bottom of 
a wooden box with a strong hinged cover will serve the 
purpose. The box should be of a depth such that the spring 
will be depressed when the cover is fastened down, thus 
causing the "jack" to spring up when the cover is released. 
A stop-watch or ordinary watch with second hand is also 
needed. 

Subjects: Nursery-school or kindergarten children. If pos- 
sible two groups of different ages should be used in order 
to see what changes take place with age. 



Attention 177 

Procedure: Seat the child at a low table with the first box 
directly before him. Tell him to watch it carefully, without 
looking away for a single moment., and he will see some- 
thing funny. Start the stop-watch and observe the child's 
eyes carefully. As soon as the attention wanders, spring the 
catch of the box and record the time. Follow the same pro- 
cedure with the second and the third boxes, and record time 
for each separately. Keep a record of child's comments and 
note whether there is a general bodily adjustment (leaning 
forward in chair, shifting of position to bring body in more 
direct line with the box, planting of feet more firmly on floor, 
etc). 

Problems: I. For each group of subjects separately find 
the rank order correlation between the attention time on the 
first and second boxes, the second and the third, the first 
and the third. Which of these correlations is highest? Is the 
order of the three coefficients the same for both groups of 
subjects? 

2. Compare the two age groups with reference to mean 
attention-time on each of the three boxes. Is the direction 
of the age-difference the same for all three boxes? Find the 
reliability of these differences by dividing the actual differ- 
ence by its standard error as described in Chapter 16. Do 
the same for the total time on the three boxes. 

3. For each age group separately, compare the sexes with 
regard to the total attention time on the three boxes. Is the 
difference in the same direction for both ages? Find the re- 
liability of these differences by the method described in 
Chapter 16. 

4. If possible have the children ranked * for attentiveness 
as shown in school by one or more of their teachers. Find 
the rank order correlation between these rankings and the 
total time on the three boxes. How do the correlations com- 

* See Chapter 44. 



178 Experimental Child Study 

pare with the usual findings for teacher's rankings in such 
traits as general intelligence? (243.) 

REFERENCES 

The student is referred to the following titles in the 
bibliography at the end of this book: 

3*, 3*> 56*, 75, ^38, 14*, 141* i?6> 287, 288, 290, 297. 



Chapter 19 

MEMORY 

IK everyday speech the term memory is used as a kind of 
blanket expression covering a number of mental proc- 
esses which investigation has shown to be rather loosely 
related to each other. For example recall in which the sub- 
ject is required to reproduce or to describe a stimulus after 
it has been withdrawn is a much more difficult task than 
recognition in which he has only to select from a number of 
objects the one which was previously a stimulus. Either 
recall or recognition may be asked for immediately upon 
withdrawal of the stimulus (immediate reaction) or after 
an interval of time (delayed reaction). Somewhat different 
results will be obtained according to whether the particular 
sensory field which is stimulated is visual, auditory, tactual 
or what not. The difficulty of recall or recognition is also 
largely dependent upon whether the material to be memor- 
ized is meaningful or nonsense. For most children a sentence 
of 12-15 words of simple meaning can be repeated after a 
single hearing about as easily as a series of five unrelated 
digits or nonsense syllables. Many other factors might be 
cited but the foregoing are probably sufficient to show that 
the popular idea of memory as a single characteristic or 
method of classifying individuals is not sufficiently exact 
to be very useful. Instead of speaking vaguely about studies 
of "memory," both the kind of task set and the conditions 
under which it is to be carried out should be stated in all 

cases. 

179 



i8o Experimental Child Study 

Experiment No. 13 
Delayed Recall of Logical Prose Material * 

Material: Select a story of approximately 400 words in 
length, of a kind which will be interesting and not too diffi- 
cult for children of the ages to be used. Make sure that the 
story is one which is not already familiar to the children. 
Have this story mimeographed with double spacing so as to 
permit writing between the lines. At a number of critical 
points in the story an essential word or phrase which can 
not be filled in on the basis of context alone should be en- 
closed in parentheses. A separate copy of the story should be 
used for each child on each occasion. 

Subjects: This experiment is best suited to children within 
the age range of three to seven years. At least three age 
groups should be used if possible, in order to compare de- 
velopmental changes. 

Procedure: Students should work in pairs, one acting as 
reader and the other as recorder. In order to avoid confus- 
ing the children, it is better for each student to act as reader 
or as recorder throughout the series of sittings with each 
individual child, but to alternate between the roles of reader 
and recorder for different children. 

The reader should sit on the floor or in a low chair beside 
the child with her back to the recorder. The situation is 
introduced by saying to the child, "You like stories, don't 
you? I arn going to read you a story about " (what- 
ever the title of the story may be). On the first day of 
presentation a story is read through at an ordinary rate of 
speed with no pauses. On each successive day thereafter, 
the reader should pause at the points indicated by the 
parentheses, look expectantly at the child, and wait from 

* Procedure adapted from Foster, (74). 



Memory 181 

two to three seconds before reading the part in the paren- 
theses. If the child fills in the pause either by supplying 
the correct word or by some other word or phrase, the re- 
corder, who is supplied with one of the mimeographed sheets, 
should record the fact directly above the corresponding 
word or phrase. A plus mark may be used if a verbatim 
completion is given; but any changes from the stereotyped 
phrase should be recorded verbatim. If, on the second re- 
reading of the story, the child does not begin to supply words 
spontaneously, the reader may prompt him by saying after 
the usual pause, "What?" The child's attempts at comple- 
tion should at first be rewarded by a "good" from the reader, 
thereafter they should always be acknowledged by a smile 
and nod. If incorrect completions are given the reader 
should repeat the correct word firmly enough to show the 
child that his completion was not exactly right, but with no 
touch of a reproof which might discourage further efforts. 
The child should be allowed to continue telling the story as 
far as he is able to go on each completion until an error 
is made, when the reader should interrupt and read on to 
the next pause. The recorder meanwhile should keep an 
exact record of everything said by the child. 

If time permits, as many as ten readings on the story may 
be given, but five readings (the original reading and four 
rereadings), each on a separate day, will be sufficient to 
show the general trend. After trying out several different 
methods of scoring these results, Foster found that the total 
number of correct words supplied by the child in any single 
sitting yielded the most consistent results. A word is classed 
as correct only when it is the verbatim expression used in 
telling the story. 

Problems. I. On the basis of the total number of correct 
words supplied at a single hearing, draw learning curves for 
each child separately as described in Chapter 12. If children 



i8a Experimental Child Study 

of different ages have been used, find the average score on 
each repetition for each age group separately, and compare 
the learning curves for these ages. 

2. Using the entire group of subjects, find the rank order 
correlation between the scores earned by each child on the 
first repetition as compared to the second repetition, the 
third repetition, and so on. Then find the correlation be- 
tween the second and third repetition, the second and fourth 
and so on, until the correlations for all possible pairs have 
been worked out. As learning progresses, what general 
tendency is apparent in the size of the correlation coeffi- 
cients between successive repetitions? Compare also the 
correlations between successive repetitions and those which 
are more widely separated. 

3. All other factors being equal, one would expect that 
differences in attentiveness might be associated with differ- 
ences in the ability to learn the story. If the same children 
were used in both this and the preceding experiment it will 
be interesting to correlate the total time for the three boxes 
with the total number of words supplied in all repetitions 
of the story. Name all the factors you think of which might 
account for a low relationship between these two measures. 
Is it known that the child who is more than usually atten- 
tive in one kind of situation will also be more than usually 
attentive in another situation of a different kind? What 
factors other than attentiveness itself might operate to affect 
the apparent relationship, either negatively or positively? 

4. Compare the results with those given by Foster (74). 

Experiment No. 14 

Immediate Recall of Visually Presented Stimuli 

Material: Two sets of ten familiar objects; a practice set 
of five other objects. There should be no duplicates. A sug- 



Memory 183 

gested list Is as follows: Practice set: a ball, a pencil, a cup, 
a bottle, and a book. 

Set No. i : A small doll, a spoon, a pair of scissors, a watch, 
an apple, a ruler, a toy horse, a pitcher, a knife, an eraser. 

Set No. 2: A fork, a bos, a key, a handkerchief, a toy 
engine, a teddy bear, a tumbler, a child's shoe, a fountain 
pen, an orange. Other similar objects may be substituted 
if more convenient. A screen with three sides large enough 
to conceal the objects completely is needed, also a stop- 
watch or ordinary watch with second hand. 

Subjects: Children from three to ten years may be used. 

Procedure: Arrange the objects of the practice series In a 
predetermined position on a low table, behind the screen. 
Seat child at table and say, "Behind this screen I have a lot 
of things for you to see. When I take the screen away you 
must look carefully and see what Is there. Afterward I'm 
going to see whether you can tell me everything that is on 
the table, so look carefully," 

At the words, "look carefully" the screen should be re- 
moved and the stop-watch started. At the end of ten sec- 
onds the screen is replaced and the experimenter says, "Now 
tell me what you saw." If there are any omissions, experi- 
menter should prompt by saying "Was there anything else?" 
and if this does not elicit the correct reply, "Did you see 

the ? And the ?" naming omitted objects. 

Exact replies should be recorded. 

The two regular series are then shown In the same way, 
the objects being arranged behind the screen as before, 
with care that the child does not see them before the screen 
is removed. If kept in a covered box, this can usually be 
managed without difficulty. Be sure that the arrangement of 
each series is kept constant for all subjects. At the end of 
each series, after the child has named all the objects he can 
remember, and has been questioned as to his memory for 



184 Experimental Child Study 

the omitted objects ask, "Did you see the ? And the 

?" etc., naming five objects not actually used in any 

of the experiments. These fictitious objects should be the 
same for all subjects. 

Records can be made most expeditiously if a mimeo- 
graphed sheet is prepared on which the objects used for each 
experiment are listed in order, followed by the names of the 
fictitious objects. In making the records, the following sym- 
bols can then be used to indicate the child's response for 
each object: S to indicate that it was named spontaneously, 
previous to urging; N to indicate that it was named in re- 
sponse to the question "Was there anything else?"; + to 
indicate an affirmative reply to the question, "Did you see 

t h e ?; and to indicate a negative reply to the 

same question. Space should be left at the bottom of the 
sheet to record any objects spontaneously named by the 
child which were not actually shown. 

Problems: i. Find the mean number of objects spon- 
taneously named by the children in each age group on 
Series I and II combined. Draw a series of frequency sur- 
faces on the same base line, showing the overlapping of the 
scores from age to age. Do the same for the total number 
named correctly with or without urging, that is, when the 
S and the N responses are combined. Which method shows 
the clearer distinction between age groups? 

2. Find the reliability of the scores earned by each of the 
two scoring methods, by correlating the number of objects 
named on Series I with the number named on Series II, 
and correcting by the Spearman-Brown formula. Which 
scoring method yields the more consistent results? 

3. Compare the age changes in the positive replies to the 
"suggestibility" questions when the results of the two series 
are combined. Is there evidence of a sex difference in sug- 
gestibility as shown by (a) the consistency of the direction 



Memory 185 

of the differences between the sexes from age to age, or (b) 
the reliability of the difference between the means for the 
sexes when the ages are combined? 

4. For each age group separately, compare the mean num- 
ber of positive replies to the "suggestibility" questions made 
by the children whose memory scores were above the median 
for their age group with those whose scores were below the 
median. 

5. Is there any evidence of transference from one experi- 
mental situation to another, i.e., are there instances when an 
object actually shown in an earlier experiment is named in a 
later experiment? Is there any relationship between such 
transference and the number of objects correctly named? 
the number of positive replies to the "suggestibility" ques- 
tions ? 

6. Arrange the objects used in order of size, using the 
mean judgment of the class to settle doubtful cases. Find 
the correlation between the size of the object and the total 
number of times it was correctly named. 

7. If the same children were used in this and in the pre- 
ceding experiment on verbal memory, find the correlation 
between their combined scores on the two series (using the 
scoring method which was found to have the higher relia- 
bility) and the total number of words correctly supplied in 
all sittings combined. What do the results suggest as to the 
relationship between memory performances of different 
kinds? (Age groups should be kept separate). 

REFERENCES 

The student is referred to the following titles in the 
bibliography at the end of this book: 

10, 14, 42, 74*, 101, 115, ISS*. 177, 179, 2 34> 299, 309, 
3 " 335*, 378. 



Chapter 20 

THE DEVELOPMENT OF LOGICAL THINKING 
OR PROBLEM SOLVING 

Y^VERYDAY observation of children when confronted 
-H* with problems affords striking evidence of the extent to 
which their immaturity and their lack of experience combine 
to affect their thought processes. To the little child "time's 
arrow" is not fixed or unchangeable. An event may precede 
as well as succeed its cause, the relationships of "y esterci ay" 
and "tomorrow" are not clearly distinguished or an intent 
may be "discovered" by the child only after he has com- 
pleted an act. It is worth while, therefore to endeavor to 
develop methods whereby the sequence of development in 
logical thinking may be traced. 

One approach to the study of thought processes is to 
present a series of problems for solution and observe and 
classify the methods by which children of different levels of 
development attempt to solve them. In so doing, we may 
depend either upon the child's verbal reactions or upon his 
overt behavior in situations offering a considerable possi- 
bility of variation in response. 

In Experiment No. 15 the first method is used; in Experi- 
ment No. 1 6 the second. 

Experiment No. 15 

Problem Solving in Children of Different Ages * 
Material: Thirty squares of cardboard prepared as fol- 
lows : Six of the squares are to have on one side a plain con- 
* Adapted from Heidbreder. (122). 

1 86 



The Development of Logical Thinking 187 

ventional figure drawn in outline in black ink, using the 
following designs,, a circle, a diamond, a triangle, a clover, a 
star, and a cross. On the reverse side of each of these 
squares is to be pasted a large red or gold star or some other 
interesting device. A duplicate set of six cards is to be pre- 
pared without the star. Six other squares are to bear the same 
figures with a small flower drawn in red ink added in the 
center. These also have a star on the reverse side. A third set 
should contain the same series of figures as the first set, and 
in addition a series of red dots around the edge of each card. 
Again, one set of six should have a star on the reverse side 
which is omitted from the duplicate set. 

Subjects: If possible, three groups of subjects should be 
used, one of three-year-old children, one of five-year-old 
kindergarten children, and one of children from the fifth or 
sixth grade. Each student should try the experiment with 
one or more children in each age group. 

Procedure:* i. The squares with plain conventional fig- 
ures are used for the first problem. The child is seated at a 
table facing the experimenter who first shows him some of 
the materials and says, "Do you see these cards ? They have 
pictures on the front and some of them have something on 
the back, too. Look and see what is on the back." After 
the child has examined several of the cards, both with and 
without stars, the experimenter says, "Now we are going 
to play a guessing game. I shall show you two of the 
cards and see if you can tell me which one has the star." 
A screen is then interposed, behind which two of the squares 
are arranged corner to corner. The square on the right- 
hand side nearer the child has a star; the other has not. 

*The method followed by Heidbreder (122) has been somewhat short- 
ened In order to make It possible to secure all the data at a single sitting 
without unduly fatiguing the subjects. As a result a smaller number of 
solutions may be expected than were found by Heidbreder. 



i88 Experimental Child Study 

The screen is then removed, and the experimenter says, 
"Which one do you think has the star?" As soon as the 
child indicates his choice he is told to see whether he was 
right. The experimenter then asks, "What made you think it 
was that one?" or "How did you know which one to take?" 
Each successive choice is recorded as -f- or and the reason 
for the choice is recorded verbatim. The situation is re- 
peated five times using different cards, with the arrange- 
ment the same, that is, the square with the star always in 
the nearer right-hand corner. After each choice the child 
should be asked to state his reason for making it. However 
he should not be urged too strongly if he says he does not 
know. After five presentations the arrangement is changed. 
The left-hand square is now placed nearer the child, and 
the right-hand square farther away. Again, the right-hand 
square is to be chosen. This should be continued until 
five successive arrangements have been shown. 

These two arrangements are then presented in random 
order until ten successive reactions have been made. The 
problem is considered solved if the last five or more reac- 
tions are all correct, that is, if the right-hand square is taken 
regardless of whether it is the nearer or the farther, or if 
the correct verbal solution is given on the last three or more 
trials. 

2. Two kinds of squares are used for this problem, those 
with plain figures without the star, and those with red 
flowers in the center of the figure and with the star on the 
back. The solution consists in choosing the square with 
the flowered design, regardless of its position. In the first five 
situations the flowered square is placed on the right of the 
plain one, then the flowered square is placed to the left for 
five trials, after which the two arrangements are given in 
random order for ten trials as before. Procedure and rules 
for determining solutions are the same as in Situation A. 



The Development of Logical Thinking 189 

3. Again two kinds of squares are used, those with the 
plain figures and those which have red dots around the bor- 
der. In the first five presentations two squares with plain 
figures are used, one immediately behind the other, the star 
always on the further square. In the next five presentations 
the squares with dots are used with the same arrangement, 
except that the star is always on the nearer square. The 
two kinds of situation are then presented in random order 
for ten trials. The solution consists in always taking the 
farther square if the plain figures are used, and the nearer 
square if the dotted figures are used. 

Problems. I. Compare the age groups with reference to 
the proportion of children In each who solve each of the 
three problems. Is the order of difficulty as indicated by the 
percentage of children making correct solutions the same 
for both age groups? 

2. Compare the age groups with reference to the percent- 
age of the total number of reactions on each problem for 
which reasons of any kind were given. In what percentage 
of the cases was the correct reason clearly stated at the end 
of the series? 

3. What percentage of the reasons given by the children 
of each age group fall within each of the following classes: 

a. Reasons based on observations after the action, such 
as "Because it had the star on it." 

b. Non-specific reasons, such as "Because I drew it," or 
"I just guessed it." 

c. Reasons based on preferences or aesthetic values, such 
as, "Because I liked that one best," or "Because it is 
pretty." 

d* Reasons based on particular features without indica- 
tion of preference such as "The one with the cross," or 
"Because it has a flower on it." 

e. Reasons based on spatial features or relationships, in 



190 Experimental Child Study 

which a word or a gesture shows that the spatial factor 
is the basis for the reaction. Examples: "The one on this 
side" (pointing), or "The one on the right." 

f. Reasons based on past success or failure, as "Because 
it was right before," or "Because last time I took the other 
one and it was wrong." 

g. Social reasons, such as "Because I thought you'd try 
to fool me and make it different this time." 

Which class of reasons is most commonly given by the 
younger children? By the older children? Compare with 
results secured by Heidbreder. 

Experiment No. 16 

The Solving of Problem Situations by 
Nursery-School Children 

Apparatus and arrangement: From the ceiling of the 
laboratory, suspend an animal cracker at such a height that 
it will be about eight to twelve inches beyond the reach of 
the child to be tested. At a distance of about six feet from 
the cracker place a low chair on which is laid a ruler, and 
about half way between the chair and the cracker place side 
by side two boxes, the combined height of which when piled 
one on another will enable the child to reach the cracker 
although either one alone is too low. 

Subjects: Nursery-school children, preferably under four- 
and-a-half years. 

Procedure: Bring the children into the room one at a time. 
Say, "Do you like animal crackers ? There is one which you 
may have if you can get it." Start the stop-watch and record 
child's reactions, including verbal responses as they occur, 
together with time of occurrence. Give no suggestions, but 
encourage child from time to time by saying "I think you 
can get it if you try." Allow a total time of five minutes 



The Development of Logical Thinking 191 

for each child. If he succeeds in getting the cracker before 
the end of the five minutes send him back to the class-room 
and bring in another child. On the following day, repeat 
the experiment with the same children and compare re- 
sponses. 

Problems: i. What percentage of the children at each 
age succeed in getting the cracker on the first day? On the 
second day? Did any who succeeded on the first day fail on 
the second? What percentage of the children who succeeded 
made use of the chair? Of the boxes? Of the ruler? 

2. Among the children who succeeded what was the mean 
time required for success? 

3. In what proportion of the successful cases was an un- 
successful method tried first? 

4. List all the unsuccessful methods, and see if you can 
work out a scheme for classifying them as was done for 
the reasons in the preceding experiment. 

5. Compare the reactions of the children with those of the 
apes studied by Kohler (157) and with those of the children 
used in Alpert's experiment (i). 

REFERENCES 

The student is referred to the following titles in the 
bibliography at the end of this book: 

I*, 28, 122% 123% IS7* 3 175, I8g ? 203, 204*, 205, 319, 330, 

335- 



Chapter 21 
LEARNING AND HABIT FORMATION 

WITH increasing practice, children become more expert 
in the performance of various acts. The infant when 
given a spoon for the first, time uses It awkwardly and makes 
many unnecessary movements. After an interval in which he 
has handled the spoon many times much improvement in 
the facility and ease with which he manipulates it can be 
observed. We say that he has learned to use a spoon, and 
speak of the process by which this ability has been gained 
as the acquisition of ,j,H/Cj3ince the greater part of his active 
life will be spent in the acquisition of skills, the study of 
the manner in which they are developed has great practical 
significance as well as much scientific interest. 

The transition from the slow, awkward performance of 
the beginner to the smooth running, almost automatic move- 
ments which characterize the later stages in the learning 
process may be analyzed in several ways. One of the most 
useful and readily understood methods of analysis is found 
in the graphic representation of the course of learning by 
means of learning curves. 

Learning curves. If a beginner who is learning to type- 
write keeps an exact account of the number of letters writ- 
ten correctly in a standard period of time on each day of 
practice, and then plots the results on cross-section paper 
with the abscissa of the curve representing the successive 
days of practice and the cp^finate showing the number of 
words written each day, he is likely to secure results similar 

192 



Learning and Habit Formation 193 

to those shown in Fig. 17. The curve rises somewhat more 
rapidly during the first few days of practice than It does 
later on. If practice is continued long enough, eventually a 
point is reached at which little or no further gain is made. 
We speak of this point as the physiological limit, since its 
position seems to be determined chiefly by physiological 
factors such as speed of reaction, muscular control, etc. 




50- 



50 100 160 

Bays of Practice 

FIGURE 17. 
Learning curve for one subject practising typewriting (after Book). 

In such complex tasks as typewriting, the physiological 
limit is commonly reached only after a rather long period 
of training. If a somewhat simpler task is set, such as 
tracing a maze, the physiological limit is reached much 
sooner and the rapid improvement during the earlier stages, 
with slowing off in rate of gain during later trials, shows up 
more clearly. (See Fig. 18). In the learning of complex 
motor skills which involve the simultaneous coordination and 
cooperation of many muscles (such as ball tossing, golf, 
throwing at a moving target, etc.) the limit of improvement- 



194 Experimental Child Study 

Is reached, if at all, only after very prolonged practice, and 
the learning curve is likely to be marked by many Irregu- 
larities. These irregularities include: (a) "plateaus" when 
no appreciable advance seems to be made for prolonged 
periods, (b) regressive periods, when the temporary setting 




20 2? JO 
Triab 

FIGURE 18. 

Learning curves for children on Young Slot Maze. From McGinnis (173)- 
I <= 3 year olds, II = 4 year olds, III = 5 year olds 

up of a bad habit results in the performance becoming 
steadily worse, and (c) periods of rapid gain when the cor- 
rection of a single factor which has been retarding progress 
suddenly makes apparent the improvement which has been 
taking place all along in other parts of the total perform- 
ance. (Fig. 19.) 



Learning and Habit Formation 195 

In many of the experimental situations used for the study 
of learning, the reliability of the score earned on a single 
trial is not high. As a result, the curves plotted from the 
original data show many fluctuations which may partially 
obscure the general trend. It is customary, therefore, to sub- 
ject these curves to a process known as smoothing, the pur- 
pose of which is to average the day-to-day fluctuations and 




10 30 -40 

Day of ExpGrimenr 



C2 



2 



SO 




10 



20 30 -40 

Day of Experiment 



FIGURE 19. 



Learning curves for individual children in ring-tossing. From. Goodenough 
and Brian (no). 

thus bring out the general form of the curve more clearly. 
A number of methods of smoothing or "curve-fitting" are in 
use, but for our purposes a relatively simple procedure 
known as smoothing by the method of a moving average 
will be sufficient. We may illustrate it as follows: Suppose 
that the number of seconds required by John Doe to trace 
a finger-maze such as is described in the next experiment 
were as follows: 278, 210, 156, 138, 140, 129, no, 80, 92, 
74, 69, 40, 71, 52, 47, 36, 40, 29, 35, 31. 

If the data are plotted as they stand, the resulting curve 



196 



Experimental Child Study 



would be that shown by the light line in Fig. 20. While this 
curve shows clearly that much improvement has taken place 
in the course of the twenty trials, there are a number of ir- 
regularities which are probably the result of chance factors. 
If this assumption is correct, the more regular curve in 
Figure 20 which was obtained by averaging the scores in 



300 
280 
260 
240 
220 
200 
180 
160 

120 
100 
80 
60 

40 

20 











































\ 








































i 








































^ 


\ 








































\ 








































^ 










































\v 










































s. 












































%, 










































\ 










































\s 


<N 










































X 


^ 




A 






































s/ 


t* 


s*. 


"^H, 




























































. 


































1 2 34 567 5 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 

Number of trials 

FIGURE 20. 
Illustrating the effect of smoothing by means of a moving average. 

adjacent trials depicts the rate of progress in a more truth- 
ful manner. 

The optimum number of scores entering into each succes- 
sive average depends upon the amount of day-to-day fluc- 
tuation. If the data are very irregular, as many as seven 
adjacent scores may be averaged. However, this is some- 
what hazardous since true changes in the form of the curve, 
resulting from factors which are not chance and the nature 
of which might be revealed by a more careful analysis may 



Learning and Habit Formation 197 

thereby be obscured For this reason, the number of scores 
to be averaged should not as a rule exceed five, and in 
most cases three is sufficient. In the example given the 
smoothing has been done by threes as follows: For the 
first smoothed score the original first score is multiplied by 2 
(since there is no preceding score to be used in averaging) 
and to this is added the second score. The sum is then 
divided by 3 and the result recorded as the first score in 
the column of smoothed values. The second point in the 
curve is obtained by taking the mean of the first, second, 
and third raw scores; the third point is the mean of the 
second, third, and fourth raw scores, etc. If a five point 
instead of a three point smoothing had been used, the method 
would have been very similar. The first point would have 
been obtained by multiplying the first raw score by 3, add- 
ing the second and the third score and dividing by 5. The 
second point would be 1/5 the sum of twice the first score + 
twice the second score -j- the third score. The third point 
would be the mean of the first five raw scores, etc. Note 
that by this method each point on the smoothed curve is 
based upon an average of an equal number of the scores 
preceding and following it. Hence an odd rather than an 
even number of scores should be used in computing the suc- 
cessive averages. As the end of the curve is approached, a 
weighting system corresponding to that used at the beginning 
should be employed. 

Exercises: Plot each of the following learning curves in 
three ways: (a) from the original unsmoothed data, (b) 
by a three point moving average, (c) by a five point moving 
average. Which method seems to you to give the most truth- 
ful picture in each case? Why? 

i. Time in seconds required for each trial in learning 
to trace a maze. 456, 328, 320, 156, 236, 204, 140, 118, 97, 
82, 80, 6 1, 75, 73, 51, 29, 46, 32, 49, 22. 



198 Experimental Child Study 

2. Time in seconds required for 20 successive sortings of 
a pack of 100 cards according to pattern. 37, 38, 31, 34, 28, 
32, 27, 24, 28, 30, 21, 19, 22, 23, 18, 15, 17, 20, i4>/2- 

3. Number of successes made in trying to toss a ring over 
a wooden post, allowing 20 trials per day for 20 days, i, o, 
3, o, o, 2, i, 4, 4, 5, 3, i, o, o, o, i, 5, 7, 6, 10. 

Are the learning curves for the three tasks described simi- 
lar in form? Compare with those shown in the references 
at the end of this chapter. 

Experiment No. 17 

A Comparison of Maze Learning in Children 
and Adults 

Material: A multiple T maze of the high relief type. A 
screen or goggles and paper napkins for blindfolding. Stop- 
watch. 

The maze can easily be constructed by the students them- 
selves according to the directions given by Miles (182). 
From a lumber dealer secure a panel of three-ply cedar wood 
from 1 6 to 18 inches square. Secure a length of German 
silver wire, No. 14 in size (one-sixteenth of an inch in 
diameter) and cut into lengths, each of which is about three- 
fourths of an inch longer than the separate units to be used 
in the maze pattern. Using a pair of pliers, bend the ends 
into long square cornered staples. These ends may then be 
driven into the wood in such a way as to form the pattern 
(182). After the pattern has been completed drop a bit of 
solder at each joint and rub with emery paper so as to form 
a smooth path. Rubber feet which may be obtained at any 
furniture store should be placed on the back of the panel 
at each of the four corners to prevent slipping when the 
board is placed on a table. The starting point is marked by 
a single small staple driven astride the main wire; the goal 



Learning and Habit Formation 199 

by two staples fastened in the same way.* Each cul-de-sac 
is numbered. 

Subjects: Each student should arrange to have the maze 
learned by one child of five or six years and by one adult 
who has never seen the pattern. 

Procedure: The subject is first blindfolded unless the 
learning is to be done under a screen. In either case it is 
essential that he does not see the maze at any time until 
the learning has been completed. The subject is seated at 
a table of comfortable height, with the maze before him. 
His forefinger is put on the starting point of a small practice 
maze in the corner. The experimenter then says : 

"I am going to see how quickly you can follow this wire 
with your finger to a place where there are two wires on 
top of the main wire. Move your finger along the wire 
without taking it off until you find this place and I will 
keep track of the time it takes you. If you come to a place 
where your finger slips off the end, that means you have 
taken the wrong turning and you will have to go back until 
you get on the right track again. When I say 'Go 5 start and 
go as fast as you can till you find the place which has two 
wires on top of the other wire.f Do you understand? All 
right, go!" 

When the sample maze has been traced twice, the ex- 
perimenter places the subject's finger on the starting point 
of the main maze and says, "Now we are going to do a 
bigger one. You will have to go quite a long way to find the 
two wires in this one but keep on trying and pretty soon 
you will get there. Remember that when your finger slips 

* Or a small iron toy may be set at the goal by means of a thumb-tack 
soldered to its base. This adds interest to the task for young children, 
particularly if several different toys are used and the child does not 
know in advance which one he is going to find. 

tlf a toy is used to mark the goal, instructions should of course be 
changed accordingly. 



20O Experimental Child Study 

off the end, you are on the wrong track and must go back 
until you find the right way. All ready, go!" 

Start the stop-watch as soon as the subject's finger begins 
to move. Record all errors as they occur, using the numbers 
marked on the board. Take time to the nearest whole sec- 
ond for each trial. Allow five trials a day for a total of 
five days, or better, if time permits, until five successive 
errorless trials have been made. Exactly the same procedure 
should be followed for children and adults. 

Problems: i. Using the time scores, draw learning curves 
(both smoothed and unsmoothed) for each of the individual 
subjects separately, also for the combined scores for each 
group of subjects. Are the Individual curves or the group 
curves more even and regular? Why? 

2. Place the smoothed curves for the children (combined 
scores) and the adults on the same base so as to facilitate 
comparison. Compare the two groups as to (a) mean initial 
speed, (b) rapidity of learning as shown by steepness of 
slope, and (c) final level reached. 

3. Do the same for the error scores. What is the mean 
total number of errors made by each group in the course 
of 25 trials? 

4. What is the mean number of errors made on each cul- 
de-sac by each group? Find the rank order correlation be- 
tween the relative difficulty of the cul-de-sacs for children 
and adults. Does this correlation suggest that certain cul-de- 
sacs are intrinsically more difficult than others? What fea- 
tures seem to be characteristic of the difficult cul-de-sacs? 
Of the easy ones? Consider particularly whether a cul-de-sac 
leads toward or away from the goal, whether it occurs near 
the beginning, middle, or end of the maze pattern, whether 
it leads inward (toward the median line of the body) or 
outward, etc. Find the reliability of any differences which 
seem well marked. 



Learning and Habit Formation 201 

REFERENCES 

The student is referred to the following titles in the 
bibliography at the end of this booE: 

10, 88, 89, 97, 137, 144, 173*, 182*, 269, 280*, 292*, 330, 
339- 



Chapter 22 
THE ACQUISITION OF COMPLEX SKILLS 

IE" learning complex skills such t as ball tossing, tennis, or 
golf the task not only involves a linking up of responses 
formerly learned into a new sequence but also learning to 
integrate actions previously used independently or in other 
and different combinations into a new form of organization. 
In golf or bowling not only must a number of actions be 
carried out simultaneously but these organized groups of 
reactions must follow each other in a rhythmic sequence in 
which the time relations are quite as important as the 
order. In such an organization involving the coordinated 
action of many different muscle-groups an error in any 
part of the action disrupts the total. Because of the number 
of coordinations involved and the inflexibility of the time 
relations, learning curves for the acquisition of complex 
motor skills rise slowly. Occasional periods when there is no 
measurable advance or even an apparent loss in efficiency 
may occur. 

Because of the length of time required to secure meaning- 
ful results, studies in the acquisition of complex skills are not 
well adapted to geneml class demonstration. If time and 
opportunity permit it will be worth while for those mem- 
bers of the class who have continued access to one or two 
children to carry out an experiment such as the one about 
to be described, in order to analyze the factors influencing 
the child's progress in the manner indicated here. 

Goodenough and Brian (no) had twenty four-year-old 

202 



The Acquisition of Complex Skills 203 

children practice throwing rings over a post set at a dis- 
tance of about five feet. Ten of the children were given 
practice without instruction or criticism; six were given 
verbal Instruction and criticism but were not required to 
adhere to a constant method of holding and throwing the 
rings; while four were taught a definite procedure in throw- 
ing and were not permitted to experiment with any other 
method. Each child was given twenty trials per day for a 
period of fifty days. The children in the third group who 
were required to adhere to a constant procedure throughout 
the experimental period showed distinctly greater improve- 
ment than either of the other two groups. The most interest- 
ing results, however, were obtained not from the comparison 
of the group curves but from an analysis of the individual 
records in the light of certain general factors which were 
found to hold good for the group as a whole. These analyses 
were made possible by very careful records of the daily 
performances of the children. 

In order to facilitate record-taking, the floor of the room 
in which the experiment was carried out was first divided 
into quadrants by means of lines drawn with chalk which 
intersected at the post over which the rings were to be 
thrown, while distance from the post was indicated roughly 
by means of concentric circles drawn with the post as a 
center. Mimeographed duplicates of the floor plan were 
prepared and used as the daily records sheets for each 
child. Records were taken by writing the serial number of 
each throw in the space on the record sheet corresponding 
to the point on the floor on which the ring fell when thrown. 
Thus if the child's first throw struck in the farther left 
quadrant between the first and second of the concentric 
circles, the number I was written in the corresponding space 
on the record blank; if the second struck in the near right 
quadrant within the smallest circle, the number 2 was writ- 



204 Experimental Child Study 

ten in that space on the blank, and so on until all twenty 
throws had been recorded. In addition, careful observation 
and record was made of the child's manner of holding and 
throwing the rings, his apparent interest and effort, and any 
other pertinent factors, together with verbatim records of 
all remarks and comments on the situation or on his own 
performance. 

In this experiment the rings used were made of ^4" 
manilla rope joined with adhesive tape. They were 7 inches 
in diameter. The post was 6 inches in height and was fas- 
tened to a heavy oak platform 12" x 14" x i". In carrying 
out the individual experiments suggested, if smaller rings 
are used the distance should be shortened somewhat to allow 
for the added difficulty. The optimum distance will depend 
both upon the size of the rings and the age of the subjects. 

A statistical analysis of the results obtained for the group 
as a whole seemed to warrant the following conclusions: 

There was practically no relationship between gain in 
skill and initial score, or between total score earned during 
the fifty days performance and intelligence test standing. 

Boys made significantly higher scores than girls. 

Improvement in skill occurred in the course of the daily 
practice periods as shown by the fact that the last five of 
the twenty trials included 13.6 per cent more successes than 
the first five. 

The results suggest that the effect of interruption of prac- 
tice through absence is differential, varying according to 
whether the habits which are being formed at the time of 
the absence are favorable or unfavorable to success. If an 
absence occurs at a time when the child's performance is 
showing rapid improvement through the establishment of 
good methods of throwing, considerable loss in skill may 
result; but if the absence occurs when the setting up of bad 
habits is retarding progress, the effect may be quite favor- 



The Acquisition of Complex Skills 205" 

able, since the interruption of practice permits the bad habits 
to become weakened through disuse. 

The effect of the pleasurable emotion aroused by success 
was shown in a much greater tendency to throw beyond 
the mark in the case of those errors following a successful 
throw. Apparently the delight ensuing upon success caused 
the children to throw the rings with greater vigor than was 
displayed after unsuccessful attempts. 

The way in which these and other recorded factors seemed 
to affect individual performance is illustrated in the fol- 
lowing descriptive accounts of the performances of three 
children in the group who were given no instruction or criti- 
cism. Table 12 shows the daily records of these children ex- 
pressed in terms of the number of successful throws per day. 
These records should be subjected to a five point smoothing 
as described in Chapter 21, The learning curves should then 
be plotted and compared with the descriptive accounts.* 

"Subject lA made seven correct throws on his first day 
of practice, which is a greater number than was made at 
the .start by any other child in the group. Although his 

mother was quite certain that P had never played with 

it, a small ring toss game had been packed away with some 
discarded toys in the family attic, hence it is possible that 
there had been some previous practice in this case. He was 
extremely proud of his superior performance and boasted 
about it repeatedly. C I get more ringers than anybody else, 
don't I?' 'Gee! what a lot of stickers I have on my card!* 
were frequent comments during the first few days. For the 
first three days his errors were nearly equally divided be- 
tween overthrows and underthrows. On the fourth day a 
pronounced tendency toward overthrowing became apparent, 
with 9 out of 13 errors overthrown. This tendency increased 
steadily until during the period from the thirteenth to the 

* Quoted from Goodenough. and Brian (no). 



206 Experimental Child Study 

TABLE 12 

DAILY RECORDS OF THREE FOUR- YEAR-OLD CHILDREN IN 

LEARNING A RiNG-Toss GAME 



SUBJECTS 


SUBJECTS 


Day 


IA 


6A 


gA 


Day 


IA 


6^ 


9^ 


i 


7 


i 


3 


26 


2 


2 


4 


2 


2 


o 


i 


27 


2 


2 


4 


3 


3 


o 


i 


28 


3 


I 


8 


4 


7 


i 


o 


29 


S 


3 


4 


5 


4 


o 


2 


30 


i 


o 


2 


6 


3 


o 


O 


31 


6 


i 


2 


7 


5 


o 


I 


32 


i 


3 


7 


8 


2 


o 


I 


33 


S 


3 


6 


9 


3 


2 


I 


34 


2 


3 


6 


10 


i 





2 


3S 


3 


i 


6 


ii 


2 


I 





36 





2 


6 


12 


2 


I 


2 


37 


S 


4 


7 


13 


I 


O 


O 


38 


i 


i 


5 


14 


2 


o 


3 


39 


i 


o 


2 


IS 


4 


o 


3 


40 


i 


3 


8 


16 


o 


2 


S 


41 


4 


6 


i 


17 


i 


I 


o 


42 


3 


3 


4 


18 


2 


I 


4 


43 


3 


i 


3 


19 


2 





3 


44 


4 


3 


4 


20 


3 





4 


45 


o 


3 


3 


21 


2 





S 


46 


2 


3 


6 


22 


I 


I 


3 


47 


2 


i 


i 


23 


O 


o 


4 


48 


3 


7 


S 


24 


4 


I 


4 


49 


2 


2 


6 


25 


7 


3 


8 


So 


I 





6 


seventeenth 

thrown Ahr 


days inclusive, 

Mit this tirnp n<=T 


73 out of 92 

xr rhiirtc WPT-A 


errors 

O-IVATI r 


were 

MTt P 


over- 



array of stickers no longer presented so imposing an ap- 



The Acquisition of Complex Skills 207 

pearance, and his self-confidence began to wane. tf l hope I'll 
get a lot tg-day/ or 'Maybe I can get better to-morrow/ 
are characteristic remarks of this period. Overthrowing be- 
came much less frequent, dropping to 47 per cent of the total 
number of errors made between the 2Oth and 24th days. 
On the 1 8th day he had discovered for himself that the 
rings balanced better if held at the point of junction. From 
that time on he continued to be very punctilious about this 
point, frequently remarking "I must always take them here, 
mustn't I?" This discovery, together with correction of the 
tendency to overthrow the mark, apparently accounts for 
the rise in the curve at this point. The second falling off in 
performance which began about the 35th day, and, with the 
exception of a brief period of improvement around the 
4Oth day, continued to the end of the practice period ap- 
peared to be the result of a curious association of meaning 
with the word careful which to him seemed to be synonym- 
ous with gentle. 'I must be careful today, mustn't I?' he 
would say repeatedly. Taking the ring gingerly between 
finger and thumb he would toss it with the utmost gentle- 
ness, with the result that it often fell a considerable distance 
short of the mark. He appeared to see no connection be- 
tween his carefulness and the resultant error; and on several 
occasions remarked after a failure of this sort, Til be care- 
fuller this time,' and repeated the performance exactly. 
During the last eight days of the practice period, 75 per cent 
of the errors were underthrown. It is not known how this 
peculiar verbal association arose, as the expression had not 
been used by the experimenter at any time." 

"This case furnishes an interesting example of retro- 
gressive learning through the setting up of incorrect modes 
of response in spite of excellent effort on the part of the 
subject. Interest was apparently very keen throughout the 
experimental period; he was always eager to come to the 



208 Experimental Child Study 

laboratory to "play the ringer game," was delighted at each 
successful throw and disappointed at each failure. Indeed, 
this very interest appears to have reacted unfavorably for 
success in his case; first through creating over-self-confi- 
dence, and later on through the development of undue 
anxiety and caution." 

"Subject 6A at first threw the rings with a decided twist 
of the wrist, producing a whirling movement by which the 
rings often fell almost at her feet. From this she changed 
to raising the rings high above her head, then throwing 
them downward with much force but little attention to the 
angle at which they were held, so that they frequently struck 
upon the edge. For the first twenty-three days she alternated 
from one to the other of these methods, during which time 
her curve shows but little progress. An eleven day vacation 
then intervened, and on the first day after her return she 
spontaneously adopted an overhand pitch which was quite 
different from either of her former methods. She adhered 
to this method until the end of the practice period and made 
steady improvement throughout. Special inquiry was made 
at the home to ascertain whether or not any instruction or 
practice had been given during the vacation period. There 
had been none. It seems, therefore, that the chief importance 
of the eleven day interval lay in the fact that it permitted 
the former undesirable habits to become weakened through 
disuse, so that a new method was more readily adopted." 

"Subject gA, after a brief period of experimentation, de- 
veloped a constant method of holding and throwing the rings 
to which she adhered throughout the experimental period. 
She was careful to grasp the rings at the point of juncture, 
raised them shoulder high, and threw downward. Steady 
improvement was shown, except for a single brief drop which 
coincided with certain unusual activities elsewhere and may 
have been an expression of slight fatigue. With this excep- 



The Acquisition of Complex Skills 209 

tion, improvement continued steadily until after the Christ- 
mas vacation, when there is a marked drop in efficiency 
which Is only just beginning to be made up at the end of 
the experimental period. This record, taken in conjunction 
with those of Subjs. 6A and 7 A, suggests that interruption 
of practice in the acquisition of a motor habit may function 
either to the advantage or disadvantage of the learning 
individual, according as the particular habits which are in 
process of formation are desirable or undesirable. If the sub- 
ject is improving his efficiency, a temporary discontinuance 
of practice may result in a loss of skill previously attained. 
If, on the other hand, continued practice is operating merely 
to fix undesirable habits more firmly, a period without prac- 
tice, which permits the undesirable habits to become weak- 
ened through disuse, may be the best possible preparation 
for the establishment of more desirable habits." 

REFERENCES 

The student is referred to the following titles in the 
bibliography at the end of this book: 

10, 87, no*, 127, 128*, 155, 173, 308, 310, 330, 339. 



Chapter 23 
LANGUAGE DEVELOPMENT 

T EARNING to talk may fairly be called the most im- 
JL-^ portant single developmental process which takes place 
in the human infant. Man shares most of his abilities with 
the lower animals; but in the possession of an organized 
system of language he is unique. In man, the use of language 
is so intimately tied up with thought processes that some 
psychologists have put forth the view that the two are identi- 
cal that thinking is merely subvocal speech. Whether or 
not this is literally correct, it is clearly true that words act 
as convenient symbols without which the formation of clear 
ideas would be greatly hampered. Language is thus a sym- 
bolic process by which simple vocalizations or groups of 
written characters function in place of the cumbersome 
material objects or the time consuming acts for which they 
are substituted. We use language symbols so easily and 
glibly that it does not often occur to us how inconvenient 
it would be if we were forced to employ the complete actions 
or real objects signified by these linguistic symbols. Through 
the use of language, moreover, we are able to deal with 
abstractions, generalizations, qualities and attributes as eas- 
ily as with the concrete material objects in our environment. 
In this connection it is most enlightening to read Helen 
Keller's account of her mental life before the acquisition of 
language, and of the rapid expansion of her ideas and 
thought processes as new words were learned. After reading 
her reminiscences of this period it is hard to escape the con- 



Language Development 211 

elusion that whether or not thought processes are identical 
with language processes, the use of language symbols greatly 
facilitates and clarifies the formation of ideas, while in the 
absence of language, thought is greatly hampered. 

Thus far, we have considered language only in its rela- 
tion to the individual. But man is a social being, and there 
can be little doubt that social interaction has played a 
dominant role in the development of civilization. Whether 
we are interested in the individual or the group, in mental 
organization or social relationships, the study of language 
behavior offers one of the most promising means of investi- 
gation. It is doubtful whether any other source of data 
lends itself to so many different uses, or affords an equally 
adequate means of obtaining insight into complex aspects of 
human behavior. For this reason, it is worth while to ex- 
amine the techniques available for the study of language 
with much care. 

In the study of any form of behavior, the first problem 
with which we are confronted is that of reducing our de- 
scriptive accounts of observed events to quantitative terms. 
In the earlier studies of language development, complete 
vocabulary records covering the first few years of life were 
kept for a number of cases. Although this method is valu- 
able if time and opportunity permit, it is evidently not suited 
to the study of large groups of unselected children for the 
purpose of establishing developmental standards. Moreover, 
vocabulary studies alone do not throw light on the func- 
tional or social aspects of language from which important 
inferences with reference to personality, interests, etc., may 
often be drawn. For this purpose, larger language units such 
as sentences and continuous conversation are needed. 

A method which has shown itself to be serviceable both 
for the purpose of furnishing quantitative data on language 
development per se, and as a means of classifying language 



212 Experimental Child Study 

behavior on a functional or social basis has been developed 
by McCarthy (170). It is described in the following ex- 
periment. 

Experiment No. 18 

Language Behavior of Children in a Controlled 
Situation 

Material: A number of interesting toys and picture books. 
The following were used by McCarthy: a little red auto- 
mobile, a cat that squeaked, a telephone with a bell, a little 
tin mouse, a music box and a small ball. Two picture books 
were also used. The first which was preferred by the younger 
children contained pictures of animals, usually with one 
central object in each picture. The other contained group 
pictures illustrating various Mother Goose rhymes. It is 
probable that minor changes from this list will not ma- 
terially affect results. 

Subjects: If comparison is to be made with McCarthy's 
standards, children should be selected at a time within two 
weeks of the yearly or half-yearly birthday. However, if 
this is not convenient, interpolation can be made with fair 
accuracy. Children between the ages of 18 and 54 months 
should be used. Each student should secure data on three 
children: a two-year-old, a three-year-old, and a four-year- 
old. 

Procedure: Each child should be tested individually in a 
familiar environment (home or nursery-school). After 
enough preliminary conversation to insure freedom of re- 
sponse the experimenter says: "I have some things to show 
you. Which would you like to see first toys or picture?" 
In most cases a preference will be indicated, but if not, the 
experimenter presents the toy which seems best suited to 
the age, sex, and apparent interest of the child. If this 



Language Development 213 

fails to bring forth verbal response within a minute or two 
another toy is produced. No constant order is followed in 
presenting the material. 

After showing the first toy, every verbal response or 
expressive vocalization should be recorded verbatim. This is 
continued until 50 consecutive responses have been secured. 
If a response is incomprehensible (as will be true with 
some of the younger children) it should be recorded phoneti- 
cally as nearly as possible. This should also be done in 
the case of incomprehensible elements in semi-compre- 
hensible responses. A single response is defined as (i) each 
complete sentence in continuous conversation, or (2) any 
response, whether or not it is a complete sentence, which Is 
set off by distinct pauses, or (3) incomplete sentences in 
practically continuous conversation which are clearly set off 
as distinct language units by reason of their content. 

Since the aim is to secure spontaneous responses, the child 
is addressed as little as possible during the observation. In 
the case of very quiet or unresponsive children it may be 
necessary to stimulate conversation by remarks or questions. 
If this is done, all such remarks should also be recorded and 
the responses classified as elicited rather than spontaneous. 

The time required to secure the 50 responses should be 
recorded to the nearest minute in all cases. 

Analysis of individual records: I. Quantitative analysis. 
Classify the responses as incomprehensible, semi-compre- 
hensible (in which some words, but not all, could be under- 
stood) and entirely comprehensible. Prepare frequency dis- 
tributions for the comprehensible responses, showing for 
each child the number of one word responses, two word re- 
sponses, three word responses, etc. Find for each subject 
(a) the mean length of response, (b) the total number of 
words used including repetitions, (c) the total number of 
different words used, (d) length of longest sentence used, 



214 Experimental Child Study 

(e) the most typical sentence length (the crude mode).* 
These figures should be based on the comprehensible re- 
sponses only. Find also the per cent of the total number of 
responses falling within each of the three main classes: 
comprehensible, semi-comprehensible, and incomprehensible. 
2. Functional analysis; Classify each comprehensible re- 
sponse according to McCarthy's (170) modification of the 
Piaget analysis (203). A brief outline of the method used 
by McCarthy is given below. 

A. Egocentric speech. 

(1) Repetition or echolalia 

(2) Monologue 

(3) Dual or collective monologue 

B. Socialized speech 

(1) Adapted information 

(a) Naming 

(b) Remarks about the immediate situation 

(c) Remarks associated with the situation 

(d) Irrelevant remarks 

(2) Criticism 

(3) Emotionally-toned responses 

(4) Questions 

(5) Answers 

(6) Social phrases 

(7) Dramatic imitation 

"By egocentric speech Piaget means that in which the 
audience is disregarded. The child talks either for himself 
or for the pleasure of associating any one who happens to 
be there with the activity of the moment. He speaks only 
about himself and makes no attempt to place himself at the 
point of view of his hearer." 

*The crude mode is the class interval in a frequency distribution which. 
Includes the greatest number of frequencies. 



Language Development 215 

"Repetition or echolalia means repetition of words and 
syllables for the pleasure of talking, with no thought of talk- 
ing to any one, nor even, at times, of saying words that will 
make sense. Monologue occurs when the child talks to him- 
self as though he were thinking aloud, without addressing 
any one. In dual or collective monologue an outsider is al- 
ways associated with the thought or action of the moment, 
but is expected neither to hear nor to understand. The point 
of view of the hearer is never taken into account. The child 
talks about himself without collaboration with his audience 
or without evoking dialog." 

"Socialized speech occurs when the child addresses his 
hearer or considers his point of view, tries to influence him 
or actually exchanges ideas with his hearer. The first cate- 
gory of socialized speech, according to Piaget, is adapted 
information in which the child really exchanges his thought 
with others, either by telling him something that will in- 
terest him, influence his action, or by actual interchange of 
ideas." The four sub-categories are adequately defined by 
their titles. Criticism applies either to objects or persons. 
Emotionally toned responses includes commands, requests, 
threats, "wish-words" and also single word sentences uttered 
with a decided emotional inflection. Questions include all 
sentences having an interrogative function, whether or not 
they are expressed in interrogative form, but do not include 
declarative sentences with an interrogation added as a mat- 
ter of form or simply for approval or affirmation, as "I made 
it go, didn't I?" Answers includes all elicited responses ex- 
cept those made in response to remarks which were not 
questions. The latter are usually classified under adapted 
information. Social phrases includes expressions which occur 
only in social situations which the child has been taught to 
say parrot fashion, as "thank you," "by-bye," etc. Dramatic 
imitation includes all talk in imitation of the conversation 



2i 6 Experimental Child Study 

of adults such as imaginative conversation., also imitation 
of the sounds made by animals, trains, etc! 3 * 

The student should prepare a table showing the number 
of sentences for each child falling within each functional 
category. 

3. Construction analysis: Classify each response under 
one of the following heads: (a) incomplete sentences, in 
which essential structural elements are missing in a way not 
sanctioned by adult usage as "doggie bark" (for "the doggie 
Is barking," or "will bark," etc.) ; (b) sentences which are 
functionally complete but structurally incomplete when 
the construction is also employed by adults, as "All finished, 
now?" or "Bad weather to-day," (c) sentences which are 
complete both structurally and functionally though they 
may contain grammatical errors. The last group should be 
further subdivided into (i) simple sentences without a 
phrase, (2) simple sentences with one phrase, (3) sentences 
with two or more coordinate clauses without modifying 
phrases, (4) complex sentences with one dependent clause 
and no phrases, (5) elaborated sentences containing at least 
three clauses or phrases (including the major clause). Pre- 
pare a table showing the number of sentences for each child 
falling within each structural category. 

4. Word analysis: Classify each word used according to 
the part of speech (noun, pronoun, etc.). Prepare a table 
showing the number and percentage of each part of speech 
used by each child, basing the frequencies both on the total 
number of words used including repetitions of the same word 
and on the total number of different words excluding repeti- 
tions. 

Class problems: After the individual tables have been 
prepared, results for the entire class may be combined, keep- 
ing ages and sexes separate. Using these results compute: 
* Quoted from McCarthy (170), pp. 39~4 2 - 



Language Development 217 

1. The mean length of sentence used by children at each 
age. McCarthy's results are given below for comparison. 

2. The mean total number of different words used at each 
age. Compare with McCarthy. 

3. Sex differences in mean length of sentence; in mean 
number of different words used. 

4. Percentile graphs for each age based upon the com- 
bined frequency distributions for length of response. 

TABLE 13 

MEAN NUMBER OF WORDS PER RESPONSE BY CHRONOLOGICAL 

AGE AND SEX 

From McCarthy 

18 mo. 24 mo. 30 mo. j(5 mo. 42 mo. 4.8 mo. 54 mo. 

Boys 0.96 1.38 3.18 3.09 4.18 4.34 4.55 

Girls 1.33 2.14 3.09 3.81 4.41 4.41 4.74 

Sexes 

combined 1.16 1.82 3.13 3.41 4.27 4.38 4.63 

It is often useful to know what percentage of children at 
any age equal or exceed a given level of performance. A 
common way of expressing this is by means of percentlles 
which show the level below which a given percentage of 
cases fall. For example, the 3Oth percentile is the level below 
which 30 per cent and above which 70 per cent of the cases 
lie* 

There are a number of ways of computing percentile or 
decile values but the graphic method is usually the easiest. 
From the combined frequency tables for each age and sex 
find what percentage of the total number of comprehensible 
sentences used by the two-year-olds are one word in length, 
what percentage are two words in length, three words in 

* Unless the number of cases in the group is very large, only the succes- 
sive ten per cent intervals are commonly Indicated. These divisions are 
known as deciles. 



2i 8 Experimental Child Study 

length and so on. Enter these percentages in a column to 
the right of the frequency column. In a second column enter 
the cumulative values of these percentages by adding each 
successive percentage to the total lying below It. These fig- 
ures show what percentage of the sentences consisted of 
one word, what percentage of not over two words, what 
percentage of not over three words and so on. Using a sheet 
of decimal-ruled paper, lay off along the ordinate the succes- 
sive lengths of sentence, as one word, two words, three 
words, etc., spacing equally. On the chart at each of these 
points place a dot representing the cumulative frequencies 
in terms of percentages. Draw lines connecting these dots as 
shown in Figure 21. The values of the successive deciles can 
then be read directly from the chart by first locating the 10 
per cent line on the abscissa and reading across to the point 
at which it intersects the curve, then doing the same for the 
20 per cent level, etc. Do the same for the children of three 
and four years and tabulate the results. 

Draw percentile graphs for the class data, placing the 
boys and girls of each age on the same graph and the totals 
for both sexes at the three age levels on a fourth sheet to 
facilitate age and sex comparison. 

The distances set off by the 25th, 5oth and 75th percen- 
tiles are known as the quartiles, since they are the points 
which divide the entire distribution into four parts, each 
including a quarter of the total number of cases. One-half 
the distance from the 25th to the 75th percentile is known as 
the semi-interquartile range. In a normal distribution this 
will be identical in value with the probable error or P.E., 
and for this reason the terms have been used interchange- 
ably by some writers. This is a regrettable practice, since 
few distributions based upon concrete data are precisely 
normal in distribution. Chance fluctuations of sampling will 
usually introduce small departures from normality unless 



Language Development 



219 



i / 

4 f. 




















| 


ib 

15 
14 
13 
12 
11 
10 
S 9 

Ci 
O 

.# 8 
7 
6 
5 
4 
3 
2 
i 
O 




















/ 




















/ 


















/ 


1 


















/ 




















/ 


















/ 


















/ 


r 


















/ 


















/ 


















/ 


















/ 


^ 
















/ 


^ 
















X 


















/ 




















/ 




















/ 





















10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 
Cumulative 



FIGURE 21. 
Method of drawing percentile curves. 

the number of cases is exceptionally large. For this reason 
it is better to reserve the use of the term probable error 
for the theoretical distributions representing the probable 



22O Experimental Child Study 

fluctuations of statistical measures from sampling to sam- 
pling (see Chapter 16) as the P.E. of the mean, of a co- 
efficient of correlation, of a percentage, etc. 

Calculate the quartiles and the semi-interquartile range 
for each age group. 

5. Assemble the results of the functional analysis obtained 
by the entire class by ages and sexes separately. In the Mc- 
Carthy study it was found that adapted information, ques- 
tions, and answers increase in frequency with age, while 
emotionally toned responses decrease with age. Is a similar 
trend shown by these results? 

6. In like manner, assemble the class results of the con- 
struction analysis. What age trends are shown? 

7. Combine the class results for the word analysis, both 
on the basis of the total number of words used, and the 
total number of different words. Which method shows the 
most clear-cut age changes in the proportions of the different 
parts of speech? Describe these changes in detail. 

8. Compare the sexes for all language functions showing 
an age trend. Upon the whole, which sex seems more ad- 
vanced in language development? 

9. Find the mean and standard deviation of the time re- 
quired to secure the fifty responses at each age. What does 
this suggest as to age development in talkativeness ? 

Experiment No. 19 
Language Behavior in a Free Play Situation 

If opportunity permits and the class is large enough, it is 
interesting to carry out a check study, using the same sub- 
jects but recording the language responses during the free 
play hour when the child is in a group of other children near 
his own age. It is hardly worth while to have both studies 
done by the entire class, but if the number of students is 



Language Development 221 

sufficient they may be divided into two groups, one of which 
carries out Experiment 18, the other Experiment 19. Results 
may then be assembled for comparison of the language be- 
havior in the two situations. In this case the observer takes 
up a position near enough the child to hear all that is said 
but without addressing him or entering into the play-situation 
in any way. Each language response is recorded as it occurs, 
until fifty responses have been observed. The time required 
to secure the data should also be recorded. 

Results should be analyzed in the same manner as in the 
preceding experiment. Compare the findings. In what re- 
spects does language behavior seem most directly dependent 
upon the situation in which it takes place? 

REFERENCES 

The student is referred to the following titles in the 
bibliography at the end of this book: 

17, 26, 29, 78, 115, *69* 7 170*, 195, 196, 198*, 203*, 213*, 
225, 233, 235, 238, 263, 281, 307, 313, 319, 330, 335, 342, 
394*- 



Chapter 24 
VOCABULARY 

SINCE language is a symbolic process, it is not surprising 
that a rather close relationship exists between facility 
in the use of language and intelligence as measured by 
standard tests. The latter are constructed upon the assump- 
tion that "intelligence" is the power to think in abstract 
terms, to see relations, to make use of what has been for- 
merly learned in adapting to new situations, etc. The rela- 
tionship of intelligence test standing to language has been 
shown most clearly with reference to vocabulary. As Terman 
(241) has pointed out, a good vocabulary test is one of the 
best short intelligence tests available, provided that the 
children tested come from English speaking homes where 
they have had normal opportunity to learn the language. 
The relationship between size of vocabulary and intelligence 
test scores appears to be about equally well marked at all 
ages. 

Apart from its indirect significance as an index to general 
mental level, the possession of a good vocabulary is im- 
portant in its own right. Imperfect knowledge of words is 
a great handicap to any child who must gain much of his 
information through the printed page. Vocabulary studies 
in the early grades are of much importance since the handi- 
cap arising from a deficient vocabulary becomes more seri- 
ous as the child advances further in school and gains more 
and more of his information' through reading. 

222 



Vocabulary 223 

Experiment No. 20 

A Standard Vocabulary Test for Primary 

Grade Children 

Give the vocabulary test In the Stanford achievement scale 
(362) to second, third, and fourth grade children. This is a 
group test, requiring only ten to fifteen minutes for its ad- 
ministration to an entire class. Instructions for giving the 
test are to be found in the manual which accompanies the 
test blanks. Divide the children on the basis of age, grade, 
and sex. 

1. Find the differences between the means of successive 
age groups and the reliability of these differences. 

2. Find the differences between the means of successive 
grade groups and the reliability of these differences. On the 
whole, are the age differences or the grade differences abso- 
lutely greater? In which case is the difference more reliably 
established? 

3. Compute a "vocabulary quotient" for each child by 
dividing his "vocabulary age" according to the standards 
given in the manual of instructions by his chronological 
age. Compare the "vocabulary quotients" of children who 
are accelerated in school with those of retarded children. 

Experiment No. 21 
Word-Knowledge and Class Standing 

From one of the school textbooks (a geography or history 
is preferable) select a list of 50 difficult words which occur 
at least three times and for which no definition is given. Pre- 
pare a vocabulary test of the "multiple choice" type in which 
the child is required to select from among four words the one 
which most nearly corresponds to the test word in meaning. 
Examples are given below: 



224 Experimental Child Study 

Underline the right word in each line. 

1. Altitude means: attitude, height, garret, a vegetable. 

2. Ancient means: history, salty, expensive, old. 

Give the test to children in the grade in which the text- 
book is used (fourth to sixth grade children preferably). 
Compare the number of errors made by each child with 
their class marks in the subject from which the words were 
selected. Discuss the results. 

REFERENCES 

The student is referred to the following titles in the 
bibliography at the end of this book: 

29, 61, 62, 63, 83, 93, 136, 195, 213, 233*, 235, 238, 241*, 
247, 258, 275, 301, 313, 319, 335. 





A 



D 





B 









H 



K 





Chapter 25 
GENERAL INTELLECTUAL DEVELOPMENT 



popular use of such terms as "measuring intelli- 
A gence," "mental tests/' and the like may lead the 
layman to assume that "Intelligence" is an organized and 
independent "faculty" or "ability" which exists in man, 
much as a canary exists in its cage, or a goldfish in its bowl. 
Of course this is not true, nor is it true that we are able to 
measure intelligence at all, in the sense that the word "meas- 
urement" is used in the physical sciences. We can, however, 
classify individuals with respect to their ability to perform 
certain tasks which experience has shown to be more or less 
diagnostic of ability to succeed in school or college or in 
the more "intellectual" occupations of adult life. While our 
devices for making these classifications are not completely 
accurate either in the sense that two persons applying the 
same test to the same individual on succeeding days will 
secure exactly the same result, or in the sense that the 
measurements taken yield a perfect prediction of accomplish- 
ment along "intellectual" lines ; nevertheless they have shown 
themselves to be more useful than any other methods de- 
veloped for this purpose. 

Owing to the fact that the term measurement is used in 
different senses in the physical and mental sciences, some 
people have regretted that the expression mental measure- 
ment ever came into popular use. However, no real mis- 
conception need arise if the student remembers that in the 
latter case we are dealing with a principle of classification 

225 



226 Experimental Child Study 

only. Words vary in meaning according to the context 
in which they are used. The dentist "extracts" a tooth, the 
mathematician "extracts" a square root, and the lawyer 
"extracts" information from an unwilling witness. The fact 
that the same name is given to very different processes does 
not trouble us. Neither should the difference between men- 
tal and physical "measurements," provided we bear in 
mind that in the case of physical measurements we are 
employing units which are universally applicable to all 
objects which occupy space. Mental measurements, on the 
other hand, have a very limited range of applicability. They 
have no meaning apart from the performance of other per- 
sons who have been measured in the same way. Thus we 
say that a certain child has a "mental age" of seven years, 
meaning that on the test used he did as well as the average 
child of seven. Or we may say that he ranks in the goth 
percentile for his age; meaning that out of a hundred chil- 
dren of his age who had been given this test, only ten did 
better than he. In the same way we say that a child is as 
tall as the average seven-year-old; or that he is among the 
tallest 10 per cent of his class. But in addition to this, we 
may say that he is 50 inches or 128 centimeters in height. 
No such general measurement which is independent of the 
performance of other persons on the test used is available 
as yet in the field of mental measurement. Our tests, then, 
classify the individual with respect to his position in the 
group, but do not measure him In any way which is inde- 
pendent of the group to which he belongs. 

The administration of the more exact individual mental 
tests, such as the Binet test, requires a considerable amount 
of special training on the part of the examiner. There are, 
however, a number of simple tests, the administration of 
which requires little or no special training and which can 
be scored by very simple and objective methods. The stu- 



General Intellectual Development 227 

dent should realize that tests of this kind are not sufficiently 
exact to yield anything more than a rather crude estimate 
of individual differences in mental development. They should 
never be used for diagnosis if any matter of real importance 
for the child's future is involved. Nevertheless such tests if 
carefully given according to instructions fill a very useful 
purpose as a basis for tentative classification or as a means 
of making a preliminary sifting of children to be tested 
in more detail before admitting them to special classes or 
granting extra promotion. Among the tests of this kind which 
are suitable for use with kindergarten children may be men- 
tioned the Detroit Kindergarten Test (347), the Rhode Is- 
land Test (350), and the Pintner-Cunningham Test (370). 
For children in the first and second grades, the Haggerty 
Delta I (356), the Pressey Primary Classification Scale 
(373)3 the Pintner-Cunningham Test (370) or the Detroit 
First Grade Test (349), are suitable. For children with spe- 
cial language handicaps such as those coming from foreign 
homes, the Pintner Non-language Test (369) or the Good- 
enough Test based on spontaneous drawing (354) will be 
found useful. 

In using any of these tests the inexperienced examiner 
must bear in mind that even minor departures from the 
standardized procedures may cause differences in the results 
which will invalidate any comparison with standardized 
norms. The examiner should familiarize himself thoroughly 
with the procedure before attempting to give the test and 
should follow the instructions verbatim. This rule applies 
alike to the manner of giving and of scoring the tests. 

In using these tests, two new expressions will be used 
which may need to be explained here. 

Mental age is the level of performance expressed in terms 
of crude score or "points passed" which is most typical of 
children of any given chronological age. In the manuals of 



228 Experimental Child Study 

instruction accompanying the tests suggested in this chap- 
ter there will be found tables of "mental age norms" which 
show the scores earned by the average child of each chrono- 
logical age. To find the mental age of any child, it is neces- 
sary only to locate in the table the score which he earned on 
the test. The entry opposite will give the mental age equiva- 
lent of that score. Thus a child of 4 years o months, who 
makes a score of 15 on the Detroit Kindergarten Test is said 
to have a mental age of 5 years o months, which means that 
on this test he did as well as the average child of five. 

But for a child of four to be advanced a full year in men- 
tal age means much more than it does for a child of ten to 
be equally advanced, since the ten-year-old has had ten 
years 5 time in which to gain his advanced standing while 
the four-year-old has had but four years. We need some 
method of relating the amount of advancement or retarda- 
tion to the age of the child. A simple and useful method is 
that of the intelligence quotient or IQ which is obtained by 
dividing the mental age by the chronological age. It is cus- 
tomary to carry this division to two decimal places and to 
express the result as a whole number (omitting the decimal). 
Thus in the example just given, the four-year-old with a 
mental age of 5 would have an IQ of 5/4 or 125. A five-year- 
old with a mental age of 4 would have an IQ of 4/5 or 80. 
The child who is exactly "average for his age" will have 
an IQ of 100. 

In order to interpret the IQ correctly, a knowledge of the 
approximate frequency in the general population of IQ's 
of various degrees above or below 100 is needed. Since 
certain tests have a greater "spread" or variability than oth- 
ers, account should be taken of the "spread" in interpreting 
the results. However, the following interpretations may be 
used tentatively for tests such as have been mentioned in 
this chapter. 



General Intellectual Development 229 

IO Interpretation 

130 or above Very superior 

120 130 Superior 

no 120 Slightly superior 

go IIO Average 

80 90 Slightly retarded 

70 80 Retarded, may or may not be 

serious 

Below 70 Decidedly retarded, should 

have special examination 

Experiment No. 22 

A Mental Test for Kindergarten Children 

Each student should give one of the tests mentioned at the 
beginning of this chapter to from three to five kindergarten 
children. At this age it is better to give the tests individually, 
even if the instructions state that it Is permissible to give 
them to small groups. Score the results and compute the 
mental age (MA) and IQ for each child. Compare with re- 
sults of other tests if any have been given, and with teacher's 
estimates of children's ability. 

Experiment No. 23 

A Group Intelligence Test for Primary 
Grade Children 

If opportunity permits, it is worth while for each member 
of the class to give one of the standard primary group tests 
to an entire class of children within the range of first to 
third grade.* Higher grades may be included if desired. All 
tests should be scored independently by two members of the 
class who will exchange their papers for this purpose. The 

* A list of tests is given in Section III of the bibliography. 



230 Experimental Child Study 

tests must be given and scored In the exact manner de- 
scribed in the manual 

Problems: i. Prepare frequency surfaces showing the dis- 
tribution of mental ages within each grade. Do the same 
for the distribution of IQ's. 

2. Find the median score for each grade. What percent- 
age of children in each grade equal or exceed the median 
score of the next higher grade? What percentage in each 
grade fall below the median of the grade next lower? 

3. In each grade, what is the correlation between chrono- 
logical age and score on the test? 

4. If possible, have the teacher in each grade arrange the 
children in rank order for general class standing, and corre- 
late the results with the rank orders on the test* 

REFERENCES 

The student is referred to the following titles in the 
bibliography at the end of this book: 

7, 10, 13, 39, 53, 55, 61, 64, 93, 103*, 119, 144, 207, 215*, 
237,^243*, 244, 248, 286, 293, 323*, 330, 334, 340. See also 
Section III. Titles 347-380. 



Chapter 26 

JUDGING INTELLIGENCE FROM PERSONAL 
APPEARANCE 

T\yTAE"Y people believe that In some way the mental 
J- * A capacity of an individual can be judged from his ap- 
pearance. In making these judgments some people state 
that they rely chiefly upon the shape of the head, others 
upon general facial expression, others upon special features 
such as the eyes, the nose, the height of the forehead and 
so on. This reliance upon personal appearance as a means 
of estimating other characteristics is so general that many 
business firms, professional organizations such as Boards of 
Education, and so on, require that all applicants for positions 
must submit a photograph as a part of their application. In 
estimating the ability of their pupils, teachers frequently 
admit that they are guided In part by the fact that the 
child "looks bright" or "looks stupid." It is Interesting, there- 
fore, to see how closely such estimates of intelligence agree 
with the results of standardized tests. 

Experiment No. 24 
Judging Intelligence from Photographs 

Material: In Figure 22 there will be found a series of 
photographs of children, all of whom were between the ages 
of four and five years. A uniform garment is used in order 
to eliminate the possibility of the judgment being influenced 
by the clothing. 

231 



232 Experimental Child Study 

Subjects: The members of the class will act as judges. 

Procedure: The photographs in Figure 22, page 226 
should be cut apart, together with their identifying letters, 
and mounted on separate sheets of cardboard. The student 
should then select two photographs at random, and after 
comparing them with each other, decide which of the two 
children appears to him to be more intelligent. This photo- 
graph should be placed to the right of the others on the 
desk before him. A third photograph should then be selected 
and compared with each of the others in turn. If the third 
child is thought to be more intelligent than the first but 
less intelligent than the second, it is placed between them in 
the row, if more intelligent than either it is placed at the 
right, and if less intelligent than either at the left of the other 
two. A fourth photograph is then taken and compared with 
each of the other three in turn and thus placed in its appro- 
priate position in the series. When all the photographs have 
been arranged in this way, the student should check the ar- 
rangement by looking through them first from left to right, 
then backwards from right to left. Any changes in position 
which seem desirable should be made until he is satisfied with 
his arrangement. The identifying letters of the photographs 
should then be recorded in order as they are ranked. After 
the arrangements have been made and recorded the students 
should turn to page 517 of this book where the intelligence 
quotients of these children will be found. These figures are 
based upon an individual mental test given by a competent 
psychologist. Students should not consult the test results 
until after the photographs have been arranged and should 
not confer with each other when making the arrangements. 

Problems: I. Each student should correlate the rank or- 
ders of the children according to his judgment of their 
ability with the rank orders for test-intelligence as indicated 
by the scores given on page 517. 



Judging Intelligence 233 

2. Find the mean rank orders given to each subject by all 
the members of the class. Rerank these means and correlate 
the rank orders thus obtained with the rank orders accord- 
ing to the test results. How does the judgment of the group 
compare with the individual judgment of the members of the 
group with regard to accuracy in judging intelligence? 

3. Each student should subtract his own rankings from 
the sum of those given by all the members of the group, and 
find the correlation between his rankings and those of the 
remaining members of the class. On the average, do the 
individual rankings show a closer agreement with the com- 
pound judgment of a number of other people or with the 
test results? What explanation can you offer? , 

4. Compare the results obtained by this group with those 
reported in the literature. Upon the basis of these combined 
findings, what conclusions would you draw with regard to 
the usefulness of photographs as a means of estimating in- 
telligence ? 

REFERENCES 

The student is referred to the following titles in the 
bibliography at the end of this book: 

84, 206*, 300*. 



Chapter 27 
SOCIO-ECONOMIC STATUS 

BEFORE drawing conclusions with regard to results ob- 
tained from any limited group, it is frequently necessary 
and always desirable to know something of the selective 
factors which have determined the composition of the group. 
Since individuals may be classified in many different ways, 
there are many different standpoints from which the compo- 
sition of a group may be judged. Although the precise factors 
which need most to be taken into consideration in any indi- 
vidual problem will depend upon the nature of the facts 
which are being investigated, there are certain factors which 
have been found to affect the results of so many different 
kinds of investigations that it is rarely safe to ignore them. 
A general standard of reference is needed, in order that 
we may know to what extent the group with which we are 
dealing departs from that standard. In the field of intelli- 
gence tests for example, we have set the standards in such 
a way that an "average" group will be found to have a 
mean IQ of 100 with a standard deviation of about 16 to 
1 8 points of IQ (271). In the case of physical measure- 
ments, standards have been developed from the measure- 
ments of large numbers of individuals of different ages by 
means of which we can state with reasonable assurance that 
a given group averages shorter or taller, lighter or heavier, 
and so on, than the average for the population as a whole. 
Other tables have been prepared showing the average 
amount of sleep taken by children of different ages, their 
average caloric intake and so on. 

234 



Soclo-Bcoiiomic Status 235 

Among the more general factors, socio-economic status 
appears to be related to an unusually wide variety of traits 
and functions. Upon the average, children who come from 
the better socio-economic classes stand higher on intelligence 
tests (103), are more advanced in language (170), sleep more 
(77), have more toys (230), are less likely to fail in school 
(46)5 and so on through a long list of related characteristics 
which cannot be completely enumerated here. While it must 
be remembered that these are only general tendencies which 
show many individual exceptions, nevertheless the relation- 
ships just enumerated will commonly be found to hold on the 
average for large groups. 

Whether the advantages offered by the homes of superior 
social status tend to increase the intelligence of children, or 
whether the superior ability of the parents which enables 
them to attain positions of higher social status is transmitted 
to their offspring is uncertain. From correlation alone it is 
impossible to say which of two related variables is cause 
and which is effect, or whether both are effects of a common 
underlying cause. The fact that two variables are positively 
related to each other means nothing more than that varia- 
tions from the average in one variable are likely to be ac- 
companied by corresponding variations in the other variable. 
The reason for such an association must be determined from 
other information. 

When we find that socio-economic status is related to an 
unusually wide variety of other factors we do not imply that 
it is the cause of these differences. We can say, however, that 
socio-economic status is one of the factors which needs to 
be examined very carefully in all studies where comparison 
is to be made between groups. Suppose, for example, that we 
wish to study the effects of a daily story period upon the 
development of vocabulary. Two groups of children are used. 
To one group stories are told for half an hour daily, while 



236 Experimental Child Study 

the other has no story period. At the end of a definite period 
of time, both groups are tested for extent of vocabulary. If 
it should chance that one group was made up of children 
from the upper social classes while the other was recruited 
from children of the laboring class, extremely erroneous 
conclusions might be drawn from the results of the experi- 
ment, since a greater gain on the part of the first group 
might be a function of the social status, and in no way con- 
nected with the story telling. Even though the groups were 
matched for size of vocabulary at the beginning of the ex- 
perimental period, the effect of the systematic error of sam- 
pling might still appear, since the absolute difference be- 
tween social classes in language development has been shown 
to increase with age. If experimental results are not to be 
vitiated by errors of sampling, a knowledge of the social 
composition of the groups studied is highly important. 

Increasing recognition of the importance of factors such 
as these has led to a number of devices for measuring social 
status, each of which attacks the problem from a somewhat 
different angle. While the results obtained by the different 
methods show some agreement with each other, nevertheless 
there is sufficient disagreement to show that they do not 
measure exactly the same phenomena. The selection of a 
method must be determined by the purpose for which it is to 
be used. 

We shall consider three devices which differ both in con- 
tent and in the manner of obtaining the data. 

In any study in which the results are expected to serve 
as standards with which the scores made by other individuals 
are to be compared, one of two procedures is necessary. 
Either all the individuals to whom the obtained standards 
are expected to apply must be studied, or a representative 
sample used. Since the former is rarely possible, some way 
of testing the sample for systematic errors is needed. The 



Socio-Economlc Status 237 

naatter is not as simple as it seems, since we cannot tell how 
:Iosely a sample resembles the remainder of the population 
From which it has been drawn unless we are in possession 
D knowledge regarding the entire population. This means 
:hat we must use as our criterion for_the adequacy of the 
sample some measure for which information regarding the 
entire population is available. The most accurate informa- 
tion available for all the population is found in the reports 
Df the United States Census Bureau, in which there are com- 
plete tabulations of the occupations of all employed persons. 
Separate tables are given for the country as a whole, for 
the states, and for the larger cities. 

In Appendix A will be found a list of the occupations 
Df adult males for the United States as a whole as given in 
the report of the 1920 census and the number of cases in 
each class. These occupations have been divided into seven 
main groups which may be roughly characterized as follows: 

Percentage of 

employed males 

in United States 

population (1920) 

Group I. Professional 2.54 

Group II. Semi-professional and managerial 4.70 
Group III. Clerical, skilled trades, and re- 
tail business 14.42 

Group IV. Farmers 18.74 

Group V. Semi-skilled occupations, minor 
clerical positions and minor 

business 27.40 

Group VI. Slightly skilled trades and other 
occupations requiring little 

training or ability 13-25 

Group VII. Day laborers of all classes 18.96 

The percentages in each of these general categories for the 
entire male population of the United States are shown in the 
column at the right. 



238 Experimental Child Study 

While occupation is only a crude measure of social status, 
the fact that complete and reasonably accurate comparative 
data for the entire country and for its principal divisions are 
available makes an occupational classification particularly 
useful as a means of examining the composition of selected 
groups. 

Experiment No. 25 

Testing the Social Composition of an Experimental 
Group in Terms of Paternal Occupation 

Using the scheme of classification given in Appendix A, 
find the percentages in each class for the local community 
(state or city). The occupation of the fathers of the children 
in the experimental group or school may then be compared 
either with the local population or with the population for 
the country as a whole in order to determine by how much 
and in what direction the standards derived from this group 
may be expected to diverge from a more representative 
sampling of the community. Find the percentages of each 
occupational class within the group and express each of these 
percentages as a multiple of the normal quota found in the 
general community. 

Two other methods of classifying occupations have been 
developed. The first is the Taussig Industrial Classification 
based upon "non-competing" groups (336); the second is 
the Barr Scale (n) for occupational intelligence in which 
a group of judges ranked a list of 100 selected occupations 
according to their judgment of the relative degree of in- 
telligence necessary to attain an average degree of success in 
each. Scale values for each occupation were worked out on 
the basis of these ratings. Reference to these studies will be 
found in the bibliography. The classificatory scheme given 
here is in part based upon the Barr and the Taussig Scales. 



Soclo-Economlc Status 239 

Experiment No, 26 

The Chapin Scale for Measuring Living Room 
Equipment 

This is a method of studying socio-economic status based 
upon the material equipment of the family living room. Use 
of this scale requires a visit to the home. Since no standards 
for the general community are available, the scale is more 
suitable for use in problems requiring differentiation among 
the members of a specified group than for testing the repre- 
sentativeness of any sample. For purposes of Individual 
study, however, it is probably more accurate than a rating 
based upon the occupation of the father alone. A copy of 
this scale will be found in Appendix B.* 

Problems. I. Have the homes of all the children in the 
experimental group rated on the Chapin Scale. The students 
should work in pairs, visiting each home together but mak- 
ing their records independently. The reliability of the scor- 
ing may then be found by correlating the scores of the first 
member of each pair against those of the second member. 

A difficulty hitherto unencountered is found here; that of 
determining which student is to be regarded as the first and 
which as the second member of a pair when the results from 
a number of different pairs of investigators are to be included 
in the same correlation. If in arranging the table there is a 
constant tendency to place the higher of the two paired 
scores in variable x and the lower in variable y, a serious 
error will be introduced which will raise the correlation co- 
efficient above its true value. A situation similar to this is 
found in the measurement of like-sex twins and In other 
cases in which there is no objective way of determining 

* Blank forms for making these records can be obtained at a small 
cost from the Institute of Child Welfare, University of Minnesota. 



240 Experimental Child Study 

which of the two scores should be considered as the x 
variant and which as the y variant. In all such cases it is 
customary to use what is known as the double entry method. 
Each score is entered twice, first in the x column and then 
in the y column. Although the rank order method of deter- 
mining the correlation may be used, the fact that each num- 
ber is entered in each series of scores to be ranked means 
that unless the number of cases is very small, doubling the 
number of cases in each column makes the process of rank- 
ing very laborious. A better and quicker method is to be 
found in a modification of the Pearson product moment 
method of determining correlation. The general method will 
be taken up in a later chapter, but since the procedure is 
simpler and more readily understood when the variables are 
interchangeable we shall begin with this method. 

If we are dealing with two measurements of the same 
thing expressed in the same terms, and these two measure- 
ments agree perfectly with each other, a deviation from the 
mean in one variable will be exactly paralleled by a devia- 
tion from the mean of the paired score in the second vari- 
able. If the two measures are perfectly correlated with each 
other but are expressed in different units, it is necessary to 
reduce these units to similar terms before the measurements 
can be compared, just as it is necessary to reduce two frac- 
tions to the same denominator before adding or subtracting. 
One way of doing this is to reduce both to rank orders as 
we have previously seen. Another method of reducing the 
variables to similar units is to express each in terms of the 
number of standard deviations above or below the mean 
of its group. In this case a perfect correlation between two 
measures is indicated, not by exact numerical agreement of 
the paired variables (since in this case the gross measure- 
ments are expressed in different terms and therefore the 
numerical values do not have the same significance) but by 



Soclo-Economlc Status 241 

agreement in the extent to which each individual member 
of the pair departs from the mean of its own group when 
this departure is expressed in terms of standard deviations 
of the distribution. When in every instance a variation of an 
x measure from the mean of the x variable (expressed in 
terms of standard deviations of x) Is exactly equal to the 
variation of its paired measure in the y variable (expressed 
in terms of the number of standard deviations of y) the 
agreement is just as complete as if the measures had been 
expressed in similar units in the first place. The correlation 
is therefore i.oo. Moreover, in this case the sum of the 
products^ of the deviations of the individual members of 
the pairs from their respective means will be exactly equal 
to the product of the standard deviations of the two distribu- 
tions multiplied by the number of cases. If, however, the 
agreement between the two variables is less than perfect, a 
high measurement in one is not certainly but only probably 
associated with a high measurement in the other. This is 
the condition commonly found. In such cases the sum of the 
products of the deviations of the pairs will be less than the 
products of the standard deviations multiplied by the num- 
ber of cases. This principle is expressed in the basic formula 
for correlation by the product moment method which is as 

follows : 

2xy f , 

r=> , T J (12) 

No x o y ^ * 

In the case under consideration where each member of 
each pair is entered twice, first as an x variate and then as a 
y variate, the two distributions become identical and there- 
fore have the same mean and standard deviation. In place 
of OafOy we shall then write o 2 in the denominator. And since 
the mean is the same in both variables, the deviations from 
the mean (x and y) are both taken from this mean as 
origin. We therefore enter all the scores obtained by all the 



242 Experimental Child Study 

members of the group In a single frequency table and find 
the mean and standard deviations of this series of scores. 
This table, it will be noted, contains two scores for each 
home rated. 

Returning to the original paired scores, we find by how 
many class intervals each member of each pair deviates 
from the mean of the entire group. If, for example, in the 
first pair of measures considered, student No. I gave to the 
first living room visited a score which is 5 class intervals 
above the mean of the group, while her partner gave a score 
which is 4 class intervals above the mean, the xy value of 
this pair is 5 X 4 = 20. We enter this in a separate column, 
headed xy The same procedure is followed for each pair 
of scores until all the xy products have been found. Remem- 
ber that if one student should happen to give to a room a 
value above the mean (that is, a ~\~x value) while her part- 
ner gave a value below the mean (a y value), the xy 
product would have a minus sign. The algebraic sum of the 
xy column is then taken as 2xy required in the formula. 
If, as is customary, the mean and standard deviation have 
been computed from an arbitrary origin (a guessed aver- 
age) Instead of the true mean, both the x and the y values 
will differ from the true mean by the amount of the cor- 
rection, and the xy product will differ from its true value by 
the product of the corrections. Since in this case the x and 
the y distributions are the same, the corrections will be equal 
and the product of the two corrections will be equal to c 2 . 
And since each of the individual pairs is in error by this 
amount, the squared correction must be multiplied by the 
number of pairs (in this case the number of homes) and the 
result subtracted from the sum of the xy product found by 
computing from the arbitrary origin. The result obtained 
will be the true 2xy. A corresponding correction must of 
course be made in the denominator (See Chap. 14). 



Soclo-Economlc Status 243 

The product moment formula for computing the correla- 
tion between interchangeable variables is therefore: 

- Nc 2 



T = 



No* 



The steps in its computation are outlined as follows; 

1. Arrange all the scores for both members of the paired 
variables in a single frequency distribution. Find the mean 
and the standard deviation of this distribution. 

2. Find the products of the deviations (x scores) of the 
individual members of each pair from the guessed mean. 
Enter these products in a new column headed xy, giving re- 
gard to signs. (If there are many xy scores it is better to 
make two columns, one for the -{-xy and the other for the 
xy values in order to avoid confusion). The difference 
between the sum of the -f xy and the xy values will be 
the sum of the xy products (2xy) taken from the guessed 
average. 

3. Make a correction for the error In guessing at the true 
mean by multiplying the square of the correction by the 
number of paired scores in the series. Subtract this from 
the sum of the *xy values. The result will be the true 2xy. 
Write this value as the numerator of the fraction represent- 
ing the correlation coefficient. 

4. Find the denominator of this fraction by multiplying 
the square of the standard deviation of the single distribu- 
tion (corrected for the error in guessing) by the number of 
paired values in the group. 

5. Divide (3) by (4). The result is the correlation co- 
efficient desired. 

Experiment No. 27 

The Chapman-Sims Scale for Socio-Economic Status 

A third method for measuring socio-economic status has 
been devised by Chapman and Sims (45, 229). The informa- 
tion for this scale may be obtained from the parents at the 
time the home visit is made. With older children or adults, 
data may be obtained by the use of a prepared questionnaire 



244 Experimental Child Study 

filled out by the subjects without necessitating a visit to the 

home itself.* 

Problems: i. Find the correlation between the Chapman- 
Sims scores and the mean scores obtained by the two ob- 
servers on the Chapln Living Room Scale. 

2. Divide the children in the experimental group into 
classes according to paternal occupation as described in 
Section i. For each of these groups find the mean score on 
the Chapman-Sims Scale and also on the Chapin Scale for 
living room equipment. Draw curves showing the mean 
scores on each of these scales for the successive occupational 
classes. Which of these two curves shows more regular and 
even progression from one occupational category to another? 

3. If intelligence test scores are available for the children, 
find the correlation between the IQ's and each of the three 
measures of socio-economic status. Which of the three shows 
the closest relationship to intelligence-test score? 

REFERENCES 

The student is referred to the following titles in the 
bibliography at the end of this book: 

5, 9, ii, 43*, 44*, 45*, 46, 96, 100, 106* 146, 170, 229*, 

330, 334 385*- 

* Forms may be obtained from the Public School Publishing Co., 
Bloomington, 111. 



Chapter 28 
SOCIAL BEHAVIOR 

IF we observe the behavior of those around us, our atten- 
tion is at once directed to the marked differences in their 
manner of reacting to other persons. Although social reac- 
tions vary according to the particular company in which 
the individual happens to be placed, and are likewise af- 
fected by such incidental circumstances as bodily health, 
recent experiences, fatigue, or anxiety, it is nevertheless true 
that in the course of time every one builds up a system of 
social habits or pattern reactions which he is likely to dis- 
play with fair consistency under a wide variety of circum- 
stances. These habits become so well established or pro- 
nounced that after some acquaintance with an individual it 
is possible to predict with more or less certainty how he will 
behave when confronted with a given social situation. When 
we say of another person that he is bashful, forward, 
friendly, sympathetic, irritable, or jealous, we mean nothing 
more than that he has built up certain habits which make 
him more likely than others to behave in the manner indi- 
cated by these terms. The irritable man does not always 
behave in an irritable fashion but does so more frequently, 
on the average, than do those to whom we do not apply the 
term. The bashful person is not bashful with every one, 
but shows this form of behavior so frequently as to merit 
the description. 

By the social traits of an individual we refer to those 
forms of reaction which have become so habitual that he 

245 



246 Experimental Child Study 

displays them more frequently and under a wider variety 
of conditions than does the average person. A social trait 
Is nothing more than a habitual way of reacting to social 
situations. 

If we regard the social traits of an Individual as largely, 
If not entirely, the result of habits which have been set up 
through experience, the importance of developing methods 
for studying the formation of such habits becomes evident. 
It is difficult, however, to reproduce the social conditions of 
everyday life in the laboratory without making them highly 
artificial Attempts to do so have thus far not been very 
successful. For the present It is probably better to develop 
methods whereby observations of behavior in everyday life 
can be recorded and organized in a systematic fashion, 
Techniques of this kind suitable for use with young children 
are particularly needed if we are to study the early stages 
of social behavior. 

Experiment No. 28 

An Observational Method of Studying Social 
Behavior in Children 

A number of observational devices for studying social 
behavior have been developed. We shall consider here 
the modification of the Olson (199) technique which was 
developed by Parten (201) at the University of Minnesota 
for use with nursery school children. The method can also 
be used with children beyond nursery school age. It makes 
use of a series of short time samples, during which children 
are observed on occasions when they are free to do as they 
wish with reference to the particular phenomenon studied. 
The method may be described briefly as follows: A series 
of graded categories descriptive of social behavior is worked 
out upon the basis of preliminary observation. These cate- 



Social Behavior 247 

gories are described in as detailed and objective a manner 
as possible. The categories refer directly to the kind of 
situations in which the children are to be observed. Only 
one child Is observed at a time. The observer who Is pro- 
vided with a convenient record blank chooses an incon- 
spicuous position from which he can see and hear the sub- 
ject easily." Each observation is continued for a set period 
of time which is checked with a stop-watch. At the end of 
this period the behavior is classified and recorded accord- 
ing to the system previously devised. The observer then 
moves on to the nest child in the group and classifies his 
behavior in the same way. This is repeated until one record 
has been secured for each child. On the following day, an- 
other record is secured for each child and so on until a 
sufficiently large number of samples have been obtained for 
each subject to yield a reliability coefficient high enough to 
serve the purposes of the investigation. The greater the num- 
ber of samples secured for each child the higher will be 
the reliability. It has been shown that the Spearman-Brown 
prophecy formula (see page 148) may be used to ascertain 
the approximate number of additional samples needed at 
any stage of the investigation in order to secure a reliability 
coefficient of a given magnitude. Thus, if 20 samples are 
found to have a reliability coefficient of +.70, 40 samples 
may be expected to show a reliability not far from +.82; 
100 samples, which is five times the original number, would 
be expected to yield a reliability coefficient of approximately 
-f~. 92, etc. In computing the reliability coefficients the rec- 
ords taken on the odd numbered days are compared with 
those taken on the even numbered days. 

Before beginning the actual observations each student 
should spend one or two preliminary periods in familiariz- 
ing himself with the method. Observations should be carried 
out in a definite order to make sure that the children will 



248 Experimental Child Study 

not be selected for observation at a particular time because 
of some unusual or striking aspect of their social behavior. 
Parten was able to distinguish six different types of so- 
cial behavior among nursery school children, defined as 
follows : 

1. Unoccupied behavior. The child does not appear to be 
playing but occupies himself with casual or momentary 
observation of the activities of others, or plays with 
his own body and clothes, gets on and off chairs, or 
merely stands around, follows the teacher, or sits in 
one spot glancing around the room. His general atti- 
tude and behavior do not suggest any kind of pur- 
poseful activity. 

2. Solitary play. The child plays alone and independently 
with toys which are different from those used by the 
children within speaking distance of himself. He makes 
no effort to get close to other children, or to join in 
what they are doing. He pursues his own activity with- 
out reference to others. 

3. Onlooker behavior. The child spends most of his time 
watching the other children playing. He often talks to 
the children whom he is observing, asks questions or 
gives suggestions but does not enter into the play him- 
self. His behavior differs from that of the unoccupied 
child in that he is definitely observing particular 
groups of children rather than allowing his gaze to 
flit at random from one group to another. The onlooker 
stands or sits within speaking distance of the group 
whom he is observing so that he can see and hear 
everything which is taking place. 

4. Parallel activity. The child plays independently, but 
the activity which he chooses is one which naturally 
brings him among other children. He plays with toys 
which are like those which the children around him 
are using, but he plays with the toys as he sees fit, 
and does not try to influence or modify the activity 
of the children near him. He plays beside the other 
children rather than with them. There is no attempt 
to control the coming or going of other children in 



Social Behavior 249 

the group. The difference between parallel activity and 
solitary play Is thus seen to be at least In part acci- 
dental,, since it is determined by the character of the 
play and the chance presence of other children. The 
play of young children at the sand table is likely to 
be of this character. 

5. Autonomous group play. The child plays with other 
children who recognize a common interest in their 
toys or games. This recognition is shown by a borrow- 
ing and loaaing of play material, conversation about 
their common activity, and mild attempts to control 
the group membership. However, there is little or no 
group organization; the children do not subordinate 
their individual interest to that of the group. There is 
more or less mutual exchange of suggestions and ma- 
terial, but each child's part in the play is individually 
determined. Concentration of leadership in the hands 
of one or two individuals does not exist. 

6. Organized group play. The child plays in a centralized 
group which is organized for the purpose of making 
some material product, striving to attain some com- 
petitive goal, dramatizing situations of adult and 
group life, or playing formal games according to sim- 
ple rules. All the children show a marked sense of 
belonging or not belonging to the group. The 
control of the group situation is usually in 
the hands of one or two of the group members 
who direct the activity of the others in the group. 
Both the goal and the method of attaining it necessi- 
tate a division of labor. The various group members 
play different parts, and the organization of the ac- 
tivity is such that the efforts of one child are supple- 
mented by those of another. Thus in playing house, 
one child takes the part of the father, another that 
of the mother, while others play the parts of the chil- 
dren, of visitors, and so on. Or a group of children 
may unite in building a railroad track, each child con- 
tributing his own efforts to those of the group. The 
difference between this type of activity and autono- 
mous group play is thus seen to lie primarily in the 



250 Experimental Child Study 

subordination of individual interests or activity toward 
a common goal, and secondarily in the fact that this 
subordination of interest usually involves a greater 
or less degree of specialization in the role played by 
each individual child.* 

In carrying out this investigation., it is desirable for the 
members of the class to work in pairs, each pair observing 
the same child simultaneously but classifying and recording 
the behavior independendy. Although Parten used a one 
minute time sample, it has been found feasible and some- 
what more reliable to divide the minute into two periods 
of thirty seconds each and classify the behavior for each 
thirty second period separately, since the form of social 
reaction in young children not infrequently changes even 
within a period as short as one minute. Each child is then 
to be observed for one full minute at a time and two records 
of his social behavior set down, one for the first half minute, 
the other for the second half minute. At the end of the 
minute the observers should move on to the next child and 
repeat the procedure and so on until all the children in the 
group have been observed. If possible, at least 40 one min- 
ute samples of behavior should be secured for each child. 
All samples should be taken at about the same time of day 
and only one pair of observers should observe the child 
during the same minute. 

Problems: I. Find the mean error of observation by com- 
puting the percentage of the total number of observations 
in which there is disagreement as to classification of be- 
havior between the two simultaneous observers. Is this 
error approximately the same for all children, or are there 
certain children whose behavior is consistently more difficult 
to classify than others? 

2. In what percentage of the total number of observations 

* Adapted from Parten's descriptions (201). 



Social Behavior 251 

was the behavior classified by one or both of the observers 
under each of the six categories listed? Find for each cate- 
gory separately the percentage of time in which the ob- 
servers agreed as to their classification as compared to the 
percentage of times they disagreed. Which of these six 
categories would you say is the most difficult to classify? 
Can you suggest any improvement in the definition or de- 
scription given which would help to clear up this difficulty? 

3. In arranging the observations partners should, if pos- 
sible, rotate them in such a way that each student carries 
out approximately the same number of observations with 
every other student. If this is done, each student should 
compute his own observational error by determining the 
percentage of his observations in which his classification dis- 
agrees with that of his partner. If such a system of rotation 
is not possible, the relative accuracy of the various pairs of 
observers can be computed in a similar fashion. Under these 
circumstances, however, there will be no way of determin- 
ing which of the two members of a pair is the more accurate. 

4. Prepare bar diagrams for each child showing the total 
number of times his behavior was classified under each of 
the various social categories. Examine these figures and state 
what form of social behavior seems to be most typical of 
each child. 

5. Combine the data for the individual children to show 
the age changes which take place in each form of social 
behavior. Express the results graphically in the form of 
overlapping frequency polygons. 

6. By comparing the individual results with the group 
curves, divide the children roughly into three groups : those 
whose social behavior seems to be in advance of that usual 
for their age; those whose behavior corresponds fairly closely 
to that of others of their age; and those who seem somewhat 
retarded in social development, that is, whose behavior re- 



252 Experimental Child Study 

sembles that most typical of younger children. What is the 
mean IQ of the children In each of these groups? 

7, Find the reliability of the observations in each category 
separately, using the method described in the study of physi- 
cal activity outlined in Chapter 15. The magnitude of these 
reliability coefficients will depend upon several factors, of 
which the following may be particularly mentioned: the 
size of the observational error (problems I and 2), the 
consistency of the children's behavior from day to day, and 
the relative frequency with which the form of behavior 
under consideration took place. The last point may require 
some further explanation. If the form of behavior is one 
which occurs only rarely, the number of samples on which 
the determination of reliability is based will be small, and 
consequently the chance occurrence of one or two instances 
of non-typical behavior will affect the reliability of the total 
to a much greater extent than if the number of samples 
had been large. All other things being equal, the categories 
containing the greatest number of frequencies will be more 
reliable than those which were more rarely observed. 

8, Arrange the six reliability coefficients for the different 
categories in order of magnitude. Compare this rank order 
with (a) the rank order of the same category with reference 
to the total number of times the form of behavior was re- 
corded, (b) according to the comparative size of the ob- 
servational errors for each as found in Problem 2. Which 
of these two factors appears to have been more important 
in lowering the reliability coefficient for the particular cate- 
gory considered? 

9, Why is it desirable to have the observations taken on 
different occasions rather than in immediate succession? 
What are some of the spurious factors which might affect the 
validity of observations, all of which were made during a 
brief time span (e.g., within the same hour)? How would 



Social Behavior 253 

these factors be likely to affect the obtained reliability co- 
efficients? 

10. Compare the results obtained with those reported by 
Parten (201). 

REFERENCES 

The student is referred to the following titles in the 
bibliography at the end of this book: 

47, 48, 70, 91, 104, 108*, 121, 201*, 245*, 268, 330, 333*, 
335- 



Chapter 29 
THE SOCIAL REACTIONS OF INFANTS 

VERY early in life, the infant learns to distinguish be- 
tween human beings and other objects in his environ- 
ment. That the kind and amount of social experience which 
lie undergoes at this time exerts an effect upon his later 
social development can hardly be doubted, even though we 
are not yet able to say how the effect is manifested. A care- 
ful follow-up of the social development of a group of infants 
from birth to maturity, together with systematic records of 
the amount and kind of social stimulation which they have 
received would do much to clarify our understanding as to 
the manner in which patterns of social behavior are laid 
down. 

Experiment No. 29 

Dominant Behavior in Infants 

This experiment can best be carried out in a baby health 
clinic, milk station, or similar place where fairly large num- 
bers of infants are brought together. Infants between the 
ages of six and eighteen months or, with slight modifications 
in method, older children may be used as subjects. If no or- 
ganization of the kind just described is accessible, it is often 
possible for the members of the class to locate a few babies 
among their friends. 

Procedure: Two babies differing but slightly from each 
other in age should be used for each experiment. The chil- 
dren are placed on the floor or in a crib facing each other, 

254 



-rryr- 'Fffifiwy^y?rr^> "Ty * -^,^^7^^m^ 
"$< f ';vy '"!*,*> ' ; "'^ ' ! '!>// //; ; ;^ffi? 




FIGURE 23 

Social Behavior in Infants 
(From Shirley) 



The Social Reactions of Infants 255 

with pillows to support the back if they are unable to sit 
without support. An attractive toy is first dangled before 
them for a moment and then dropped on the floor midway 
between their feet. The stop-watch is started as soon as 
the toy is dropped, and the behavior is observed for a period 
of two minutes. Records should be made on a prepared 
form so arranged as to provide space for recording the be- 
havior of both children. A convenient method is to use a 
single sheet with parallel columns for checking the various 
forms of behavior as they occur. A sample form of this kind 
is shown on page 256. 

The form should be mimeographed, or, if this is not pos- 
sible, each student should prepare a sufficient number of 
copies for his own use. The headings should be filled in be- 
fore beginning the experiment. Place refers to the place of 
making the experiment (note whether or not it is familiar 
to either or both children). Ex. should be followed by ex- 
perimenter's name or initials. Hour refers to the time of 
day. Under Special Conditions should be noted any special 
features of the experimental conditions, such as an unduly 
hot or cold room, interruptions, noises from outside, etc. 
Since relative size as well as age may affect social interac- 
tion, the weight of each child should be recorded, also the 
height if this is known. The ages of other children in the 
family may also be taken in order to see whether children 
who are accustomed to the play of other children differ in 
their reactions from those who have had less social experi- 
ence. Under Notes should be recorded any pertinent facts 
relating to the child's physical condition, recent emotional 
upsets, etc. 

The record form is divided into twelve time intervals of 
ten seconds each. A list of abbreviations for the more com- 
mon forms of behavior is given at the bottom of the page. 
Items not listed may be written in the spaces provided. The 



256 Experimental Child Study 
Place. . . . Hour. ... Ex.....\Sp. Cond 



Child.., . . Age Sex. 

Weight Age of sibs. 

Notes 



, Child Age. . . . Sex. 

. i Weight Age of sibs. 

. \ Notes 



Time 


Behavior 


Behavior 


o-oo 






O-IO 






O-2O 






O-3O 






O-4O 






O-5O 






1-00 






I-IO 






I-2O 






1-30 






I-4O 






1-50 







Abbreviations 



RT Reaches for toy 
RC Reaches for other child 
ST Secures toy 
OT Offers toy to other child 
PT Tries to pull toy away 
RE Resists 

Y Yields without percept- 
ible resistance 
PV Protesting vocalization 



C Crying 

V Vocalization (unde- 

scribed) 

WC Watches other child 
WT Watches toy 
L Looks about aimlessly 
YJO Watches other persons 

in room. 



The Social Reactions of Infants 257 

behavior of each child during each ten second period should 
be recorded in as much detail as possible. Each student 
should carry out from five to ten experiments either with 
different infants (if clinical or social service agencies are 
used) or with the same pair of infants on different occa- 
sions if this is more convenient. 

Problems: i. Write out a descriptive account of the social 
interaction taking place in each experiment. If the same in- 
fants have been used on each occasion compare their reac- 
tions on successive trials. If different infants have been used, 
contrast their behavior. 

2. If a sufficient number of different infants have been 
used, combine the results obtained by the entire class in 
such a way as to show what characteristic changes take place 
with age. 

3. Compare the behavior of only children with those who 
come from homes where there are other children. 

4. In what proportion of the total experimental time did 
the heavier child have the toy in his possession? The older 
child? Are any sex differences apparent? 

REFERENCES 

The student is referred to the fallowing titles in the 
bibliography at the end of this book: 

34*, 35*> 7*> 95, i53 163, 164, 225, 228, 265*. 



Chapter 30 
PLAY EQUIPMENT AND PLAY BEHAVIOR 

AN investigation by Skalet (230) shows the number and 
kind of toys and other play equipment in the homes 
of a group of 120 children between the ages of two and four 
years, selected to include a representative sampling of the 
population of Minneapolis according to the distribution of 
paternal occupation described in Appendix A. The toys 
were classified under several general heads, the proportion 
in each classification was computed as was also the number 
of homes in which at least one toy of each type was found. 
The data were obtained by actual visits to the homes. 

The following table shows the way in which the toys were 
classified and the proportion of the total number of toys fall- 
ing within each general class. 

TABLE 14 

PERCENTAGES OF DIFFERENT CLASSES OF TOYS FOUND IN A 

REPRESENTATIVE SAMPLING OF THE HOMES OF CHILDREN 

BETWEEN THE AGES OF 2 AND 4 YEARS IN THE 

CITY OF MINNEAPOLIS 

Kind of toy Number Per cent of total 

Animal toys 379 7.20 

Balls 378 7.18 

Blocks, including boards and boxes 

(12 blocks counted as one toy) 462 8.78 

Climbing apparatus (chiefly of an 

informal character but including 

all apparatus on which the child 

is permitted to climb) 142 2.70 

258 



Play Equipment and Play Behavior 259 

Kind of toy Number Per cent of total 

Dolls, doll dishes, and doll furni- 
ture 849 16.13 

Garden tools (including sand toys) 295 5.60 

Hand work materials such as scis- 
sors, crayons, beads for string- 
ing, etc 262 4.98 

Household equipment including 
both the child's toy equipment 
and household possessions which 
the child is permitted to use.. 232 4.41 

Jumping ropes and horse reins ... 16 0.30 

Live pets such as goldfish, cana- 
ries, dogs, etc 30 0.57 

Manual training equipment includ- 
ing child's own toy hammers, 
etc., and those belonging to the 
household which he is allowed to 
use 118 2.24 

Mechanical toys 164 3.12 

Musical toys drums, horns, etc.. 182 3.46 

Picture books 722 13.72 

Puzzles and table games used by 

child 15 0.28 

Representative toys (toy soldiers, 

etc.) 26 049 

Riding and coasting toys such as 
kiddie-cars, bicycles, sleds and 
wagons 339 6.44 

Sand 105 1.99 

Swings and slides 41 0.78 

Transportation toys (trains, 
trucks, etc., not large enough for 
child to ride in himself) 218 4.14 

Unconventional manipulative ma- 
terials used as toys (includes 
boxes, clothespins, toilet articles, 
soap, old shoes, etc.) 289 549 



260 Experimental Child Study 

At least one of each of the following toys was found In 
90 per cent or more of the homes: animal toys, balls, blocks, 
dolls, garden tools, handwork materials, picture books. 

The following types were represented in from 50 to 89 
per cent of the homes: climbing apparatus (informal), 
household equipment, riding and coasting toys, manual 
training equipment, mechanical toys, musical toys, sand, 
transportation toys, unconventional manipulative materials. 

Toys of the following type \vere found in fewer than half 
the homes: jumping ropes, pets, puzzles and games, repre- 
sentative toys, swings and slides. 

Experiment No. 30 
An Inventory of Play Equipment 

Using the system of classification just described, make a 
list of all the play equipment in the experimental nursery 
school or kindergarten. Compare the proportions falling 
within each of the main categories with the corresponding 
percentages for the home as reported by Skalet. What are 
the most outstanding differences between the amount and 
type of play equipment provided by the school and that 
found in the homes of Minneapolis children? If time per- 
mits, a similar inventory of the play equipment in the homes 
of the children in these schools may be made, and the re- 
sults compared with the school equipment and also with 
Skalet's findings. 

Experiment No. 31 

A Comparative Study of the Uses Made of Different 
Pieces of Play Equipment 

Each member of the class should select one piece of 
typical play equipment for observation during the free play 



Play Equipment and Play Behavior 261 

hour in the experimental kindergarten or nursery-school or 

on the school playground. Public playgrounds may also be 
used for this purpose. The length of the observational period 
should be uniform for all observations. It should not be less 
than one hour. From two to four hours 5 observation should 
be secured if possible for each piece of apparatus. Two or 
more students may observe the same piece of apparatus or 
type of play equipment at different times, thus adding to 
the amount of data obtained for each. Prepared record forms 
arranged in such a way as to facilitate recording should be 
used. The planning of this record form is left as an exer- 
cise for the student. The form should be worked out by the 
class in advance and all students should make their records 
in a uniform manner. Compare the different types of play 
material with regard to each of the following: 

1. The number of different children who make use of the 
equipment during the observational period. 

2. The mean length of time spent by each child in con- 
secutive play with the equipment (disregard minor in- 
terruptions and distractions). 

3. The number of children who leave the apparatus or 
equipment and later return to it, with average length 
of time spent at each visit. 

4. Mean number of children using the material at any 
one time. Compute by dividing the total length of 
time spent by all children with the apparatus by the 
total length of time the apparatus was observed. 

5. Keep a record of the number of times each child 
speaks during the observational period. The records 
for the different children may be thrown together to 
facilitate recording, since the purpose Is not to secure 
evidence regarding the talkativeness of the separate 
children, but rather to determine the extent to which 
conversation is likely to be associated with the use of 
each piece of equipment. Although verbatim records 
are unnecessary, each remark should be classified as a 
remark about tie play or the play equipment, a part 



262 Experimental Child Study 

of the play itself (as in playing house or playing store) , 
or as irrelevant to the occupation at hand. 

6. Make a list of the number of different ways each piece 
of apparatus is used. 

7. Which pieces of equipment are clearly preferred by 
the boys? Which by the girls? Which are about equally 
well liked by both sexes ? Are there any sex differences 
in the way in which any given piece of apparatus is 
used? 

8. Which pieces of apparatus are preferred by the older 
children in the group? By the younger children? Which 
are popular at all ages? Which are liked by a relatively 
small number of children? 

9. Which pieces of apparatus seem most conducive to 
social play? To solitary play? Which show greatest 
variety in manner of usage? 

10. From the above findings what kinds of play equipment 
would you recommend for a child of four years who 
is in good health but appears to be (a) unduly lethar- 
gic, (b) inclined to day dream, (c) solitary, (d) over- 
active ? 

REFERENCES 

The student is referred to the following titles in the 

bibliography at the end of this book: 

10. 31* 32* 138, 139, 162*, 230% 232, 245. 



Chapter 31 

THE PEARSON PRODUCT MOMENT METHOD 
OF CORRELATION 

E" Chapter 27 the general principles underlying the prod- 
- uct moment method of computing correlation were dis- 
cussed and a simplified formula for use when the paired 
variables are Interchangeable was given. In this chapter we 
shall take up the more usual condition In which the variables 
are not Interchangeable and a single entry Instead of a 
double entry is used. Unless a calculating machine Is avail- 
able the work will be facilitated by arranging the data In 
the form of a sc after-diagram or scattergram, as It is some- 
times called. In using this method the values for one vari- 
able are arranged along the ordmate of a chart and those 
for the other variable along the abscissa. We shall Illustrate 
the procedure by using the data for standing height and 
weight of five-year-old boys In Table 15. 

By Inspection of the data we find that the range In height 
Is 9.9 Inches and that the range In weight Is 20.0 pounds. If 
we group the height measurements by class intervals of 0.5 
In. and the weight measurements by class intervals of i.o Ib. 
we shall have 21 class Intervals In each variable. There is 
no fixed requirement as to the number of class Intervals, 
nor Is it necessary to have exactly the same number of class 
intervals In each of the two variables. It Is better, however, 
not to use too coarse grouping. 

Using cross-section paper with ruling not finer than four 
lines to the inch, rule off a section including twenty-one 

263 



264 



Experimental Child Study 



TABLE 15 

MEASUREMENTS OF THE HEIGHT AND WEIGHT OF 50 FIVE- 
YEAR-OLD BOYS 



Case 
No. 


Height* 
(inches) 


Weight* 

(pounds) 


Case 

No. 


Height* 
(inches) 


Weight* 
(pounds) 


i 


44.6 


42.50 


26 


39-o 


41.00 


2 


36.9 


34-75 


27 


40.2 


40.75 


3 


46.2 


45.00 


28 


4i-S 


46.50 


4 


43-i 


40.25 


29 


424 


45.00 


S 


46.1 


5275 


30 


43-i 


44.00 


6 


41.6 


40.50 


3i 


40.7 


45-25 


7 


43-3 


42.75 


32 


39-4 


38.25 


8 


44-o 


44-25 


33 


40.4 


43.50 


9 


39-5 


37-50 


34 


44.2 


50-75 


10 


43-o 


41.50 


35 


44*8 


47.00 


ii 


40.7 


3875 


36 


44-3 


53.00 


12 


424 


41.50 


37 


43-2 


47.50 


13 


46.2 


49-25 


38 


42-5 


45-50 


14 


38.5 


33-75 


39 


41.6 


43-75 


IS 


4S-i 


44-25 


40 


40.7 


43-25 


16 


46.8 


48.50 


4i 


42.7 


48.25 


17 


42-3 


49.00 


42 


46.7 


53-75 


18 
19 


44-2 
38.8 


45-25 
36.00 


43 
44 


45-3 

42.5 


46.75 

46.25 


20 


45.2 


47-25 


45 


41.7 


43-50 


21 


43-o 


40.50 


46 


41.0 


44-50 


22 


40.2 


39-75 


47 


39-6 


40-75 


23 


41.0 


42.25 


48 


43-7 


49.25 


24 


41.6 


43-50 


49 


43 -S 


47-50 


25 


44-1 


48.75 


So 


42.6 


45.00 



*Age is taken at the nearest birthday; height at the nearest tenth of 
an inch, weight at the nearest quarter of a pound. 



The Pearson Method of Correlation 265 

squares in each direction, or prepare a standard correlation 
chart such as is shown in Figure 24.* When the prepared 
correlation form is used the labor of computing the correla- 
tion will be much simplified. 

After having decided upon the size of the class intervals.* 
enter the value of each interval in the y variable (in this 
case, height) along the ordinate of the chart, and the x 
values along the abscissa as shown in Figure 24. Turn now 
to the paired measurements of the fifty children as given in 
Table 15. The first child measured 44,6 inches in height and 
42.50 pounds in weight. Find the class interval which in- 
cludes his height, which in this case is the sixth interval 
above the arbitrary origin. Follow the horizontal row of 
cells to the one which intercepts the column which includes 
his weight. This chances to be the first column to the left of 
the arbitrary origin chosen for the weight measurements. 
Place a tally mark in the cell which marks the point of inter- 
section of the height and weight measurements. In like man- 
ner find the cell which marks the point of intersection of 
the height and weight measurements of the second child. 
Place a tally mark in this cell Continue until all the paired 
measures have been entered. 

Now observe the chart. Note that although the tally marks 
scatter considerably, they tend to cluster about the diagonal 
line extending from the lower left to the upper right corner. 
The measures which are lower than the average both in 
height and weight fall in the lower left quadrant, while 
those above the average in both measures fall in the upper 
right quadrant. Since these two quadrants include the ma- 
jority of the cases, it is evident that in this group the tall 

*The chart shown In Fig. 24 is the Anderson correlation chart which 
can be obtained from the Educational Test Bureau, Minneapolis. A 
number of similar charts differing slightly in arrangement from this one 
are available. (See references in bibliography.) 



2 66 



Experimental Child Study 



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The Pearson Method of Correlation 267 

children tend to be heavier than the short children. A posi- 
tive correlation between the two variables therefore exists. 
If the relationship were perfect, that is, if a child who Is one 
standard unit above the average in height is also one stand- 
ard unit above the average in weight and so on through all 
the cases, all the measurements would fall exactly on the 
diagonal line extending from, the lower left to the upper 
right corner.* The fact that not all the measurements fall 
on this diagonal, but merely scatter around it, shows that 
we are dealing with a correlation which, while positive, is not 
perfect. The student should notice carefully the extent to 
which the measures scatter away from, the diagonal in this 
and other correlation charts, and compare the amount of 
scatter with the value of the correlation obtained. 

When perfect correlation exists, a deviation from the mean 
in one of the measurements is always accompanied by an 
equal deviation of its paired measure from the mean of the 
second variable.f The sum of the products of these devia- 
tions will be exactly equal to the product of the two stand- 
ard deviations multiplied by the number of cases. This is 
the principle upon which the product moment formula is 
based. 

The small numbers in the upper left corner of each cell 
in Figure 24 show the xy value of that cell, that is, the prod- 
uct of the distances of the cell (in terms of class intervals) 
from each of the two arbitrary origins. Note that those cells 
which lie exactly on the diagonal line have a value which is 
the square of the distance of the cell from the lines of arbi- 
trary origin. Since the standard deviation is defined as the 
square root of the mean of the squares of the individual 
deviations from their means, it is evident that only those 

* Provided that the data are similarly grouped so that a class interval 
represents the same proportion of a standard deviation in each variable. 
fBoth deviations must be expressed in standard units. 



268 Experimental Child Study 

paired measures which fall directly on the diagonal line will 
contribute to the xy value in the same measure as they con- 
tribute to the two standard deviations. Whenever an indi- 
vidual entry departs from this diagonal line, the xy value 
will be less than the contribution which the measures make 
to the standard deviations of the two variables. The farther 
away from the diagonal, the greater is the discrepancy be- 
tween the xy values of the paired measures and the part 
which they play in increasing the standard deviation, and 
the lower, consequently, will be the correlation. 

It will be noted further that the heavy lines marking the 
boundaries of the intervals containing the arbitrary origins 
divide the chart into four quadrants. The entries in the lower 
left and the upper right quadrants have positive values, 
since in these quadrants the sign of both variables is the 
same. Those in the upper left and the lower right quadrants 
have negative values, since the scores are above the arbi- 
trary origin in one measurement and in the other below it. 

In computing the coefficient of correlation, which, as we 
have seen, is the ratio of the mean of the xy products to 
the product of the standard deviations of the two variables, 
we begin by finding the two standard deviations in the usual 
manner. If we are concerned only with the value of the cor- 
relation and not with the size of the means or standard 
deviations we may work in terms of class intervals through- 
out, without transmuting into original values. The product 
of the two standard deviations is entered in the denominator 
of the fraction. The xy value of each cell which contains a 
frequency is then found by multiplying the number of steps 
above or below the arbitrary origin in the x variable by the 
corresponding number of steps in the y variable. A cell which 
is located 5 steps above the mean of the x variable and 7 
steps above the mean of the y variable would have an xy 
value of 5 X 7 or 35. The 2xy product for that cell will 



The Pearson Method of Correlation 269 

then be the value of the cell multiplied by the number of 
cases within it. 

In the manner just described find the 2xy products for 
all the positive frequencies in each horizontal row and enter 
these values in the column headed 2 -j- xy. Do the same 
for the negative values., if there are any, and enter the sum 
in the column headed 2 xy. The difference between the 
2 + xy and the 2 xy values is the algebraic sum of 
the xy products computed from an arbitrary origin. We 
need the mean of this value. This is found by dividing the 
algebraic 2xy by the number of cases in the group (here 
50). Since these products have been computed from an arbi- 
trary origin in each variable rather than from the true mean 
a correction is necessary. This correction Is found by multi- 
plying the x correction by the y correction (taking account 
of signs). The product of the two corrections is then sub- 
tracted from the mean xy value, ( ~ X ^L j and the result en- 

\N / 

tered as the numerator of the fraction. The quotient obtained 
when the corrected mean of the xy products is divided by 
the product of the two standard deviations is the coefficient 
of correlation, which in this case is +.769. 

The steps in computing the product moment correlation 
may then be summed up as follows: 

1. Construct a $ cotter-diagram or scatter gram using 
coarse ruled cross-section paper or, preferably, one of 
the standard correlation charts. Decide upon the size 
of the class intervals to be used in each variable and 
enter the values of the class intervals of the x variable 
along the abscissa, and the values for the y variable 
along the ordinate of the chart. 

2. From a table showing the paired scores of the indi- 
vidual subjects on the two variables (or measure- 
ments) enter a tally mark for each individual on the 
correlation chart at the intersection of the row and 



270 Experimental Child Study 

the column corresponding to his scores on the two 
measurements. Continue until all the paired measure- 
ments have been entered. These entries should always 
be rechecked for accuracy. 

3. Find the sum of the number of frequencies in each 
horizontal row of cells and enter the total in a column 
at the right marked fy. In like manner sum the fre- 
quencies In each column and enter the results at the 
bottom of the columns in a horizontal row marked fx. 

4. The fx row and the fy column are simple frequency 
tables for the x variable and the y variable respec- 
tively. Since the inexperienced student often finds it 
difficult to place the tally mark in the appropriate row 
and column, it is a good plan to prepare an ordinary 
frequency distribution for each of these variables on a 
separate sheet of paper, using the same class intervals 
that were used on the correlation chart, and making 
each frequency table independently of the scores in 
the other variable. These distributions may then be 
compared with those obtained by summing the tally 
marks on the correlation chart. If no error has been 
made in checking, the two frequency tables for each 
variable should correspond exactly. After sufficient 
practice has been gained in entering the tally marks 
on the correlation chart, a simple rechecking of the 
entries will usually be adequate. This checking should 
never be omitted, even with experienced workers, since 
misplacement of the tally marks is one of the most 
common errors in computing correlations. 

5. After the tallying has been checked, find the standard 
deviation of each of the two frequency tables and re- 
cord these values in the appropriate place on the corre- 
lation chart, or in some consistent position on the sheet 
if ordinary cross-section paper has been used. 

6. If a standard correlation chart * is not used, find the 
xy value of each cell which contains a frequency by 
multiplying its distance from the x origin (the class 
interval in which the x mean was guessed) by its 

*In the standard charts, the xy value of each cell is usually indicated 
3n the chart itself, hence need not be computed separately. 



The Pearson Method of Correlation 271 

distance from the y origin. Multiply the cell value thus 
obtained by the number of cases or frequencies within 
the eel! and enter these results in the -\- xy column 
if both measures have the same sign and in the xy 
column if they are of opposite sign. 
Find the algebraic sum of the xy values and divide by 
the number of cases in the group. In order to correct 
for errors in guessing the mean, subtract from this 
result the product of the corrections to the means of 
each of the two variables. Note that this is an alge- 
braic subtraction, hence the signs of the two correc- 
tions must be considered. 

Divide the mean xy product as thus obtained by the 
product of the two standard deviations (o x o y ). The 
result is the product moment coefficient of correlation 
or r. 
The formula is: 



Cjfy 



N 
T or 

0X% 

The regression lines. In a previous paragraph it was 
pointed out that in the case of perfect correlation, all the fre- 
quencies will fall within the cells lying on the diagonal line 
extending from the lower left to the upper right corner, 
provided that the plotting has been done in such a way that 
the class intervals in the x variable represent the same 
proportion of a standard deviation of x as those in the y 
variable do of a standard deviation of y. In case the correla- 
tion is less than i.oo some of the frequencies will scatter 
on either side of the diagonal lines. (See Figures 25, 26, 27.) 
If we find the means of each of the successive rows in the y 
variable, that is, the mean x value corresponding to each 
class-interval of y, and indicate the position of each suc- 
cessive mean by a dot on the scattergram, and then rotate 
a stretched thread which passes through the point of origin 
(the point determined by the true means of the x and y 



272 Experimental Child Study 

variables) until it appears by inspection to make the best 
fit to the means of the rows, we shall find that in the case 
of a positive correlation which is less than i.oo, this line 
will form an angle of less than 45 with the vertical line 
which passes through the x mean (the x axis). In other 
words, the line of best fit to the means of the y arrays, as it 
is customary to call the horizontal rows of cells in which the 
y scores are entered, will have regressed from the 45 angle 
which it occupies in the case of perfect correlation toward 
the x axis and will occupy some position intermediate be- 
tween the diagonal and the vertical line. If we now do the 
same for the columns (the x arrays) we shall likewise find 
that the line of best fit to the means of the x arrays will, in 
the case of a correlation which is less than perfect, have 
regressed toward the y axis. The greater the amount of re- 
gression, that is, the nearer the regression lines approach the 
two axes of origin the lower is the correlation. In case the 
regression is complete, so that the lines of regression coin- 
cide with the lines of origin (the means) the correlation is 
zero. If the regression lines pass beyond the lines of origin 
(the x and y axes) so that the frequencies scatter about 
the diagonal line running from the lower right to the upper 
left corner of the correlation chart, the correlation is nega- 
tive, that Is, a high score in one variable is likely to be ac- 
companied by a low score in the other variable and vice 
versa. Note that a negative correlation has exactly the 
same significance as a positive one, and can always be ex- 
pressed in positive terms by reversing the terminology. For 
example, with increasing age, the time required to perform 
many kinds of intellectual tasks decreases. It is therefore 
correct to say that a negative correlation exists between age 
and time required to perform a task of this kind. But it is 
equally correct and less confusing to say that a positive 
correlation exists between age and speed on such a task. As 



The Pearson Method of Correlation 273 

a general rule it is preferable to plot data to be correlated in 
such a way that a correlation between desirable, or more 
advanced, or superior traits will be expressed in the positive 




FIGURE 25. 
Scattergram and regression lines when r-|-.93. 

form. If the customary arrangement is followed, the values 
which are interpreted as lowest (although numerically they 
may be the highest) will then be placed at the bottom in the 
y variable, and at the left in the x variable. Although this 
arrangement is purely arbitrary the practice is so general 



274 Experimental Child Study 

that it is well to adhere to it. It is hardly necessary to say 
that if, after a correlation has been worked out, it is thought 
desirable to express it in the opposite form, only the ter- 
minology need be changed; It is not necessary to replot or 
to rework the data. 




FIGURE 26. 
Scattergram and regression lines when r = + .62. 

In Figures 25, 26, 27 a number of correlation charts are 
shown in which the standard deviations in the two variables 
are plotted in equal units, so that the conditions making 
for equality of slope of the two regression lines with refer- 
ence to their respective axes are fulfilled. Only when this is 
done, is the statement that perfect correlation is indicated 
by coincidence of the two regression lines with each other 
at an angle of 45 with the axes or lines of origin literally 
true. But in order to equalize the standard deviations be- 



The Pearson Method of Correlation 275 

fore plotting, a considerable amount of unnecessary com- 
putation Is required. Since the product moment formula as 
given on page 271 is so arranged that inequalities in the 
standard deviations will enter equally into both the numera- 
tor and the denominator of the fraction and will therefore 
not affect its value, such equalization is rarely performed 




FIGURE 27. 
Scattergram. and regression lines when r + .36. 

except for purposes of demonstration* When the standard 
deviations are not equalized, the line of perfect correlation 
at which the two regression lines coincide will depart some- 
what from the 45 angle, but the accuracy of the correla- 
tion computed from such a scattergram is not necessarily 
affected. 

Figure 28 shows the data used for the correlation shown 
In Figure 25 when plotted without equalizing the standard 



276 



Experimental Child Study 



deviations. In this figure one variable has intentionally been 
grouped into a much smaller number of class intervals than 
the other, to illustrate the change in the slope of the regres- 





FIGURE 28. 

Scattergram and regression lines for data of Figure 25 when one variable 
is compressed into a small number of class-intervals. 

sion lines which occurs when such an arrangement is necessi- 
tated by the fact that the original data are given only in a 
small number of coarse units. The student should note the 
change in the appearance of the charts resulting from these 
differences in grouping. 



The Pearson Method of Correlation 277 

The regression lines, when properly fitted, have a highly 
important meaning. Since they pass through the points 
which give the best approximation to the position of the 
means of each successive array, they enable us to predict 
the most probable score in one variable which will be made 
by a subject whose score in the other variable is known. If, 
for example, we know the mean x score made by all the 
subjects whose y score was a given amount, we can say that 
this mean is the most probable x score corresponding to the 
y score in question. It is not necessary to compute all the 
means separately in order to make the necessary translation 
of the scores from one variable to another. This is done more 
simply by means of the regression equations which are: 

Y=r. jc or x = r. .y (15) 

where y and x indicate the most probable or mean value of 
a given y or x score expressed in terms of the other vari- 
able.* For example, suppose we wish to know what would be 
the most probable standing on a certain reading test of a 
child who has earned a score of 32 on a group intelligence 
test which correlates with the reading test to the extent of 
.75. The group for which this correlation was found had a 
mean score of 24 on the intelligence test with a standard 
deviation of 6.0. On the reading test the mean was 52 and 
the standard deviation 12.0. This child, then, stands 8 
points above the mean on the intelligence test. If we con- 
sider the intelligence test scores as the y variable and the 
reading scores as the x variable and substitute the numerical 
values just given in the regression equation we have : 

T=. 75^-8 = 12. 

*Note that there are two regression equations which cannot be used 
interchangeably. 



278 Experimental Child Study 

A child who rates 8 points above the mean on the intelli- 
gence test would then be most likely to rate 12 points above 
the mean in the reading test. Since the latter mean is 52 
points, the most probable score of this child would be 52 + 
12 = 64. ^ote that although the difference in terms of 
score points is greater in the case of the reading test than 
in the intelligence test, its significance, when expressed in 
terms of standard deviations is less, as the regression line 
would indicate. On the intelligence test the child is 1.330 
above the mean; on the reading test only i.ooo. 

Although the regression line affords a basis for estimating 
the most probable standing of an individual in one measure 
when his standing in another correlated measure is known, 
we have seen in the scatter-diagrams that only when the 
correlation is perfect do all the actual measures fall exactly 
at the means of the arrays. Whenever the correlation is less 
than perfect, the measures in any array scatter about its 
mean, and the greater the scatter the lower the correlation. 
We therefore need some measure of the reliability of the 
predicted scores; a measure which will tell us how far away 
from the mean of an array the individual scores are likely to 
scatter. This measure is furnished by the standard error of 
estimate of a y" or an x score. The formula is: 



Of = o y V I r 2 (16) 

or conversely 



oz=0x V I r 2 (I?) 

where Oy and o" are the standard errors of the estimated 
scores and o y and a# are as usual the standard deviations 
of the distributions in the y and x variables respectively. 
These standard errors are interpreted in the same manner as 
the standard errors of any of the statistical constants which 
have been dealt with previously; that is, they indicate the 



The Pearson Method of Correlation 279 

standard deviations of the theoretical distributions of scores 
about the mean of the array. The formula is a highly im- 
portant one for the understanding of correlation, and we 
shall return to it again in connection with the Interpretation 
of the correlation coefficient. 

In the product moment formula it is assumed that the 
lines of best fit to the means of the arrays (the regression 
lines) are rectilinear. While this is the most common condi- 
tion in the kind of data with which we are dealing, it is not 
always true. Sometimes a curved line gives a better fit. If 
this is the case, neither the rank order method nor the 
product moment method is suitable for finding the correla- 
tion. A third method, known as the correlations-ratio, should 
be used. For this method the student is referred to any of 
the standard textbooks on statistical method. 

The standard error of the correlation coefficient. Like 
other statistical measures, correlation coefficients computed 
from different samplings of a supposedly "well-shuffled" 
population may nevertheless be expected to vary somewhat 
from each other. The amount of such variation will depend 
upon the number of cases used in computing the correlation 
and the size of the coefficient itself. The formula for pre- 
dicting the probable amount of variation is: 

(18) 



VN 

When the rank order method of computing the correlation 
is used, the standard error is slightly larger. The formula 
becomes : 

o p = 1.0471 = (19) 



The difference formulas (pp. 161 and 165) used for finding 
the reliability of a difference between two statistical measures 



280 Experimental Child Study 

apply to the difference between two correlation coefficients 
as well as to the other measures for which they have been 
suggested, 

The interpretation of the correlation coefficient. If we are 
told that Johnny Jones read ten pages of a book and made 
oaly four errors, we are not much the wiser as to Johnny's 
reading ability unless we know something about the difficulty 
of the book from which the ten pages were read. If Tom 
Brown reads ten pages from a different book and makes 
the same number of errors as did Johnny, it would be quite 
unsafe to say that the reading ability of the two boys is 
equal. If Johnny chanced to be reading from an easy primer 
and Tom from one of Emerson's Essays, it would obviously 
be absurd to say that because the two boys made the 
same number of errors, one is as good a reader as the 
other. 

In their interpretation of correlation coefficients, inexperi- 
enced students (and sometimes workers of more experi- 
ence) often make an error which is much the same as the 
one just described, namely, of assuming that when two 
correlation coefficients derived from different samplings of 
the population chance to have the same magnitude their 
meaning is necessarily the same. In reporting reliability co- 
efficients, for example, it is very difficult for some people to 
avoid the conclusion that if Mr. A. gives a certain test to a 
group of children in his town and finds a reliability coeffi- 
cient of +.80, while Mr. B. gives another test which pur- 
ports to measure the same function to a group of children 
in his town and also finds a reliability coefficient of +.80 
that the two tests must be equally reliable. This does not 
necessarily follow, any more than it follows that Tom and 
John are equally good readers because they made the same 
number of errors in reading from different books. Such an 
assumption is safe only if it can be shown that the individual 



The Pearson Method of Correlation 281 

differences in the two groups of children were of approxi- 
mately equal extent. Coarse distinctions can always be made 
more easily than fine ones. Unless the difficulty of the task 
which the test is called upon to perform in the two instances, 
namely, that of distinguishing between the reading ability of 
the different subjects, is approximately equal, it is impossible 
to compare the reliability coefficients directly. It is possible 
to secure a reliability coefficient of only 4 for a test within 
a very limited range where the task of discriminating be- 
tween individuals is difficult, and a reliability coefficient of 
.9 for the same test with a group having wide individual 
differences. Only when equally fine distinctions are called 
for, are we warranted in making direct comparisons be- 
tween coefficients of correlation derived from different 
groups. The child who makes ten errors in reading a page 
of Shakespeare may nevertheless be a better reader than 
the child who makes only two errors in reading an equal 
amount from a primer. 

Experiment No. 32 

The Effect of Heterogeneity In the Data 
upon the Reliability Coefficient 

Prepare ten cards of Bristol board, three by ten inches 
in size. Upon each of these cards draw a heavy line in black 
ink. These lines should vary in length from five to six 
inches by intervals of one-tenth of an inch. No two 
lines should be exactly the same length. On the back of the 
cards write the correct length of the lines, also letters to 
serve as an identification mark. The letters should be as- 
signed in random order so that they will furnish no clue to 
the actual lengths of the line. Provide the members of the 
class with paper and pencils and say to them, "I am going 
to show you some cards on which lines of different lengths 



282 Experimental Child Study 

have been drawn. You are to look at the cards and guess 
the length of each line as nearly as you can. Express your 
guesses in terms of inches and tenths of an inch. You will 
have ten seconds for each card. Write your estimates in 
order as the cards are shown and do not omit any. Remem- 
ber that no two lines are alike, so none of your estimates 
should be the same." 

As soon as all the cards have been shown say, "I will now 
read a series of letters which you will use for identifying 
the cards later on. These letters are arranged In random 
order, and do not correspond with the length of the lines 
in any way. They are to be used purely for identification 
purposes." The instructor should then read the identifica- 
tion letters in the order in which the cards were shown and 
the students should write them down in a column opposite 
their estimates. The cards should then be thoroughly shuf- 
fled, after which they are again shown to the class, who are 
to write down their estimates as before. The identification 
letters should then be read again in the new order in order 
that the students may match their first estimate for each 
line against the second estimate. The reliability of all the 
estimates should then be computed by correlating the esti- 
mates on the first trial with the corresponding estimates on 
the second trial. 

A second series of ten cards should then be shown. In 
these the lines vary by one-fifth inch intervals from four 
and a half to six and a half inches. Two trials should be 
given as before. The reliability of these estimates should 
then be determined. Which series shows the higher relia- 
bility? Explain. 

Kelley (390) has devised a method for estimating the re- 
liability in one range when its reliability in another range 
is known and the standard deviations of both ranges are 
given. The formula is as follows: 



The Pearson Method of Correlation 283 

(20) 




In this formula o and 2 are the standard deviations of the 
scores in the two groups: r and jR are the reliability co- 
efficients. 

We may apply this formula to our data in the following 
manner. Call the reliability coefficient for the first series r. 
Find the standard deviation of the true lengths of the lines 
in this series and call this o. Do the same for the second 
series and call the results R and 2. Substitute the numerical 
results thus obtained in Formula 18 and see how accurately 
the prediction is fulfilled.* 

The significance of this principle for the interpretation of 
coefficients of correlation should be clear. If we substitute 
tests or other instruments of measurement for the judges, 
and compare the relative accuracy with which individuals 
can be differentiated by these tests, we shall find that the 
accuracy of placement (test reliability) varies with the diffi- 
culty of the task which the test is called upon to perform. 
Just as the number of errors which a child makes in reading 
varies with the difficulty of the reading material, or the abil- 
ity of an observer to differentiate between lines of different 
length varies with the amount of difference (in proportion 
to the total length) between the lines whose length is judged, 

* Formula (20) assumes that the measure used is equally reliable over 
tlie entire range considered. This is not completely true in the examples 
given, since Weber's Law applies to the judgment of the length of the 
lines within this range, consequently the lines should differ by a constant 
proportion of each successive length, rather than by a uniform increment. 
The task of estimating the length would therefore be somewhat more diffi- 
cult with the longer than with the shorter lines in each series and the 
reliability at the upper limits would accordingly be somewhat less than at 
the lower limits. However, the error in this case is not great, and since the 
matter is likely to be somewhat confusing to the beginner, it has been 
disregarded in setting up this experiment. 



284 Experimental Child Study 

so also will the reliability of a measuring instrument or the 
correlation between the measurements of two related traits in 
a group of individuals vary with the heterogeneity of the 
group. 

Differences in heterogeneity may be brought about in 
many ways, but in the case of young children one of the 
most important factors is age. Since most of the physical 
and mental traits of children are changing with age, a posi- 
tive relationship between such traits will usually be found 
when the measurements of a number of children who differ 
In age are thrown into a single correlation table. Such a 
correlation may mean only that the older children rank 
higher in both traits, even though no intrinsic relationship 
between the traits exists. The age factor has introduced an 
element of heterogeneity into the group which is similar for 
both variables. The obtained correlation is due to the fact 
that both measurements differentiate the children on the 
basis of age. The greater the age variance the better will 
be the age differentiation and the higher the correlation. 
There are many other factors which may bring about sys- 
tematic heterogeneity within a group and thereby produce 
an apparent correlation between traits which are funda- 
mentally unrelated, or which may raise a reliability coeffi- 
cient far above the point which it would occupy if the 
extraneous factor or factors were controlled. Among these 
may be mentioned differences in motivation, emotional fac- 
tors operating in a similar way throughout a series of meas- 
urements, misunderstanding of directions or the lack of an 
adequate fore-exercise. 

From the examples which have been given, two principles 
of fundamental importance may be formulated. 

I. A reliability coefficient, or a coefficient of correlation 
between two different variables must be interpreted 



The Pearson Method of Correlation 285 

in terms of the heterogeneity of the group measured; 
that is, in terms of the fineness of the distinctions 
which the instrument is called upon to make. A high 
reliability coefficient means nothing more than that 
the measuring instrument has been set a task which 
it is able to perform with accuracy. If a more diffi- 
cult task, requiring finer distinctions between indi- 
viduals is set for it, its reliability in that situation 
will be lower. For this reason the variability of the 
group for which the correlation was obtained must 
always be stated if coefficients of correlation are to 
have meaning. 

2. Since extraneous factors related to both variables may 
bring about systematic heterogeneity resulting in an 
apparent correlation between traits which have no in- 
trinsic relationship to each other, correlational data 
should be examined with much care in order to make 
sure that confusing elements of this kind have been 
adequately controlled. 

The dependence of the correlation coefficient upon the 
heterogeneity of the group has been emphasized at the out- 
set because of the difficulty experienced by many people 
in seeing the connection between a measure of relationship 
and a measure of dispersion. Paradoxical as it may seem, 
correlation is a function of dissimilarity rather than simi- 
larity. Its fundamental requirement is that the individuals 
measured shall differ among themselves. If correlation exists 
the individual differences found in one measurement will 
be related to those found by another measurement (either 
of the same or of a different characteristic) In such a way 
that standing in one can be predicted from standing on 
the other with better than cnance accuracy. Correlation 
means nothing more than concomitant variation. 



286 Experimental Child Study 

The significance of a correlation coefficient then reduces 
itself essentially to a question of the accuracy of the pre- 
diction which can be made from it. This question has two 
aspects. First, how accurately has the true magnitude of 
the correlation been determined? The answer to this ques- 
tion is given by the standard error of the correlation co- 
efficient (Formulas 18, 19). Reference to Table n will 
show the probability in terms of the number of chances in 
a thousand that in other samplings drawn from the same 
population, fluctuations above or below the obtained value 
of the correlation may be expected to occur. Thus, if in the 
sample studied the correlation between two measures was 
found to be +.34 with a standard error of .17, Table 10 
shows that there are approximately 158 chances in a thou- 
sand that in another sampling the correlation obtained 
would be as much as one standard error higher (+.51 or 
more) and an equal number that it would be as much as 
one standard error lower (+.17 or less). There are about 
23 chances in each direction that it would differ by as much 
as two standard errors, that is, that it would become as 
high as +.68 or as low as .00. Evidently, when the standard 
error of a correlation is high, one cannot place much de- 
pendence upon the relationship. If the coefficient is not more 
than two or three times its standard error we cannot be sure 
that it is not the result of chance. 

Suppose, however, that the correlation in question has 
been obtained from such a large number of cases that its 
standard error is negligible for most purposes, say not 
greater than .001, so that we may fairly accept the co- 
efficient at its face value. Under these circumstances, what 
does a given degree of correlation mean in terms of predic- 
tion? 

If we know nothing about the correlations of the measure 
which we wish to predict, but do know its mean and stand- 



The Pearson Method of Correlation 287 

ard deviation for the group under consideration, our best 
"guess" as to the measurement of any individual case would 
of course be the mean of the group, since by definition the 
mean is the point about which the deviations of the separate 
measures are at a minimum. The standard error of such a 
guess would then be equal to the standard deviation of 
the group. Now if in order to make this guess somewhat 
more accurate we wish to make use of a knowledge of the 
score attained by the subject on some other measurement 
which is correlated to a known extent with the measurement 
to be predicted, we shall make use of the regression equa- 
tion which enables us to change our estimate of the subject's 
standing from the mean of the entire group to the mean of 
the particular array which corresponds to his measurement 
in the other variable. 

But we have seen before (p. 278) that while it is true 
that the mean of this array is the best approximation which 
we can make to the probable standing of the individual on 
the trait in question, whenever the correlation between the 
two measurements is less than perfect, not all the measures 
will actually fall at the mean but will be scattered around it. 
The error of estimate involved when the mean of the array 
is taken as the best expression for each of the individual 
measurements within the array is the standard error of the 
array or aV 1 f 2 - (Formulas 16, 17.) But when no ac- 
count is taken of the measurement in the correlated variable, 
and prediction is made solely on the basis of the mean of 
the group, the error of estimate is equal to the standard 
deviation of the group or a. 

The comparative size of the two errors of estimate is then 
given by the ratio 



288 Experimental Child Study 

The use of the correlated measure as a means of pre- 
dicting or estimating the most probable standing of the 
individual subjects on the trait with which we are con- 
cerned will reduce our errors of estimate, on the average, to 
a magnitude which is only V I ^ & s great as they would 
otherwise ha\*e been. Expressed conversely, the mean per- 
centage of gam in accuracy of prediction secured in this way 

is i V I r2 - 

We can make this more concrete by considering a few 
examples. If r = .50, V 1 ^ = -866 and the average gain 
in accuracy brought about by predicting scores in the second 
variable on the basis of those made in the first is 13.4 per 
cent. If r = .707, V I r 2 = .707, and the error of estimate 
has been reduced 29.3 per cent. If r = .866, V * r 2 = .50, 
and the error of estimate is only half as great as it would 
otherwise have been. If r.gS, V 1 r 2 =:.i99, and the 
error of estimate has been reduced to a fifth of its original 
amount. 



The value V * f 2 is known as the coefficient of aliena- 
tion. It measures the lack of relationship between two vari- 
ables just as r measures the presence of relationship. Because 
of its frequent use in statistics it is often denoted by the let- 
ter k. 

To some persons, the. discovery that the actual predictive 
value of a correlation is so much smaller than its numerical 
value had led them to expect is very disappointing. A little 
consideration, however, will show that this feeling is un- 
warranted. Whether or not a given correlation is to be re- 
garded as significant or useful depends upon a number of 
factors, and cannot be determined from its absolute magni- 
tude alone. From the scientific standpoint, the existence of 
any relationship, no matter how small, is, if true (that is, 
if the standard error is small enough to be negligible), a fact 



The Pearson Method of Correlation 289 

to be explained, A correlation so small that no one would 
think of using it for predictive purposes in the guidance of 
individual behavior may nevertheless have important impli- 
cations for the understanding of behavior in general. More- 
over, even from the practical standpoint, a measurement 
which on the average reduces the error of estimate by as 
little as 5 or 10 per cent is by no means to be despised, 
provided the method is not too costly in time and effort, and 
the end served is an important one. A gain of five per cent 
may be of enormous total value if applied to a very large 
number of cases. In the financial world, an investment which 
yields such a return is respected. The field of human be- 
havior is surely quite as complex as the stock market. Need 
we be surprised if the methods available for the study of 
child behavior usually fail to yield one hundred per cent 
prediction? 

From earliest times, the layman has been inclined to look 
upon the experiments of the scientist with a curious mixture 
of credulity and distrust. This leads to a rather widespread 
conviction that in some way an error in advice or treat- 
ment which Is consequent upon an error in an attempted 
measurement exerts a far more pernicious effect upon the 
subject than a similar or even a greater error resulting from 
individual prejudice, ignorance, or neglect. There is no rea- 
son why this should be true unless the alleged measurement 
is falsely endowed with a reputation for infallibility which 
it does not in fact possess, thus making it difficult to cor- 
rect the errors resulting from its use. Provided its limitations 
as well as its possibilities are clearly recognized, an instru- 
ment which materially lessens the probability of error, even 
though It does not preclude it, may be well worth using. 
If, moreover, the results obtained by Its use are carefully 
recorded and evaluated from time to time in the light of 
later events, the way to improvement in the method will 



290 Experimental Child Study 

often be made clear. The danger in the use of fallible instru- 
ments lies not so much in their fallibility as in the failure of 
the uncritical user to recognize their limitations. 

REFERENCES 

The student is referred to the following titles in the 
bibliography at the end of this book: 

380, 382, 384*, 389* 390*, 391, 393, 397, 401, 403 



Chapter 32 
INTROVERSION AND EXTROVERSION 

FOR years some psychologists and psychiatrists have been 
interested in the .possibility of classifying individuals 
into definite personality "types" distinguished by fairly well- 
marked patterns of reaction. Jung, a pupil of Freud who 
rejected many of Freud's original ideas, first used the terms 
extroversion and Introversion as ways of describing two op- 
posed kinds of emotional reaction. According to Jung, extro- 
version is characterized by an outward movement of interest 
toward the object, while introversion is characterized by a 
movement of interest away from the object toward the sub- 
ject. We may express this more simply by saying that in 
the extroverted form of behavior the subject's interests and 
emotions are expressed freely and promptly with little at- 
tempt at concealment, while in the introverted form of 
behavior there is much less active expression of interest in 
external objects or events, and the subject's attention seems 
to be turned inward upon himself. Although emotional states 
are expressed less freely, feelings or moods often persist 
for considerable periods of time. This is in marked contrast 
with the behavior of the extrovert with whom emotional 
expression is commonly more violent but relatively tran- 
sient. 

The following descriptions which are taken from Mars- 
ton's (176) account of the behavior of young children while 
visiting a museum of natural history illustrate these points. 

291 



292 Experimental Child Study 

"E.G. ran about the room, commanding the experimenter 
to follow and plying him with questions about the exhibits 
which greatly interested him. He was easily distracted, how- 
ever, and for a time eagerly followed the janitor about 
the hall. His behavior was determined by an objectively 
directed but rapidly shifting Interest. He was ready to leave 
the museum after eleven and a half minutes/ 3 (Extroverted 
behavior.) 

"J.K. walked around and around the center section of 
the museum. He moved slowly and quietly, observing the 
exhibits with casual interest, seldom stopping to examine 
them closely. He retraced his course several times and did 
little exploring. The environment failed to attract him, and, 
although he was undoubtedly bored, he would not ask to 
return to the school but continued his monotonous walking. 
According to both ratings and experiments, J.K. is a pro- 
nounced introvert." 

It is thought by some that introverts and extroverts con- 
stitute two distinct types of personality, in the sense that 
practically all individuals can be classified under one head 
or the other with comparatively few intermediate or unde- 
termined types. The rating scale which will presently be 
described was constructed according to this hypothesis. More 
complete investigation, however, seems to point to the con- 
clusion that introversion and extroversion, like tallness and 
shortness, beauty and ugliness, or brightness and stupidity, 
are not distinct types at all, but merely two opposed ends 
of a scheme of classification in which the great majority 
of people rank somewhere near the middle, with a much 
smaller number at either extreme. In other words, the dis- 
tribution of Introverts and extroverts among the general 
population appears to follow the normal frequency curve. 
Most people belong neither to one type or the other, but 
somewhere in between. 



Introversion and Extroversion 293 

Experiment No. 33 

A Scale for Rating Introversion-Extroversion 
in Young Children 

In this experiment the rating scale devised by Dr. L. R. 
Marston at the State University of Iowa (176) is to be 
used.* This scale forms part of a study of the extent to 
which the emotional and social behavior of young children 
becomes organized into the habitual modes of reaction which 
we call "personality traits." Although the scale was con- 
structed upon the hypothesis that introverts and extroverts 
are distinct personality "types" rather than opposite ends 
of a continuous series, the fact that it was devised particu- 
larly for use with children under the age of six makes it an 
extremely useful device for studying certain aspects of 
the emotional behavior of young children. When ratings 
from several competent judges are secured for the same 
children and combined to give a single score, the reliability 
of the scale is usually found to be very high. If repeated 
ratings are made for the same children year after year, a 
valuable record of changes in personality can be secured. 
Although the scale was originally designed for use with 
children of preschool age it may also be used with children 
in the primary grades. 

Procedure: Select the experimental group with whom the 
students are most familiar, and have a copy of the Marston 
scale filled out by each student for each child. If standard 
blanks are not available, a test sheet may be prepared for 
each child in the following manner. At the top of the sheet 
should be placed the child's name, sex, date of birth, name 
of school, and grade. The date of making the rating and 
the name of the rater should be added, with a statement as 

* Copies of this scale can be obtained from the University of Iowa 
Child Welfare Research Station, Iowa City, Iowa. 



294 Experimental Child Study 

to how long and under what circumstances the rater has been 
acquainted with the child. Below this the numbers from I 
to 20 should be arranged in parallel columns. The rater 
should read the descriptions for each trait carefully, and 
decide upon the score to be given the child in question. This 
score may then be entered in a second column opposite the 
number of the trait to which it applies. The sum of the 
ratings on all the traits should then be found, and entered 
as the child's total score. According to Marston, ratings 
above 60 indicate some tendency toward extroversion, while 
those below 60 show a tendency toward introversion. A some- 
what more cautious method of interpretation would be to 
say that children who rate below 50 tend toward the intro- 
vert type, and those rating above 70 toward the extrovert 
type; while those who rate between 50 and 70 are not 
definitely classifiable within either group. It should be noted 
that this statement applies only when the scores are based 
upon the average ratings of several competent judges. When 
only one or two judges participate in the rating, personal 
bias is likely to enter in to such an extent as to make any 
attempt at individual comparison or classification unsafe. 

Problems: i. Combine all the ratings for each child and 
prepare a list of the sums. Let each student first subtract 
his own series of scores from this sum and then find the 
correlation between his own ratings for the different children 
and the average given by all the other members of the class, 
excluding himself. Each student should also find the correla- 
tion between his own ratings, and those given by at least 
three of the other members of the class taken separately. 
If there are as many as 20 children in the group rated, the 
Pearson product moment method of computing the correla- 
tions should be used, in order to give the students additional 
facility in the use of this method. 

2. Find the mean rating for each child on the introversion- 



Introversion and Extroversion 295 

extroversion scale as given by all the judges. What Is its 
correlation with chronological age? with mental age if mental 
tests have been given the children? with IQ? 

3. Compare the sexes with regard to introversion-extro- 
version as indicated by the mean ratings on this scale? How 
reliable is the difference found ? 

4. Find the reliability of the combined series of ratings 
given by all the judges by first dividing the raters into two 
random halves and then correlating the sums of the ratings 
given by the first group against the corresponding sums given 
by the second group. What further procedure is necessary in 
order to secure an estimate of the reliability of the total? 
Apply this procedure and compare the result thus obtained 
with the reliability of other tests and measurements which 
have been found in previous studies carried out by the class. 

5. Draw a frequency polygon showing the distribution of 
the total ratings for all the children as given by all the 
members of the class. Does the form of this distribution sug- 
gest that two distinct types are present? 

REFERENCES 

The student is referred to the following titles in the 
bibliography at the end of this book: 

in, 176*, 210, 245, 296% 302% 333. 



Chapter 33 
LAUGHTER 

BECAUSE of its universality among human beings at all 
ages and in all levels of culture, laughter affords a 
means of studying certain aspects of the personal-social 
relations of the individual, which has an unusually wide 
range of applicability. Individuals differ both in respect to 
the frequency with which they laugh and the nature of the 
stimuli which cause them to do so. Some stimuli are quite 
generally laughter provoking while others acquire this qual- 
ity by virtue of individual experience or the traditions of 
a particular group. Laughter in children is so easily observed 
and occurs so frequently that it furnishes excellent material 
for the study of individual differences in social and emo- 
tional behavior. 

Experiment No. 34 

Individual Differences in Frequency of Laughter, 

and Their Relationship to Other Personality 

Characteristics 

Procedure: The method of the short time sample described 
in Chapter 28 (Social behavior) is to be used. The con- 
struction of a graded series of categories for laughter is left 
as an exercise for the class. The series should range from 
complete soberness of expression to loud boisterous shouts 
of laughter. Each step should be clearly defined. It is best to 
work out a series of tentative definitions in class, then have 

296 



Laughter 297 

one or more observational periods devoted to testing the 
objectivity of the descriptions by simultaneous observations 
of the same children by paired observers who make their 
records independently of each other. At the end of the 
period the results of the simultaneous observations should be 
compared, and the definitions revised at any points where 
there is much disagreement in classification. At least 95 per 
cent of the records should agree exactly, and disagreements 
greater in amount than one step on the scale should not 
occur. 

After a satisfactory series of definitions has been devised, 
a series of observational samples should be secured for each 
child by each student in the manner described in Chapter 
28. A one minute sample is used as before, but in this case, 
since laughter is a form of behavior which is relatively tran- 
sient and which requires but an instant to observe and 
classify, it will be well to divide the minute of observation 
into six ten second periods, and to record the behavior 
separately for each of these intervals. 

At the end of the minute make a note of (a) the child's 
occupation during the period of observation, (b) whether 
he was alone or in a group, and (c) the apparent cause of 
the laughter. 

Subjects : Children of any age may be used. 

Problems: x. Find the amount of observational error by 
calculating the per cent of the total number of records In 
which there was disagreement between simultaneous ob- 
servers amounting to one, two, or more steps on the scale 
used for recording the behavior. 

2. Calculate a "laughter score" for each child. Weight the 
various steps on the scale from zero (for absence of laughter 
or smiling) by progressive increases of I up to the highest 
category used. Then multiply the number of times the child's 
behavior was classified under each category by the weight 



298 Experimental Child Study 

given to that category, add the results and divide by the 
total number of observations * for that child. If the same 
number of observations is secured for each subject the 
weighted sums may be used instead of the means. 

3. Find the reliability of the laughter scores by correlat- 
ing the mean score earned on the even-numbered observa- 
tions with those earned on the odd numbered observations 
and correcting by the Spearman-Brown prophecy formula 
as described in Chapter 15. 

4. What is the correlation of the laughter scores with (a) 
chronological age? (b) mental age and IQ if mental test 
scores are available? (c) with extroversion if the same 
children were used for the Marston ratings described in the 
last experiment? (d) with other measurements or ratings 
which may have been secured for these children? 

5. Analyze the data on the children's occupations at the 
time the observations were made to see which kinds of 
occupation are most likely to be accompanied by laughter. 
What occupations are rarely accompanied by laughter? 

6. Is laughter more frequent during solitary or group play? 
What is the reliability of the difference found? 

7. Classify the apparent causes of laughter for this group 
and arrange in order of frequency. 

8. Make a comparative case study of the two children 
with the highest and the lowest laughter scores. Arrange 
the data in parallel columns, showing how the children 
compare in as many characteristics as possible. Include such 
facts from the home and family background as are available. 
Add a short descriptive summary, pointing out the facts 
which seem most significant. 

*A more exact system of weighting is described in Kelley (390), pp. 
99-102. If there are as many as thirty children in the group studied and 
the class is sufficiently advanced it is well to use this method instead of 
the arbitrary system of weighting described here. 



Laughter 299 

REFERENCES 

The student is referred to the following titles in the 
bibliography at the end of this book: 

34, 35, 68, yo* 5 71, io8* ? 153, 245, 265*, 290, 302. 



Chapter 34 
JUDGING EMOTION FROM FACIAL EXPRESSION 

T7OR many years it was rather generally assumed that 
* each emotion carries with it a characteristic facial ex- 
pression by which it may be recognized. Books and articles 
have described in detail the contractions of the facial muscles 
which were believed to accompany each emotion, and ap- 
paratus has been constructed for the purpose of demonstrat- 
ing in the laboratory the facial expression of emotion. More 
recent experiments, however, have cast some doubt upon the 
assumption that the emotional states of others can always or 
even usually be identified from outward appearance. It has 
been pointed out that much of the apparent uniformity in 
the drawings and photographs used as examples of emotional 
expression may have its origin in mere tradition rather than 
in fact. Moreover since these illustrations are commonly 
labeled with the name of the emotion which they have been 
intended to portray, the observer acquires a "mental set" 
which leads him to read into the expression a degree of 
specificity which is not there. Often when a given expression 
would serve equally well for any one of several emotional 
states, if the observer is told in advance that a particular 
one of these, as anger, fear, or jealousy is depicted he will 
see the expression in the light of this "set" and ignore the 
other possibilities. Under the influence of the stage, art, and 
literature, custom has decreed that certain conventional ex- 
pressions shall be used to indicate the various emotions. Ac- 

300 



Judging Emotion 301 

cordingly when one wishes to convey the idea of a certain 
emotional state he endeavors to arrange his features accord- 
Ing to the pattern which convention has set for the portrayal 
of that emotion. 

For these reasons, the practice which has been common in 
the past of using specially posed photographs of actors or 
trained adults to illustrate the facial expression of emotion 
has been justly criticized. These criticisms may be avoided 
by making use of photographs of young children. The chil- 
dren should be old enough to have developed a fair degree 
of muscular control^ but should not have reached a stage 
of development at which their general behavior or facial 
expression is likely to have been affected by a knowledge 
of traditional standards, and they should be unacquainted 
with the function of a camera. It is of course true that chil- 
dren of these ages cannot furnish introspective accounts of 
their emotional states; hence the existence of an emotion 
must be judged purely from the child's behavior and from a 
knowledge of the emotional potentialities of the situation. If, 
however, it turns out that persons ignorant of the nature of 
the stimulus given are able to judge its general character 
from observation of the behavior alone, strong evidence for 
the existence of native or untaught emotional reaction pat- 
terns is afforded. If this can be done with fair success from 
observations of photographs alone, the evidence will be still 
stronger, since the photograph shows only a single brief 
stage in the reaction and tells nothing of the sequences of 
movement or of the vocalizations which accompany it. The 
task of identifying the total behavior pattern by means of 
such a small portion of it is far from easy. Whatever success 

* Sherman (221) has shown that the responses of new-bom Infants to 
situations such as dropping, loud noises, pricking with a pin, or restrained 
movements are so undlfferentlated that trained adults cannot distinguish 
one from another unless the stimulus is known. 



302 Experimental Child Study 

occurs takes on added significance because of the small 
number of clues provided. 

Experiment No. 35 
Judging Emotion from Photographs 

Material: In Figure 29 there will be found a series of 
photographs of a ten-months-old infant. These photographs 
were taken under conditions likely to be provocative of mild 
emotional states at an instant when the child's behavior sug- 
gested to the observer that the anticipated emotion had been 
aroused. Since the youth of the child makes it practically 
certain that the character of the emotional expression has 
not been affected by social tradition, and "camera con- 
sciousness" is for the same reason ruled out, these photo- 
graphs have decided advantages over such pictures of 
adults posed to simulate emotions of various kinds as have 
generally been used in studies on the judgment of emotional 
expression. 

On the following page will be found descriptions of the 
situations under which the photographs were taken. In some 
instances the emotion which the child was believed to be 
experiencing is also indicated.* Descriptions of four addi- 
tional situations have been added in order that the matching 
of the last picture will not be determined automatically by 
a process of elimination. 

Subjects. The members of the class will act as judges. 

Procedure. On a separate sheet of paper write in a column 
the numbers from i to 12. These numbers correspond to the 
situations described on page 303, 

*The photographs with their descriptions have been reproduced by 
permission of the publishers from "Die Entwicklung der Gemiitsbeweg- 
ungen im ersten Lebensjahre" by Martin Buchner, Beitrage zur Kmdtr- 
forschung und Heilerziehung, 1909, 60, pp. 19. The descriptions have been 






B 




C D 

FIGURE 29 (From Buchner) 







G H 

Expression of the emotions in a ten-months-old infant. 



Judging Emotion 303 

Now look at the first picture (labeled A) facing page 302. 
Xote the child's facial expression and bodily posture care- 
fully, then read through the descriptions of all the situa- 
tions in which the child was photographed. One of these 

Situations corresponding to photographs facing pages 
J02 and $04. 

(Translated from. Buchner with minor adaptations) 

1. Satisfied smiling (with affection). He was looking at his 
mother, who talked to him in a friendly manner. 

2. Astonishment (with slight displeasure). I counted 
loudly and emphatically as I walked toward him 'twenty, 
twenty-one,, twenty-two, etc" He looked me uncomprehend- 
ingly in the face. 

3. Fear (perhaps with dislike). A strange woman struck 
two blocks together, growled, and rushed suddenly up to 
him, frowning darkly. 

4. Dissatisfaction (with slight obstinacy). I had taken him 
up in my arms and then put him back in the chair. He 
wanted to corne to my arms again. 

5. Astonishment (with auditory attention). He is listening 
to the ticking of a watch. 

6. Slight obstinacy. His mother wanted him to give her his 
hands, but he would not because she had just taken a toy 
away from him. 

7. Crying. He was tired of sitting and wanted to come out 
of his high chair into my arms. 

8. Astonishment (with ocular attention). A bright-colored 
new toy clown was shown to him. 

9. Grimacing. The rogue is trying to wink. 

10. Pleasure. I rolled a shining tin can on the tray. He 
said softly, "dai." 

1 1. Roguish smiling (with affection . and tense expecta- 
tion). His mother was teasing him, "Only wait, now, I'm 
going to catch you !" 

12. Anger (and displeasure). A toy has been taken away 
from him. 

translated literally except for the omission of certain specific references 
which might serve as a guide to the matching. 



304 Experimental Child Study 

corresponds to Picture A. When you have decided which one 
of the situations described would be most likely to elicit the 
expression shown in this picture, write the letter A after 
the number of this description on your list. Do the same for 
Picture B, then for Picture C, and so on until all the pictures 
have been matched. Four unmatched situations will of course 
be left over. Turn now to page 517 where you will find a 
key showing the correct matching. How many of your judg- 
ments were correct? 

Problems: I. With eight pictures and twelve situations 
what is the theoretical probability of correct matching by 
chance alone? Find the total number of correct matchings 
for the entire class and subtract from this the number which 
may fairly be attributed to chance. What is the average num- 
ber of correct judgments after the correction for chance has 
been made? 

2. Tabulate the number of successes and failures made by 
the group for each picture separately. Which picture shows 
the highest percentage of correct judgments? Which has the 
lowest percentage? 

3. Is any picture associated with any one incorrect situa- 
tion more frequently than with the correct situation? What 
would you infer from this? 

4. Compare the results obtained in this experiment with 
those reported in the literature. 

5. Have the pictures judged by a group of nurses or 
mothers of young children, and compare with the class results 
in order to see whether daily experience with infants in- 
creases the ability to interpret their emotional behavior cor- 
rectly. 

REFERENCES 

The student is referred to the following titles in the 
bibliography at the end of this book: 

40 3 80 ? 9I* ? 158*, 159% l6l, 220*, 221*, 222, 299. 



Chapter 35 

MENTAL HYGIENE 

A MAJOR problem confronting the student of mental 
health in children Is that of recognizing the early symp- 
toms of social and emotional maladjustment and of dis- 
tinguishing between those forms of behavior which Indicate 
serious difficulties on the part of the child and those which 
are merely irritating to the adult. A recent study by Wick- 
man (270) shows that teachers and psychiatrists differ con- 
siderably in their judgments as to the comparative serious- 
ness of various kinds of misdemeanors shown by children. 
We cannot say that either the teachers or the psychiatrists 
were right In their estimates. In a sense both may have 
been. Undoubtedly all of us are Influenced in our judgments 
by experience and training. Accordingly,, when an unde- 
scribed list of misdemeanors is given out to be rated, it Is 
improbable that the terms used will convey the same mean- 
ing to all the raters. "Stealing" for example is not a simple 
a all-or-none" phenomenon but ranges all the way from the 
petty pilferings, of which most children are occasionally 
guilty, to major thefts. If one rater thinks of stealing In terms 
of a casual theft of apples from a neighbor's tree, and an- 
other In terms of breaking Into a store and robbing the cash 
register, it is not surprising If their ratings differ. It is there- 
fore quite possible for two groups whose dally contacts with 
children and their problems differ so greatly as do those of 
teachers and psychiatrists to envisage the problems at such 

305 



306 Experimental Child Study 

different levels that agreement in rating would hardly be 
possible. 

A knowledge of the attitudes of different groups toward 
the so-called "problems" of childhood is, however, well worth 
securing, if we remember that we are dealing with attitudes, 
rather than with a true measure of the "seriousness" of the 
behavior under consideration. We may assume, however, 
that if opinions have been honestly given, the reactions of 
the group toward behavior of the kind described will vary 
somewhat in accordance with these opinions. Since social 
pressure is likely to be strongest when coming from imme- 
diate associates, the opinions of children regarding child mis- 
demeanors are of particular interest. 

Experiment No. 36 

A Comparison of Standards of Behavior 
at Different Ages 

From the literature on behavior problems in children, 
select from ten to fifteen cases illustrating various forms of 
maladjusted behavior. Prepare very brief abstracts of these 
case histories describing the essential features in each case in 
as simple language as possible. Ages and sex of the children 
should always be noted. Type each description on a separate 
slip of paper and have these slips arranged in order from the 
one judged to be least serious to that judged to be most 
serious by each of three groups of subjects as follows: 

a. A group of elementary school children. 

b. The members of the class each working independently. 

c. Their parents or a similar group of middle-aged men 
and women, 

Problems: r. Compare the mean rank order of the various 
problems as judged by each of the three groups named 
above. If the number of judges in each group is sufficiently 



Mental Hygiene 307 

great the sexes should be kept separate, making six groups 
in place of three. What Is the correlation between the mean 
rank given to each problem by the children and that given 
by the college students? Between the mean ranks of the 
students and those of the older adults? Between the ranks of 
the children and those of the older adults? Which problems 
show the greatest discrepancies in rank as rated by the 
different groups? Can you suggest any explanation? 

2. It is interesting to note whether with increasing age and 
experience there is any tendency for opinion among the 
different members of a group to become more similar or 
more widely divergent. Do the children or the adults re- 
semble each other more closely in the evaluations which they 
place upon problems such as those just described? Conclu- 
sions from data such as these must be very tentative, since 
the possibility of important differences in sampling is not 
excluded. If, however, we should find that the difference in 
the average intercorrelation of the judgments made by the 
individual members of each group is fairly marked, the 
findings would be at least suggestive. Kelley (390) has de- 
veloped a short method for finding the average intercorre- 
lation between series of scores whose means and standard 
deviations are equal. When, as in the present instance, 
scores are expressed in terms of rank these conditions are 
fulfilled. The formula appears intricate, but is really very 
simple. It will be found to save much labor when the num- 
ber of intercorrelations to be computed is large. 

T - t aUN + i} 12 ^ (2I) 

r n I ( a i) (AT -i)" 1 " a (a i) N (N 2 - i) V ' 

In this formula r-n is the average intercorrelation between 
the rank order of the separate judges in the group, a is the 
number of judges and N is the number of items ranked, in 
this case the number of problems listed. 2 as usual means 



308 Experimental Child Study 

the sum of, and S is the sum of the ranks given to each 
problem by all the judges. 

A convenient method of tabulating the material is first 
to list the problems (identified by number or letter) in a 
column down the left hand side of the paper. The rank 
orders given by each judge to each problem are then listed 
in parallel columns to the right. The sum of all the ranks 
given to each problem is then found and entered in a column 
labeled S. Each of the S values is then to be squared and 
the squared values entered in a final column labeled S 2 . 
(A table of squares should be used for this purpose.) The 
sum of the S 2 column is the value required for the second 
part of Formula 21. 

Using the method just described find the average inter- 
correlation between the judges in each age and sex group. 
Do the results suggest that one sex is more uniform in its 
judgment of conduct disorders than the other? Upon the 
whole, do the children or members of the older and the 
younger group of adults show greater uniformity among 
themselves in attitudes toward these problems? Can you 
suggest a reason for this greater uniformity? 

Experiment No. 37 

Individual Differences in "Problem Tendencies" 
among Young Children 

Prepare a list of twenty traits or characteristics shown by 
kindergarten children which are commonly regarded as de- 
sirable. Prepare a second list of twenty traits commonly re- 
garded as undesirable. Be careful that the two lists include 
no terms which are the exact opposites of each other. Each 
trait should be defined in as objective terms as possible. 
Have each member of the class grade each child in the 
experimental group on each of the twenty traits in the 



Mental Hygiene 309 

two lists on a three-point scale, in which a grading of I 
indicates little or no manifestation of the trait in question, 2 
shows a moderate degree of the trait and 3 a marked degree. 
Divide the class into two random halves and sum the scores 
for each child given by the first group of students on the 
list of desirable traits and also on the list of undesirable 
traits considered separately. Do the same for the scores 
given by the second group of students. Then secure a final 
score for each child on the desirable traits and the unde- 
sirable traits separately by combining the ratings given by 
both groups. 

Problems: I. Find the reliability of the scores of the un- 
desirable traits through correlating the sum of the scores 
given to each child by the first group of students against 
the corresponding sum given by the second group. Do the 
same for the desirable traits. Using the Spearman-Brown 
formula find the reliability of the total scores given by all 
the students on each group of traits. Do individuals on the 
whole seem to agree more closely in their judgments of 
desirable or of undesirable characteristics? 

2. Using the summed scores given by all the students, 
find the quartiles for the desirable and the undesirable traits 
separately. The quartiles are the dividing points which 
separate the groups into four divisions, with an equal num- 
ber of cases in each division. The top 25 per cent or the 
upper quartile would then contain the 25 per cent of the 
cases who received the highest rating; the bottom quartile 
would include the 25 per cent of cases receiving the lower 
rating; the two middle quartiles would contain the 25 per 
cent immediately above and below the median. 

3. On the basis of the above division classify the children 
into four groups as follows: 

(a) The children who are classified in the top quartile on 
the list of desirable traits and in the bottom quartile on the 



310 Experimental Child Study 

list of undesirable traits. These children may be considered 
as in general a well-adjusted group, at least so far as the 
traits included in this list are concerned. 

(b) The children who fall within the lowest 25 per cent on 
the list of desirable traits, and in the highest 25 per cent 
on the list of undesirable traits. In comparison to other mem- 
bers of the group, these children may be regarded as some- 
what poorly adjusted. 

(c) Children who seem, to show rather negative ^personali- 
ties in that they rank low both in regard to desirable and 
undesirable qualities. It would probably be well to use the 
50 percentile rather than the 25 percentile in classifying this 
group. 

(d) Children whose personality traits are very pronounced 
both on the negative and the positive side, that is, those 
who rank in the highest 25 per cent on the list of desirable 
traits and the highest 25 per cent on the list of undesirable 
traits. 

(e) Classify the remaining children according to the group 
which they most nearly resemble. 

4. If time permits it will be well worth while to have each 
student make a comparative case study of one child in each 
of the above groups. All of the data available in the school 
records should be used, also other material which has been 
collected by the class in the course of other experiments. If 
possible this information should be supplemented by a visit 
to the home for the purpose of getting such information on 
family relationships and the general home environment as 
It seems desirable and feasible to secure. In case the home 
interview is made, the facts to be secured in the course of the 
visit should be discussed In class, and a standard record 
form prepared which is to be used by all the students for 
recording this information. The results obtained by all the 
students on all the subjects studied in this manner may then 
be combined in order to show what characteristic differences 
in home background appear between the groups. 



Mental Hygiene 311 

REFERENCES 

The student is referred to the following titles in the 
bibliography at the end of this book: 

21, 23, 40, 42, 76*, 114, I20* r 121*, 145, 178, I99* ? 2QO* S 

210, 216*, 231, 240, 252, 264, 267, 270*, 274, 277, 279, 337, 
390. 



Chapter 36 

CHILDREN'S PREFERENCES FOR THE DIFFERENT 
SCHOOL SUBJECTS 

A NUMBER of investigations have dealt with children's 
interests in the various subjects of the school curricu- 
lum. In general these investigations have shown that in any 
school system certain subjects tend to be relatively un- 
popular while others are quite generally liked. A few sub- 
jects, usually those of a comparatively formal nature such 
as spelling, seem to have rather neutral interest value since 
the majority of children fail to express either positive liking 
or definite dislike for them. Still others may be described 
as ambivalent. While few children are Indifferent toward 
them, they are about equally often liked and disliked. 

Unquestionably, methods of teaching the different sub- 
jects have some bearing upon the children's comparative 
interest in them. Interests also vary with sex and with the 
mental level of the children. In the Stanford University 
study of gifted children (244), for example, it was found 
that when both the exceptionally bright children and a con- 
trol group of unselected children from the same schools were 
asked to indicate their interests in the subjects studied, the 
rank orders shown on the following page were obtained: 

Reading is popular with all the children, especially with 
the gifted group. Penmanship is generally disliked, espe- 
cially by the brighter children. History is better liked by 
the boys than by the girls, spelling and singing are more 
liked by the girls, particularly in the control group. In this 

312 



Children's Preferences 313 

Gifted Control 

Soys Girls Boys Girls 

Reading I i 2 4 

History (U. S.) 2 3 I 9 

Physical training 3 4 4 3 

Spelling 4 2 5 I 

Arithmetic 5 8 7 S 

Geography 6 5 3 ^ 

Drawing 7 6 6 6 

Singing . ; 8 7 9 ^ 

Penmanship 9 9 8 8 

group of cases the rank orders given by the gifted boys and 
the gifted girls to the nine subjects listed here correlate 
with each other to the extent of +.85; the rank orders given 
by the gifted and control boys have a correlation of +.83, 
but those of the gifted and control girls show a small nega- 
tive correlation of .13. When a much larger number of 
school subjects, including many which were studied by only a 
small proportion of the children (such as instrumental music, 
clay modeling, civics and agriculture), the corresponding 
correlations were as follows: gifted boys vs. control boys 
+.717; gifted boys vs. gifted girls, '+-593; gifted girls vs. 
control girls +.165. These correlations are probably some- 
what less reliable since the mean ranks in many instances 
were based on small numbers of cases. While the findings 
need confirmation from other groups, they suggest that the 
academic interests of boys resemble each other rather closely 
regardless of intellectual level, while those of girls are differ- 
entiated along intellectual lines rather than sex lines. 

Experiment No. 38 
School-Room Interests of Primary Grade Children 

Subjects: This investigation is suitable for use with chil- 
dren above the second grade. If desired, a similar investiga- 



314 Experimental Child Study 

tion may be carried out in the first and second grade by in- 
dividual questioning, but children of these ages are so likely 
to be guided in their replies only by their most recent ex- 
periences that the results will have considerably less value 
than those obtained in the upper grades where the children 
are more able to make their judgments upon the basis of 
experience extending over a period of time. If carried on 
throughout an entire school system, the results obtained 
should have considerable practical value, since if, as is usually 
the case, it Is found that there are certain subjects rather 
universally disliked while others are popular it at least sug- 
gests that some modification in the teaching method used for 
the unpopular subjects is desirable. 

Procedure: Supply each child in the class with a sheet of 
paper upon which he is to write his name, age at last birth- 
day, name of school and grade. Place on the board a list of 
the names of all the school subjects taught in that grade and 
have the children copy it on their papers. When sufficient 
time has been allowed for the copying of the list give the fol- 
lowing instructions. 

"We are trying to find out which of the subjects children 
study in school are liked best. It is really a sort of contest 
in which we vote for the best school subjects just as we might 
vote for the person who is to be president of the class. This 
is a secret ballot, so no one must look to see how anybody 
else is voting. Vote for the subject which you, yourself, like 
best. Read through the list on your paper and put a figure 
i in front of the subject which you like best of all. Choose 
just one subject and mark it No. I. Do it as quickly as you 
can." Allow thirty seconds and then say, "Now we are going 
to vote for the subject which you like next best. Look over 
the others on the list and decide which one you like second 
best. Mark it No. 2. Do it as quickly as you can/' Allow 
thirty seconds then say, "Now we will choose the third best. 



Children's Preferences 315 

Look over the names of the other subjects and decide which 
you like third best. Mark it with a 3." Continue in the same 
way until all the subjects have been ranked. Collect the 
papers and give out fresh sheets. After making sure that 
each child's name is on the paper, have the same list of 
subjects copied again. Then say, "Some of you had a hard 
time making up your mind before. Now we are going to 
mark the subjects again in a different way. This time we 
shall only say whether you like the subject or whether you 
don't. Look over the subjects again and mark each one 
that you really and truly like with a capital L. Mark all 
those that you don't like with a capital D. But there may be 
some subjects which you neither like nor dislike, which you 
don't mind one way or the other. Mark those with an X. 
Be sure to write plainly. Do you understand? Mark all the 
subjects that you really like with a capital L ? those that you 
don't like with a capital D ? and those that you neither like 
nor dislike with an X. All right, go ahead." 

If data from as many as fifty children in each grade or 
at each age are obtained, the results may be scaled accord- 
ing to the method of equally often noticed differences (396, 
397). With smaller groups, the error of scaling is likely to 
be too large to make this method feasible. In such cases 
a simpler treatment in terms of mean rank for the first set 
of data and in terms of percentage of each type of reaction 
for the second set is all that can be obtained. 

Problems: I. Find the order of popularity of the different 
subjects in each grade in which the investigation is carried 
out by summing all the ranks given to each subject and 
dividing by the number of cases In the group. Compare the 
rank orders of the subjects from grade to grade. Which is 
the favorite subject in each grade? The least favored sub- 
ject In each grade? 

2. Using the second set of data find for each subject 



316 Experimental Child Study 

separately In each grade the percentage of (a) liking, (b) 
disliking, (c) indifference. Classify the subjects according to 
the following heads: 

a. Usually liked, rarely disliked. At least 75 per cent of 
the ratings within this grade should be L, not more than 
10 per cent D. 

b. Usually disliked, rarely liked. More than 50 per cent 
of the ratings for this group should be D, not more than 25 
per cent L. If there is no subject which meets this criterion 
the limits can be made somewhat less severe and frequently 
substituted for usually in the caption, as, "frequently dis- 
liked, rarely liked." 

c. Subjects with indifferent interest value. 50 per cent or 
more of the ratings X, with the remainder about equally di- 
vided between Us and D's. 

d. Ambivalent subjects. Ratings of L and D about equally 
frequent and making up at least 75 per cent of the entire 
number. 

e. Place any subjects which do not clearly fall into any of 
the above heads in the group which they most nearly re- 
semble. 

Does a given subject tend to keep the same classifica- 
tion from grade to grade? What are the chief shifts in sub- 
ject preference from grade to grade? 

3. Divide the children in each grade into two groups on 
the basis of chronological age, placing in one group the older 
50 per cent of the class, and in the other group the younger 
50 per cent. Compare these two groups with regard to (a) 
the percentage of subjects which are liked, (b) the per- 
centage of subjects which are disliked, (c) the percentage of 
subjects rated as indifferent. Find the reliability of the differ- 
ence between these percentages. What conclusions would you 
draw? 

The principle involved in finding the standard error of a 
difference between percentages is identical with that of find- 



Children's Preferences 317 

Ing the standard error of a difference between two means 
and therefore need not be gone into in detail. The difference 
formulas are identical with those previously presented, i.e.: 

-j- o 2 2 2roi Oo (for correlated measures) 



f. = Vo-j 2 4- o 2 2 (for independent measures) 

We need only a method for determining the standard error 
of a percentage, that is, a formula which will indicate the 
probability that in other samplings from the same population 
the percentages obtained would differ by any stated amount. 
This method is given by the following formula: 



^percentage = 



( 22 ) 



where p is the percentage of cases within a given category, q 
is the percentage outside the category (100 per cent p), 
and N is the number of cases in the entire group.* 

4. In like manner divide each grade into two groups on 
the basis of average class standing in all subjects combined. 
This division may be made either upon the basis of the 
monthly report cards, or upon the basis of teacher's judg- 
ment. Make the same comparisons as were outlined in the 
previous question and find the reliability of the differences 
obtained. 

5. Find the mean class standing in each subject for all the 
children who say that they like that subject. Compare with 
the mean standing of those who dislike it and of those who 
are indifferent toward it. Have these results any bearing 
upon the relationship between attitude and success? 

6. If mental test results are available for these children 
make a division upon the basis of IQ. Compare the upper 

* Time may be economized by the use of a series of tables to facilitate 
the computation of the reliability of differences between percentages which 
have been worked out by Edgerton and Paterson, /. Appl. PsychoL, 1926, 
10, 378-391. 



3i 8 Experimental Child Study 

and lower halves with reference to subject preference In the 
same way as was done previously, and find the reliability 
of the differences. 

7. Which subjects are, on the whole, better liked by the 
older than by the younger children in each grade? Which 
tend to be preferred by the younger children? 

8. Do the results of Questions 3, 4, 5 and 6 throw any 
light upon the reason for the apparent ambivalence in pref- 
erence for certain subjects? Explain. 

9. Are there any sex differences in subject preference 
which tend to remain similar from grade to grade? If so, 
what are they? 

10. Compare the results of this study with the subject 
preferences of gifted and average children described in 
Genetic Studies of Genius (244). 

REFERENCES 

The student is referred to the following titles in the 
bibliography at the end of this book: 

184, 244*, 396, 397, 400. 



Chapter 37 
SPECIAL ABILITIES 

HOW early in life does special talent show itself? Is it 
possible to select from the group of the five-year-olds 
who enter our kindergartens each year the artists, the 
musicians, the poets and novelists of a quarter of a century 
later? Do "special abilities" keep the same pattern from 
childhood to maturity, or is special talent In reality little 
more than specialized interest which determines the particu- 
lar channel Into which general ability shall be directed? If 
we examine the childhood biographies of men of genius we 
find that in many cases there is little evidence of early spe- 
cialization along the lines for which the individual later be- 
came famous, though indications of unusually high general 
ability are present in most cases. Frequently there is shifting 
of interest from one field to another, as in the case of de 
Candolle, the botanist, who "in his early youth was more 
interested in literature and particularly in poetry and the 
drama than in the scientific studies which later claimed his 
attention" and "was distinguished in his boyhood for his 
facility in writing elegant verse" (53). In other cases, such as 
Beethoven and Mozart, special talent of an exceptionally 
high order along the line of later accomplishment seems to 
have been present from very early childhood. 

The most clean-cut evidence for the existence of a special 
talent which is apparent from childhood is to be found in the 
case of musical ability. By far the greater number of famous 
musicians showed decided musical talent at an early age. It Is 



320 Experimental Child Study 

quite possible, however, that the fact that musical ability is 
so clearly set off from other kinds of performance makes it 
more likely to be noticed than other forms of special apti- 
tude, such as scientific or literary ability. The latter may be 
quite as apparent in early life if we only knew what to look 
for. 

The early detection of special talent is one of the most 
important practical problems in the entire field of individual 
differences. Presumably there are certain niches into which 
a given individual will "fit" most satisfactorily; the problem 
is to know what these niches are. As yet, few measures of 
special aptitudes have been developed. Of those available, 
the greater number are suitable for use only with older 
children or adults. Recently, however, McGinnis (172) has 
developed a technique by which at least three of the Sea- 
shore tests for musical talent may be used with children as 
young as four years of age. 

Experiment No. 39 
The Seashore Tests for Musical Ability 

These tests are prepared in the form of phonograph rec- 
ords which may be secured from the Columbia Phonograph 
Company. The series consists of six tests, each measuring a 
special aspect of the kind of sensory discrimination which 
seems to be necessary for a musician. When given individu-" 
ally, three of these tests have been found suitable for use 
with children as young as four years. Children above the 
fourth grade may be tested in groups. 

In the study by McGinnis which was carried out with 
nursery-school children, the following modification in method 
was used: 

Only the tests of pitch discrimination, intensity, and con- 
sonance were used. Each of these requires only a compari- 



Special Abilities 321 

son between the two members of a pair of notes sounded in 
immediate succession. For example, in the pitch test the 
subject is required to say whether the second of the two 
notes is higher or lower than the first; in the test of intensity, 
he must state whether the second is louder or softer, and in 
the consonance test whether the second tone is better or 
worse, that is, more consonant or more dissonant than the 
first. The remaining three tests (tonal memory, time, and 
rhythm) call for more complex judgments which are not 
well suited to the early ages since little children have diffi- 
culty in understanding what is to be done. 

Because of the limited verbal comprehension of young 
children it is desirable to substitute other terms in place of 
Seashore's weak and strong, high and low, better and worse. 
In place of the words weak and strong, loud and soft are 
used. The terms high and low are explained by reference to 
the story of the three bears. The child is asked to tell 
whether the baby bear (high note) or the daddy bear (low 
note) is singing. In place of the terms better and worse the 
expressions pretty and ugly are substituted in the conso- 
nance test. Preliminary practice Is given with a mouth organ 
and with the victrola until it is certain that the child under- 
stands what is wanted in each instance. In order to allow 
for occasional omitted responses due to fluctuations in atten- 
tion, the percentage of correct responses is calculated upon 
the basis of the total number of answers rather than the 
total number of tones. If as many as twenty per cent of the 
notes are omitted the record is repeated. 

Procedure: The student should first familiarize himself 
with the general procedure for giving the Seashore tests to- 
gether with the form for recording the results as described 
in the manual which accompanies the records. Before under- 
taking to give the tests to young children he should try out 
the procedure as modified by McGinnis with one or more 



322 Experimental Child Study 

adults. When the method has been well mastered, the tests 
for discrimination of pitch, intensity, and consonance should 
be given individually to each of a group of kindergarten or 
first grade children, or to a group of four-year-old nursery 
school children. Each student should give each of the three 
tests to at least one child. Children from kindergarten or 
first grade can usually be given an entire side of a record 
at a single sitting, but if four-year-olds are used the record 
should be divided as follows : Scratch the records with a pin 
immediately after the thirtieth pair in order to establish a 
uniform division point. There is enough space between the 
end of the thirtieth and the beginning of the thirty-first 
judgments so that the needle can be placed In the proper 
groove, the victrola started, and the drag in speed taken up 
by the time the first of the next pair of tones is sounded. 

Record forms of the kind described by Seashore should be 
prepared in advance, and the child's responses noted by the 
examiner as they are given. In case the child changes his 
mind, that is, gives a second response as a correction to his 
first response, the second response should be recorded, re- 
gardless of whether it is right or wrong. Both sides of each 
record should be used. The entire record should be repeated 
after an interval not greater than two weeks in order to 
determine reliability. 

Problems: i. Find the reliability of each test by corre- 
lating the scores on the first trial with the scores on the 
second trial. Compare these results with those obtained by 
McGinnis for nursery school children and with one or more 
vof the studies carried out on children of school age. 

2. Seashore considers that the tests measure aspects of 
-sensory discrimination which are basic and for the most part 
independent of each other. Most investigators, however, have 
found an appreciable intercorrelation between the tests, 
which suggests that the abilities measured are less completely 



Special Abilities 323 

independent than Seashore supposed. Using the sum of the 
scores on the two trials find the intercorrelatlons between 
the separate tests. Compare these results with those found 
by other investigators. 

3. Find the correlations for each of the three tests sepa- 
rately with teachers' judgments of musical ability or with 
the average grade in music given on the school report cards 
for a period of two or three months. Which of the three tests 
shows the highest correlation with the teachers' judgments 
or with school standing in music ? 

4. Combine the results of the three tests into a single 
score. Compare this score with the teachers' judgments or 
the school standing. Does one secure a better estimate of the 
child's musical performance in school by the use of the in- 
dividual tests separately or by combining them into a total 
score? 

Experiment No. 40 

A Study of Special Ability in Drawing 

Require all the children in the kindergarten and the first 
and second grades of the experimental school to make two 
drawings, each on a separate sheet of paper. The first draw- 
ing is to represent the human figure, a man, a woman or a 
child. The second is to be a drawing of a house. As much 
time as necessary is permitted for making these drawings. 
Children should be encouraged to do their best, but no in- 
structions as to how the drawing is to be made should be 
given. Copying, either from other children or from pictures 
in books should be prevented. The two drawings may be 
made on the same day in immediate succession. On the fol- 
lowing day two more drawings using the same subjects 
should be secured from each child. Each drawing should be 
indorsed with the child's name, age, grade and any other 
facts thought to be of interest. Each drawing should be 



324 Experimental Child Study 

scored independently by two members of the class working 
in ignorance of each others results, using the method de- 
scribed by McCarty (171). 

Problems: i. Find the reliability of the scoring method 
by correlating for each grade separately the scores given to 
each drawing by the first scorer against those given by the 
second scorer. The method of interchangeable variables 
should be used. For which grade is the scoring most reliable? 
On the average do the drawings of houses or the drawings 
of the human figure show the higher reliability of scoring? 

2. Find the reliability of the child's performance from 
day to day by correlating for each grade and each subject 
separately the scores earned on the first day with those 
earned on the second day. The average of the scores given 
by the two judges should be used as the child's score for each 
occasion. Should the double entry or the single entry method 
be used for this correlation? Which of the two subjects, on 
the average, gives the more reliable indication of the child's 
drawing ability? Is there any grade differences in the rela- 
tive desirability of the two subjects as a measure of drawing 
ability? 

3. Find the correlations for each grade separately between 
the scores earned on the drawings of the house and those 
on the drawings of the human figure. What does this result 
suggest with regard to the extent to which skill in drawing 
is independent of the particular subject selected for draw- 
ing? 

4. Find the correlation between scores earned on each of 
the two subjects and either the teacher's estimates of draw- 
ing ability or the mean class mark in drawing over a period 
of two or three months. Do the drawings of the house or 
those of the human figure agree more closely with general 
school performance in drawing? 

5. Many people believe that certain types of artistic ability 



Special Abilities 325 

tend to go together and thus constitute what may be called 
an "aesthetic type" as contrasted with other combinations 
of ability which result in a "scientific type," "a practical 
type," etc. According to this theory we should expect to 
find a relationship between musical ability as measured by 
the Seashore tests, and artistic ability as measured by the 
McCarty tests. If the same children were given both these 
tests, find the correlation between the total scores on the 
Seashore test and the total scores on all four drawings ac- 
cording to the McCarty scale. Is the resultant correlation 
greater than that which would be expected upon the basis of 
age? The question can be answered more precisely if age 
differences are rendered constant by partial correlation treat- 
ment. For this method the student is referred to the stand- 
ard textbooks on statistical methods listed in Section IV of 
the bibliography. 

REFERENCES 

The student is referred to the following titles in the 
bibliography at the end of this book: 

39, 133, 171*, 172*, 236, 244, 259, 260, 319, 361. 



Chapter 38 

EDUCATIONAL METHOD 

T7BUCATIONAL experimentation has pointed the way to 
E-^ many improvements in teaching methods by means of 
which children's learning can be facilitated. We know, for 
example, that more will be learned in a number of short 
daily practice periods than in an equal amount of time 
spent In practice on a single day; that a certain amount 
of "over-learning" Le., of continued practice after a per- 
fect level of performance has been reached is desirable 
for good retention; that the learning of a specific skill 
such as handwriting is best approached directly, rather 
than through such formal exercises as tracing sandpaper 
letters or following the pattern of a groove, and so on. 
There is undoubtedly much room for improvement in present 
methods of teaching, toward which well-controlled experi- 
mentation might point the way. The following examples 
are suggestive of the kind of investigation which is likely 
to be useful. 

Experiment No. 41 

A Comparison of Two Methods of Teaching 
by the Use of Paired Groups 

Procedure; Divide the children of the experimental kin- 
dergarten, or of the first and second grades into two groups, 
pairing for age, sex, and intelligence test score. Prepare the 
same nature study lesson in two ways, the first method 
involving ah Interesting story which brings in the facts to 

326 



Educational Method 327 

be taught in dramatic style; the second making use of a 
descriptive outline in which all the main points are illus- 
trated by attractive pictures without the accompanying story. 
Teach the lesson to one-half the class by the first method, 
to the other half by the second method. On the day fol- 
lowing the lesson, test each child individually by means of 
a short list of questions covering the main points of the 
lesson, and compare the two groups as to amount retained. 

Problems: I. Which method seems to have been the more 
effective? Is the difference reliable according to the usual 
test for the reliability of a difference? Note that since paired 
groups have been used, the formula for the reliability of a 
difference between correlated measures should be used. 

2. Check the results just obtained by preparing two forms 
of another lesson in the same way and repeating the experi- 
ment but reversing the groups, so that the children who were 
taught by the story method the first time are now taught by 
the illustrated outline method and vice versa. Is the differ- 
ence in the same direction as that previously found? What is 
the reliability of the difference on this second test? Would it 
be safe to assume that similar results would be obtained for 
all subjects regardless of age or grade? 

Experiment No. 42 

The "Whole" vs. the "Part" Method 
in Memorizing Poetry 

Procedure: Select a short poem (eight to twelve lines) of 
a level of difficulty suitable for the experimental group with 
which it is to be used, making sure that the poem is one 
which none of the children have heard before. Divide the 
children into two paired groups as described in the previous 
experiment. One group of children is to be taught the poem 
by the "part" method, in which drill is given on two lines 



328 Experimental Child Study 

at a time until the entire poem has been learned. The second 
is to be taught by the "whole" method, in which drill is 
given on the entire poem as a unit until it has been com- 
pletely memorized. The criterion of perfect learning is to be 
a perfect repetition of the poem on the day following the 
last practice. 

Problems: I. Compare the two groups as to the number 
of trials necessary for complete learning by each method, 
and find the reliability of the difference. 

2. Select a second poem of about equal difficulty to the 
first, and repeat the experiment, reversing the two groups 
as was done in the nature study lesson just described. Does 
the advantage lie with the same method on each of the two 
occasions ? How do these results compare with those reported 
in the references given at the end of this chapter? 

REFERENCES 

The student is referred to the following titles in the 
bibliography at the end of this book: 

87* 88*, 89* 90* 97> * 10, 127* 128, 142* 179, 190* 238. 



Chapter 39 
THE DISTRIBUTION OF TEACHERS' TIME 

A PROBLEM of decided practical importance in school 
administration is the determination of the manner in 
which a teacher's time is distributed among the many ac- 
tivities which have a place in the school day. Certain broad 
groupings in the schedules as they are planned can of course 
be easily determined. The grade school teacher plans to de- 
vote so many minutes daily to arithmetic, so many to reading, 
so many to music, and so on. Many investigations have been 
made to determine not only how teachers actually do divide 
their time among the various topics of the school curriculum, 
but also what division of time seems to be optimum for any 
given grade or curricular requirement. 

But there is another aspect of the matter which likewise 
has great practical significance for the school administrator 
and also has important bearing on problems of child de- 
velopment and behavior. This is the division of the teacher's 
time among the different children in her class. Every ex- 
perienced teacher knows that certain children demand much 
more of her time than others. While she is probably less 
keenly aware of the fact, it is also likely to be true that most 
if not all teachers voluntarily devote much more time to 
certain children than to others. What are the factors de- 
termining how this division of time shall be made? What 
are the typical characteristics of the children to whom teach- 
ers spontaneously give most time, as contrasted with chil- 
dren who demand an unusual amount of time from their 

329 



330 Experimental Child Study 

teachers? How is the division of teachers' time related to 
such factors as age, sex, intellectual level, and the person- 
ality traits of the children? What proportion of the time 
devoted to each child goes to problems of general discipline, 
to helping with work, to answering questions not imme- 
diately related to school room tasks, etc.? A study of the 
amount and kind of attention given by the teacher to each 
child should provide much valuable data on child behavior, 
while a comparison of the relative frequency of teacher-child 
contacts for different teachers will furnish evidence with re- 
gard to the more personal factors in teaching which are often 
difficult to determine by the more conventional methods. A 
method of carrying out an investigation of this kind is de- 
scribed in the following experiment modeled after a study 
by Foster (75). 

Experiment No. 43 

The Proportion of the Teacher's Time Taken by Each 

Individual Member of a Group of Nursery-School, 

Kindergarten, or Primary Grade Children 

Prepare a mimeographed record form similar to the one 
shown on page 332. Take up an inconspicuous position in 
the class-room near enough to the teacher whom you are 
observing so that you will be able to note all that is said and 
done. Each time that any child initiates any contact with 
the teacher by questions, requests for help, volunteering in- 
formation, displaying his work for approbation, etc., record 
the child's name and the nature of the contact, also the fact 
that the child took the initiative. By the use of a stop-watch, 
record the time consumed as exactly as possible. In a similar 
fashion, record each contact which the teacher initiates with 
any child. For later convenience in tabulating it is well to 
list and define in advance a number of broad categories in 



The Distribution of Teachers' Time 331 

terms of which records of at least the most frequent types 
of contact can be made, such as helping with handwork, 
getting materials, suggesting activities, settling quarrels be- 
tween children, helping with wraps, etc. Time devoted to the 
entire group, as in story-telling, should not be accredited to 
any individual child, neither should time which the teacher 
spends in general supervision of the class without making 
or receiving any contacts with individuals; * but every indi- 
vidual contact, no matter how brief, should be recorded. 
Time which the teacher spends with small groups, e.g., in 
settling difficulties between two or more individual children, 
should be apportioned equally among the children concerned. 
In order to secure an adequate and representative sample 
of behavior which varies as much from day to day as this 
is likely to do, a rather prolonged period of observation will 
be found necessary. Ordinarily a total of at least one hundred 
hours distributed evenly over the school day will be needed 
for a class of twenty-five to forty children. With smaller 
classes a somewhat shorter period may be used. The amount 
of data needed will vary with the nature of the facts to be 
determined from it. If it is desired to secure reliable data 
on individual differences among the children with regard to 
the type of attention which they receive from the teacher, 
more protracted observation will be necessary than if only 
individual differences in amount of attention are to be 
studied. A still shorter period of observation will suffice if 
only group factors, such as age differences, sex differences, 
or differences between contrasted intellectual levels, are to 
be studied. Whether or not a given amount of data may be 
considered adequate for its purpose can be determined by 

*The amount of the teacher's time which is not taken up by indi- 
vidual children can readily be determined by subtracting the sum of all 
the periods spent with individuals from the total length of time the 
teacher was observed. 



332 



Experimental Child Study 



FORM FOR RECORDING OBSERVATIONS ON THE DISTRIBUTION OF 
TEACHERS' TIME. 

Observer.. Date.. Hour observed, from .. to .. Place.. 

Name of teacher Grade or class School 

Activity observed 

(Music period, free-play period, lunch hour, etc. If more 
than one activity is observed note time-limits of each.) 



Names of chil- 
dren with whom 
teacher has 
contact 


Contact 
initiated 
by 


Type of contact 


Time consumed 



















































































































The Distribution of Teachers' Time 333 

applying the usual statistical tests for reliability, using the 
correlational technique If individual differences are to be 
studied, and the test for the reliability of a difference if only 
group comparisons are to be made. 

The treatment of the data obtained in this experiment is 
left as an exercise for the student. The number of interesting 
comparisons which can be made is very great and affords a 
most favorable opportunity for the display of Initiative and 
originality. The data should be analyzed as completely as 
possible, and both the practical and the scientific implications 
of the findings should be pointed out. 

REFERENCES 

The student is referred to the following titles in the 
bibliography at the end of this book: 

31,32,75% 138. 



Chapter 4.0 
PROBLEMS FOR MORE ADVANCED STUDENTS 

IF this chapter will be found a number of concrete sug- 
gestions for problems to be carried out by students who 
have had some training and experience in research work. 
Many of the problems are suitable for theses. 

In general, the problems selected are such as may be car- 
ried out by a single student within the period usually devoted 
to graduate study. Problems requiring observation of the 
same subjects over many years or necessitating the co- 
operation of an entire organization have not been included. 

The topical arrangement of the problems is merely sug- 
gestive. There is much overlapping from one topic to another, 
and a number of the problems might with equal appropriate- 
ness have been classified under some other head. It is there- 
fore recommended that the student read through the entire 
list of problems. 

A. Physical Activity 

j. A study of the comparative reliability of different 
methods of measuring physical activity in children and 
adults. For the same group of subjects and over the same 
period of time (in order to guard against intrinsic and ex- 
trinsic errors in sampling) compare the reliability coefficients 
obtained by the use of pedometers, ratings, systematic ob- 
servations, measurements of distance traversed in a given 
period of time, etc. Children of any age may be used. 

2. The relationship between physical activity during the 
day and other factors. Using the method of measuring phys- 

334 



Problems For More Advanced Students 335 

leal activity previously found to be most reliable (Problem 
i) find the relationship between activity during the day and 
frequency of movement during the night (measured by use 
of recording beds); physical measurements such as height, 
weight, height-weight index, etc.; personality and social 
characteristics (determined either by ratings or, preferably, 
by systematic observations); health (determined either by 
ratings given by a competent physician or by a record of 
illnesses including colds, etc., over a period of time), and 
any other factors thought to be of Interest. 

If possible, several groups of subjects of different ages 
and sex should be used, in order to determine not only the 
differences In the amount of activity shown at successive 
ages, but also whether or not the relationship of activity to 
other factors changes with age. Sex differences In relation to 
age should also be studied. 

B. Basic Habits Such as Dressing, Eating and Sleep 

5. A study of factors affecting the learning of the dressing 
process by preschool children. Devise a series of simple 
garments, uniform except for a single factor which it is 
desired to study, such as type, size, or position of fastening. 
Using the method of paired groups, compare the learning 
curves of young children for each type of garment. Nursery- 
school children should be used as subjects. 

4. The establishment of normative standards for the use 
of table implements in specified ways (as knife for cutting 
meat, for spreading butter on bread, etc.). Definitions of 
levels of attainment for knife, fork and spoon should be 
worked out and the reliability of scoring determined. Tests 
should be given at or near the meal time, using foods of 
known consistency which are generally liked by children. 
Children between the ages of one and eight years should be 
used as subjects. 



336 Experimental Child Study 

5. The construction of a scale of food preferences in 
children. Prepare a list of twelve to twenty common foods 
covering the complete range of dietary requirements for 
children. Using the method of paired comparisons with verbal 
presentation, derive scale values for each food by the method 
of equally often noticed differences. The reliability of the 
values obtained can be ascertained by presenting the list 
twice to the same group of children, with approximately a 
one week interval between the two presentations, and by 
comparing the scale values obtained from each of the two 
presentations. 

Use kindergarten children as subjects. It would be inter- 
esting to derive two separate scales, one for children from 
the upper social classes and one for the lower classes. 

6. Racial differences in food preferences among young 
children. Use the method described in Problem 5. Children 
of different national or racial groups, particularly those 
having rather distinct customs regarding food and its prepa- 
ration, may be used as subjects. 

7. To ascertain the relationship of the amount of time 
spent in outdoor play to the length of the day nap 3 the 
length of night sleep and the length of time required to go to 
sleep on both occasions. Keep a record of the length of time 
spent in outdoor play each day by one or more children. 
Find, for each child separately, the relationship between time 
out-of-doors and the sleep factors listed above. If it is pos- 
sible to measure the amount of food eaten daily over the 
same period and correlate this with the outdoor play it 
would be interesting to do so. At least a thirty day period 
of observation should be used at each of the four seasons. 

This problem may be carried out on a single child of 
preschool or kindergarten age. If several children can be 
studied separately, however, the results will be more con- 
clusive. 



Problems For More Advanced Students 337 

C. Development of Motor Coordination and 

Skills 

8. A study of interference in the acquisition of basic skills 
during infancy, e.g., does rapid progress in the acquisition 
of speech interfere, temporarily, with progress in walking or 
in the voluntary control of the bladder? (137) 

Systematic records to be kept of progress in the acquisition 
of speech, walking, and bladder control from the ninth to the 
eighteenth month. Compare the learning curves of one or 
more infants who are kept under daily observation. 

p. To establish norms for age of first walking, talking, and 
the eruption of the first tooth in a representative group of 
children. Present standards are inadequate for scientific use 
because of sampling errors and the small number of cases 
upon which they have been based, also because of the loose 
definitions of the terms used. 

By means of visits to "well baby clinics/ 3 state and county 
fairs, etc., secure a series of actual observations on children 
at each month of age from nine to thirty months. Define 
"walking" and "talking" in very objective terms. Grade each 
child on each trait as "pass" or "fail" according to the 
criterion used. Draw ogive (percentile) curves for each sex, 
and read the median age at which the ability is present in 50 
per cent of the cases directly from the curves. At least 50 
children of each age and sex selected to include a represen- 
tative sampling of the population (103) should be included. 
Larger groups would be preferable. 

jo. The reliability of questionnaire data obtained for chil- 
dren of school age on the age of first walking, talking, and 
the eruption of the first tooth. For an unselected group of 
school children from the same locality as was used for Prob- 
lem No. 9, secure from parents data on above phenomena by 
the use of a questionnaire. Compare the mean age reported 



338 Experimental Child Study 

by parents with the standards obtained by actual observa- 
tion of a presumably comparable group. 

jr. The learning of balancing and steering by young 
children. Select one or more children who have had no 
previous practice in riding a tricycle or a kiddie car with 
pedals. Choose a clear space at least 20 feet long, put the 
child on a tricycle if he is unable to get on by himself, and 
tell him to ride straight across the room to some specified 
point at the opposite side. Count the number of times each 
foot slips off the pedal, the number of times the pedals lock, 
the number of backward starts, the number of definite turns 
to the right or left, and the number of falls if any. Record 
also the time required for each trial. Allow a definite number 
of trials per day until errors of the kind indicated above 
have become rare. 

With older children who have gained some skill in riding, 
the following method may be used. Lay out a path 25 or 
more feet long similar to that described in Chapter 15, 
Experiment No. 7. Draw cross-lines at regular intervals 
throughout the length of the path so as to divide the course 
into sections of equal length. The optimum length of the 
sections should be determined by experimentation. They 
should be as short as is consistent with accurate observa- 
tion. The child's performance should be scored in terms of 
the number of sections in which the front wheel of the 
tricycle does not leave the path. Partial credits may also be 
allowed if higher reliability is obtained by so doing. The 
exact method of scoring should be worked out by the student 
on the basis of preliminary trial. 

The problem can be extended to include children of a 
higher level of skill by requiring them to ride backward or 
by using a bicycle on a longer path. 

12. The development of breath control in young children 
and its relationship to other functions. A series of tests in- 



Problems For More Advanced Students 339 

volving breath control should be devised and standardized 
for successive ages. Suggested devices are horn blowing, soap 
bubbles, the spirometer, etc. Correlations with the control of 
other muscle groups, such as uniocular winking, should be 
determined, also the relationship to intelligence test scores, 
personality traits, etc. 

ij. The relationship between muscular coordinations in 
different parts of the body. Devise a series of coordination 
tests such as needle threading, standing on one foot, kicking 
at a moving target, etc., involving as many different muscle 
groups as possible. The difficulty of the tasks should be 
adapted to the age of the subjects. Find intercorrelations and 
test for the presence of a "general" factor by the method of 
tetrad differences (334). Children of five years or above or 
adults may be used. 

D. Learning 

14. A study of age differences in the amount of transfer 
from learning to run a general bodily maze to a stylus maze 
of the same pattern, and vice versa. Paired groups at each 
age to be used, one of which learns the stylus maze first and 
then transfers to the bodily maze, while the other group 
reverses the order, so that each acts as a control for the 
other. As subjects, children of five and ten years and college 
students are suggested. 

15. A comparative study of backward association in maze 
learning in children and white rats. The same maze pattern 
should be used for both groups of subjects. Each group to be 
divided into two paired subgroups, similar in age, sex, and 
maze learning ability as demonstrated in a simpler practice 
maze. One of the subgroups should learn the maze in the 
forward direction and then transfer to the backward direc- 
tion ; the other group reverses the order so that each acts as 
a control for the other. The same procedure should be fol- 



340 Experimental Child Study 

lowed for both young children and animals, and the amount 
of transfer compared. 

16. A comparison of the rate of learning to discriminate 
forms in monkeys and infants or young children. A series 
of geometrical forms cut from slices of orange to be used. 
Forms which the subject is to be taught to select can be 
sprinkled with a little powdered sugar; those which he is to 
avoid with a small amount of quinine. Identical training 
procedure should be used. 

The method can be used with infants as soon as the 
reaching and grasping response has become well established. 
A comparison of the rate of learning in infants of different 
ages up to two or three years would be worth making. 

17. A comparison of different types of learning ability 
among white and negro children. A number of different learn- 
ing problems should be employed, such as paired associates 
(words), digit symbol substitution, maze tracing, ball tossing, 
etc. 

At least two fairly widely separated age groups of children 
(as six and twelve years) should be used as subjects. 

E. Emotions 

18. The expression of the emotions in young children. 
By setting up special situations designed to elicit the be- 
havior desired, obtain a series of photographs of one or 
more children during emotional behavior. Suggested emo- 
tions are joy, anger, fear, affection, disappointment, shyness. 
Full length photographs of fair size should be used in order 
to show bodily posture as well as facial expression. If moving 
pictures can be secured, so much the better. Have the pic- 
tures judged by competent observers as to the emotion dis- 
played (a) when pictures of the response alone are shown, 
(b) when both the pictures and the stimuli arousing the be- 
havior are shown (if still photographs are used the situations 



Problems For More Advanced Students 341 

can be described), and (c) when the pictures or the descrip- 
tions of the stimuli are attached to the wrong responses. 

This is essentially the method employed by Sherman 
(221), who used new-born infants as subjects. It is well 
worth while to see whether Sherman's results will be dupli- 
cated if somewhat older children are used. 

jp. A comparative observational study of anger outbursts 
in young children at home and in the nursery school. 
Records of all outbursts occurring in each situation should 
be kept by parents and teachers according to a uniform plan 
(109). Results should be compared according to the total 
number of waking hours spent in each situation. At least a 
month's record should be secured for each child. Nursery- 
school or kindergarten children may be used as subjects. 

20. A comparative study of Watson's and Valentine's 
theories on the "instinctiveness" of fear behavior and the- 
circumstances under which conditioned fear reactions appear. 
See References 257 and 266. Contrive test situations similar 
to those described, making sure that no fear response is 
present before the experiment is carried out. Use both "neu- 
tral" and "potentially fear arousing" stimuli, all of which 
must be unfamiliar to the subjects. Infants of nine to eight- 
een months of age are suggested. 

21. Age and sex differences with regard to the stimuli 
occasioning laughter under certain specified conditions of 
everyday life. Select one or more fairly distinct types of 
situation, as the school playground, the movies, a public 
playground, etc. Keep notes over a period of time of the 
stimuli arousing laughter in the individuals nearest you (in- 
cluding as many individuals on each occasion as you are 
able to observe accurately). Note sex and estimate age as 
closely as possible. Describe the stimuli as accurately as you 
can at the time, and classify into broader groups when the 
data are completed. The age and sex composition of the 



342 Experimental Child Study 

group within which the laughter takes place should always 
be described, and failure of certain individuals to laugh when 
others do so should also be noted. 

The study may be confined to children or may be extended 
to include adults if the situation chosen is one in which both 
adults and children are commonly found. 

22. A comparative study of the responses of normal, feeble- 
minded (high grade) and physically handicapped children on 
the Woodworth-Cady or the Woodworth-Matthews question- 
naire for determining emotional stability. Have the ques- 
tionnaire filled out by several groups of subjects as suggested 
and compare the results both on the individual items of the 
questionnaire and on the average number of undesirable 
responses made by each group. 

The questionnaire is best suited to children of the fifth 
to the eighth school grades, though it may be used as far 
down as the third grade. The physically handicapped 
groups may include crippled children, blind children, deaf 
children, cardiac cases, tubercular children, etc. 

F. Reaction Time 

2j. Changes in reaction time with age. The establishment 
of norms for successive ages. Any of the standard methods 
and apparatus may be used, but procedure must be uni- 
form from age to age. With suitable management and in- 
centives, simple reaction time may be studied with children 
as young as two years. 

24. The relationship between simple reaction time and 
other factors among children of preschool age. Reaction time 
scores to be correlated with intelligence test scores, introver- 
sion-extroversion ratings or experimental scores (176), birth 
order, speed of tapping, etc. By the use of suitable apparatus 
comparisons may also be made between reactioa times of 
right and left hand, between hand and foot, etc. 



Problems For More Advanced Students 343 

G. Perception 

25. Inter correlations of sensory acuity among children. 
Tests of sensory acuity involving taste and smell, tactual 
acuity in distinguishing different grades of sandpaper, com- 
parison of weights, lengths of lines, etc., should be used 
and their intercorrelations established. Children above the 
age of five may be used as subjects and their performance 
compared with that of adults. 

26. The effect of arrangement on the span of visual ap- 
prehension. Tachistoscopic study using dots arranged In 
different patterns involving horizontal, vertical, and oblique 
lines of different slopes. Such a study might throw light on 
the late appearance of the ability to copy a diamond as 
compared to a square. 

For subjects, children of different ages from six years on 
may be used. A group of adults might also be included for 
purposes of comparison. 

27. A comparison of the two point threshold in correspond- 
ing points of the body in children and adults. An aesthesi- 
ometer should be used. Since the surface area of the body is 
considerably smaller in children than in adults, if all touch 
spots are present and active in childhood two point discrimi- 
nation should be correspondingly finer during the early years 
than it is among adults. 

Inasmuch as intellectual level as well as the distribution of 
the touch spots may affect the results, at least three groups 
of subjects should be employed, (i) a group of six-year-old 
children, (2) a group of adult imbeciles with mental ages of 
six, (3) a group of normal adults. If possible two additional 
groups should be used as checks: (4) a group of nine-year- 
old children, and (5) a group of mentally defective adults 
with mental ages of nine. The groups should also be com- 
pared with respect to their relative improvement with prac- 
tice. 



344 Experimental Child Study 

28. A qualitative comparison of the drawings made by 
congenitally blind subjects of normal intelligence with those 
of seeing children. Line drawings made with stylus on wax 
tablets should be used. Because of the large amount of com- 
parative data available subjects of particular interest would 
be the human figure, houses, and common animals. 

2p. A qualitative analysis of the difficulties commonly ex- 
perienced by young children in copying a diamond. Experi- 
mentation with diagonal lines of different slope, with dia- 
monds of different proportions placed at various angles, and 
with mirror drawing. The effect of practice with and without 
coaching should also be studied. Children should be en- 
couraged to describe and discuss their difficulties freely. 
Children from five to eight years of age are suggested as 
subjects. 

H. Language and Meaning 

jo. To ascertain the relation of the length and junction of 
the sentence to the situation in which it is used. Secure a 
series of at least 50 consecutive remarks from each of a group 
of subjects in a number of different situations, such as the 
school playground, the indoor playroom, the lunch hour, 
taking off or putting on wraps, etc. Analyze the sentences 
used in each situation according to the method used by Mc- 
Carthy (169), (170), and compare the general trends. The 
same group of subjects should be used throughout in order 
to cancel out sampling errors. Children from 1 8 to 54 months 
of age are most suitable. 

jr. A study of sex differences in the content of conversa- 
tion among children of different ages. A method similar to 
that used by Moore (187) may be employed, except that the 
hours when children are going to or returning from school 
would be preferable. The main purpose of the problem is 
to determine the approximate age at which the sex differ- 



Problems For More Advanced Students 345 

ences found by Moore first become clearly apparent. School 
children, ranging in age from the primary grades through 
the high school period are suitable subjects. 

52. A study of age and sex differences in children's re- 
quests for information. Either a longitudinal study of one 
or more single children, or a cross-section study of groups 
of children observed for shorter periods may be used. All 
questions dealing with matters of information (what, why, 
where, how, etc.} should be recorded verbatim and classified 
according to type and content. Simple requests for permis- 
sion, etc., need not be recorded. 

As wide an age range of subjects as possible should be 
studied. If the cross-section method is used, care should be 
taken to see that the social composition of the groups is 
similar from age to age, though it need not be representative 
of the total population. 

33. The establishment of norms of development for cer- 
tain specific intellectual concepts, such as ideas of time, 
space, and number. A series . of tests which stress the type 
of information gained incidentally rather than that ordinarily 
taught in school should be worked out and normative stand- 
ards obtained by administering the tests to representative 
groups of children at each age. A separate test should be 
constructed for each type of concept. 

34. Age and sex differences in the meanings assigned by 
children to familiar social concepts. The subjects are to be 
asked to define such terms as home, mother, father, friend, 
teacher, school, etc. Definitions to be classified in terms of 
content rather than form. If opportunity permits, correla- 
tions between certain fairly well defined types of definitions 
and the personality traits of the children may be consid- 
ered: i.e., how do the children who define home in terms of 
material possessions (where my toys are) compare with 
those who define it only with reference to themselves (where 



346 Experimental Child Study 

I live) or with those who refer it to the family and its 
members (where my father and mother are), etc. 

As subjects, children from five to fifteen years of age may 
be used. 

35. A study of the relative difficulty of noting similarities 
and differences in paired objects with reference to the degree 
of overt resemblance between them. Prepare a list of paired 
objects which, in the judgment of adults, vary from those 
which are very similar to those which have but little in 
common. On one day have half the subjects state a differ- 
ence between the members of each pair; on the following 
day have them state in what respects the objects are alike. 
The remaining half of the subjects should reverse the order, 
giving first similarities and then differences. The results for 
the pairs which are judged to be most similar are then to 
be compared with those thought to be most unlike, to see 
whether the apparent tendency for less mature subjects to 
note differences rather than similarities can be reversed by 
changing the degree of apparent resemblance between ob- 
jects to be compared. A representative sampling of children 
at each age from six to twelve years should be used. 

j<5. The role of meaning in immediate recall. Prepare six 
series of ink blots, sixteen blots in each series, each blot on 
a separate card. The subjects are to be tested individually, 
in three sittings. At the first sitting say: "Here I have some 
funny pictures for you to see. Some of the pictures have 
names and some have not. I will tell you their names if 
they have any." Show the cards in the first series one at a 
time. For eight of the blots chosen at random give names 
roughly appropriate to their contour; the other eight are to 
be shown without comment. Each card should be exposed for 
ten seconds with the named and the unnamed distributed in 
irregular order. When the entire series has been shown, add 
the second series of sixteen to the pack, shuffle thoroughly, 



Problems For More Advanced Students 347 

then show to the child one at a time and ask, for each card 
in turn, whether or not it was seen before. Compare the per- 
centages of right and wrong responses for the named and 
the unnamed cards. 

At the second sitting the third series of cards should be 
shown. Say to the child, "Today I have some new cards. 
Some have names and some have not. This time I am going 
to have you tell me their names." Show the cards one at a 
time as before. As each card is shown, say, "What is this 
one's name?" If child does not respond, or says it has no 
name, pass on to the next after a ten second exposure. Cards 
named by the child should also be exposed for ten seconds. 
At the end of the series add the fourth set of sixteen cards, 
shuffle and proceed as at the preceding sitting. 

At the third sitting the fifth set of cards is used. Procedure 
is the same as that of the first sitting except that the names 
applied by the experimenter should bear no apparent rela- 
tionship to the appearance of the blots. 

The results obtained by the three methods should be 
compared with each other. The relative performances of the 
individual children may also be compared with other factors 
such as age, sex, intelligence test scores, etc* 

Children from four to eight years of age may be used as 
subjects. 

L Reasoning, Problem Solving, and Insight 

57. A study of age and sex differences in the solution of 
simple mechanical puzzles by children, with special reference 
to the question of "insight" A series of simple mechanical 
puzzles to be presented to the subjects individually. Each 
problem to be solved ten times in immediate succession 
before another is presented. Time required for each trial 
to be recorded. After each solution the child should be asked, 
"How did you find out the way?" Answers, as well as all 



348 Experimental Child Study 

Incidental comments occurring in the course of the solution 
should be recorded verbatim, and classified later according 
to type (122). Age and sex differences in time required 
for solution of the puzzles, the form of the learning curves, 
verbal reports, etc., to be determined. As subjects, children 
from four to twelve years of age are suggested. 

38. A comparative study of the methods employed in 
solving arithmetic problems by children of high and low 
intelligence quotients but corresponding mental ages. The 
problems should be framed to combine a minimum degree 
of difficulty in computation with a variety of principles of 
reasoning. The subjects should be required to solve the 
problems orally, "thinking aloud," and the methods em- 
ployed for solution should be recorded verbatim. If possible, 
two groups of subjects should be used; one with mental 
ages of about eight, the other with mental ages of about 
twelve. 

J. Speech 

jp. The validity of questionnaire data on the incidence 
of speech defects among school children. A questionnaire on 
the frequency and type of speech defects among the chil- 
dren in their classes is to be filled out by teachers. Speech 
tests are then to be given to all children in the schools 
covered by the questionnaire, and the results compared 
with the questionnaire data. Since teachers are likely to 
overlook minor defects, the study should result in a closer 
definition of the degree of defect of a given kind which may 
be assumed to be present on the basis of a positive report 
from the teacher. 

40. The incidence of speech defects among school children 
as related to age, sex, intelligence test standing, socio- 
economic status, birth order and size of family, urban or 
rural residence, etc. If the questionnaire method has been 



Problems For More Advanced Students 349 

evaluated as suggested in Problem No. 39 it may be used in 
this study; thus making it possible to secure data on large 
numbers of cases in a relatively short time. If speech tests 
can be given, howe\ 7 er, the results will be somewhat more 
accurate. School children of any age may be used as sub- 
jects. 

41. Familial resemblance in speech defects. Give speech 
tests to as many members of the same families as possible 
(including both parents and all children where .this can be 
done). Reduce the results to standard scores on the basis 
of norms derived from Problems 39 and 40, so as to equal- 
ize the age factor. Find marital, parent-child and fraternal 
correlations. Compare also types of defect. If a group of 
foster children and one of siblings reared apart can be 
included, the study will have greater value. It is worth doing 
even if children reared by their own parents are used. 

42. Age and sex differences In the responsiveness of chil- 
dren to training for articulatory dejects. Paired groups of 
children with articulatory defects at each of several distinct 
ages (as three, six, nine, and twelve years) are to be 
selected. One group at each age is to be given speech train- 
ing; the other serves as a control. Compare the gross im- 
provement and the per cent of improvement of each trained 
group over its control group. At which age is training most 
effective? 

K. Memory 

43. The development of a comprehensive series of tests 
of immediate memory. Digit-span, nonsense syllables, logical 
prose, reproduction of movements as in the Knox Cube 
Test, memory for pictures, etc., should be used. If time per- 
mits it would be well to develop two independent tests; one 
for recall or reproduction, the other for recognition. 

The test should be standardized over as wide an age 



350 Experimental Child Study 

range as possible. However, if time is limited it is better to 
use fewer ages and secure adequate samplings at each age 
within the range covered. 

44. A study of obliviscence, reminiscence, and the effect 
of verbal recitation in the recall of visually perceived ob- 
jects among children^ Select four groups of subjects matched 
for age, sex, and intelligence test scores. Prepare four groups 
of common objects and familiar toys. By means of a pre- 
liminary test, make sure that each subject knows the names 
of all objects used. 

Experiment i: Arrange first set of objects in a prede- 
termined order behind a screen. Instruct the subject to look 
carefully so that he will know what is there. Remove the 
screen. Allow a definite exposure period, say 20 seconds, then 
replace the screen and send the child back to his class-room. 
On the following day, recall him and ask him to state what 
he saw yesterday. 

Experiment 2: Same as Experiment I, except that a differ- 
ent set of objects is used and the child is asked to name 
the objects Immediately after the screen is replaced (im- 
mediate recall) and again after an interval of one day 
(delayed recall). 

Experiment 3 : Same as before, but using a third set of 
objects and requiring the child to name them from sight as 
soon as the screen is removed. Delayed recall only. 

Experiment 4: Same as 3, using the fourth set of objects 
with both immediate and delayed recall. 

All four experiments to be tried with each group of sub- 
jects in following order: Group I in order I, 2, 3, 4; Group 
II in order 2, 4, I, 3; Group III, 3, I, 4, 2; and Group IV, 

4, 3, 2, I. 

Compare amount of obliviscence (forgetting) in immedi- 
ate and delayed recall with and without naming from sight. 
Compare amount of reminiscence (naming objects in de- 



Problems For More Advanced Students 351 

layed recall which were omitted in preceding immediate 
recall) under both conditions, etc. Find relationship of both 
obliviscence and reminiscence to other factors, such as age, 
sex, intelligence test scores, etc. 

Children of four or older should be used as subjects. If 
possible, several age groups should be used for comparison. 

L. Intelligence 

45. To determine the eject of similarity of environmental 
stimulation upon the test performance of children. Orphan- 
age children to be used as subjects. A series of intelligence 
tests and educational tests should be given, and the standard 
deviations of the distributions of scores made by children of 
like age but different periods of residence in the orphanage 
compared. The study should be carried out in an orphanage 
which does not aim to place children for adoption, otherwise 
selective elimination of the brighter children may affect the 
results. 

46. To determine the effect of practice upon the mental 
test scores of children. Two groups of subjects should be 
used, paired for age, sex, social status, and test score at the 
beginning of the experiment. The experimental group should 
be given the test selected for study at bi-weekly intervals 
for a period of three months. The control group should be 
given no further practice after the initial test until the end 
of the experimental period, when both groups are to be 
retested and their relative amounts of gain computed. The 
problem can be extended and made more valuable if several 
tests of different content (e.g., language tests and those not 
employing language) are studied in this way. Since the effect 
of practice may vary with age, it is worth while to use two 
age groups, one of preschool children and the other of ele- 
mentary school children. The range of ages in each group 
should be restricted to one year or less. 



352 Experimental Child Study 

4.7. A study of national and racial differences in intelli- 
gence test scores among children of preschool age. A non- 
language test should be used or, preferably, two tests in 
order that one may serve as a check upon the other. The 
Atkins Object Fitting Test (7) and the Merrill-Palmer Test 
(376), omitting the verbal items, are suggested. 

As subjects immigrant children arriving at Ellis Island 
would be preferable, but if this is not feasible, the children 
of first generation immigrants may be used. Negro children 
should also be included. 

48. The relation of adenoids and diseased tonsils to men- 
tal development in preschool children. Procedure similar to 
that used by Rogers (211) but using preschool children as 
subjects. It is conceivable that the negative results ob- 
tained in the former study might not hold good with very 
young children. At least the question is worth investigation. 

M. Special Abilities 

49. The relationship between auditory acuity and per- 
formance on the Seashore Tests of Musical Ability. Audiom- 
eter tests to be compared with each of the six Seashore 
tests. Children and adults may be used. 

5<?. A comparison of the- degree of resemblance in special 
aptitudes of identical and like-sex fraternal twins. Suggested 
tests are the Seashore Tests of Musical Ability, the Mc- 
Carty or the Kline and Carey Tests for Drawing Ability, the 
Minnesota Mechanical Ability Tests, etc. Twins of any age 
may be used. 

57. A measuring scale for constructive ability at the nurs- 
ery-school and kindergarten levels. Select and photograph 
from at least two angles a graded series of specimens of 
block constructions of young children. Include one or two 
models built by older children in order that the scale may 
provide for cases of exceptional talent. Have the photo- 



Problems For More Advanced Students 353 

graphs ranked in order of merit by at least 100 judges and 
compute scale values for each model. 

52. A comparison of the values assigned to photographs 
of block construction models by adults and by children of 
the ages to whom the scale is supposed to apply. Using the 
same series of photographs as in Problem No. 51, construct 
a scale based upon the judgments of kindergarten and first 
grade children and compare the values with those given by 
adults. 

N. Social Behavior and Play 

55. A comparative study of the free play of children. 
Systematic observation and comparison of the kind and va- 
riety of play behavior of children from different parts of the 
city (superior residential districts vs. slums, rural vs. city 
children, etc.). Age and sex differences should be compared 
for all groups. Unselected children found playing in city 
streets, vacant lots, unsupervised playgrounds and parks, 
etc., may be used as subjects. Ages are to be estimated as 
closely as possible. 

54. A study of the methods employed by children of dif- 
ferent ages and social groups in order to secure leadership. 
Observational study of children found playing without adult 
supervision in streets, vacant lots, etc. 

55. Individual vs. cooperative activity in nursery-school 
or kindergarten children. Using the scale of constructive 
ability (Problem No. 51), compare the relative merit of the 
productions of each of a group of kindergarten or nursery- 
school children when working alone with the cooperative 
product of the entire group or of selected smaller groups 
when working together. Various experimental combinations 
of children may be used, as groups composed only of good 
individual builders, those composed only of poor builders, 
groups of different sizes, etc. The cooperative products of 



354 Experimental Child Study 

children who usually play together may be compared with 
those of other groups of equal size, made up of equally 
good builders who rarely associate with each other, etc. 

5<5. A study of the self -estimates of children, compared 
with their estimates of associates. Each child is to rate him- 
self and at least two of his classmates on a series of per- 
sonality traits. The associates to be rated should be selected 
by the experimenter to insure that all children will be equally 
represented. 

Children from the fourth grade through the high school 
may be used. 

O. Educational Method 

57, A comparative study of the educational progress of 
children taught typewriting in place of longhand with that 
of children taught to write in longhand. Two groups of first 
grade children paired for age, sex, and intelligence test 
scores to be used. One group is to use the typewriter for 
all written work from the beginning; the other taught to 
write in longhand. To be reasonably conclusive, the study 
should be carried out over a period of at least three years. 
During the first two years the experimental group should 
continue to use only the typewriter for all written work. 
During the third year they should be taught longhand as 
well. At the end of the third year, both groups should be 
given a series of comprehensive tests in reading, penman- 
ship, spelling and written composition for comparison of 
their relative standing. 

58. A comparative study of the relative advantages of 
formal vs. informal training in spelling. Two groups of sub- 
jects, paired for age, sex, and intelligence test standing 
should be used. One group is to be given daily lessons in 
spelling; the other group to have no formal instruction in 
spelling other than correcting misspelled words in their 



Problems For More Advanced Students 355 

written work in other subjects. Compare the spelling ability 
of the two groups after two years of training. This study 
should be begun in the second or third grade. 

P. Training and Adjustment 

59. A study of age and sex differences in the incidence of 
specific behavior problems in children. Data can be ob- 
tained from records of preschool and school behavior clinics 
if these have been carefully kept. However, since these rec- 
ords are likely to include many systematic omissions result- 
ing from differences in opinion as to what constitutes a 
"behavior problem" it is better to use a standardized inter- 
view record and secure the data separately from home and 
school. If possible, both parents and at least two teachers 
(the child's present teacher and the one whose class he last 
attended) should be interviewed separately. In addition to 
information on the frequency and Intensity with which the 
specified behavior problems are manifested, data should 
be secured on the education and occupation of the parents, 
size of family, birth order of child, and any other factors 
thought to have a bearing on the question. 

The two sexes should be studied separately. Since a fairly 
large sample (at least 50 cases in each group) will be needed, 
results will be most significant if rather widely separated 
discrete age groups are used. Suggested ages are five, ten, 
and fifteen years. If possible a representative sample of the 
population should be obtained at each age, using paternal 
occupation as a criterion. If this cannot be done, the social 
composition of the groups studied should at least be ascer- 
tained and reported. 

60. To derive a scale for measuring the seriousness of 
offenses as judged from the standpoint of their symptomatic 
importance for the social and emotional adjustment of the 
individual. Prepare a list of representative offenses or "be- 



356 Experimental Child Study 

havior problems." Define each in terms of degree and fre- 
quency of manifestation, and the circumstances under which 
it is commonly shown. Have the offenses ranked by at least 
100 individuals who have had some experience or training 
in dealing with "problem children." These persons should 
either be definitely selected to represent a composite of 
opinions (in which case it should include psychiatrists, psy- 
chologists, teachers, social workers, physicians, juvenile 
court officials, etc.) or else the group should be made up ex- 
clusively of one of these classes. If the latter method is used, 
it would be desirable to work out several scales, each based 
upon the opinions of a different class of judges. Scaling 
should be done by the method of equally often noticed dif- 
ferences. Separate scales should be prepared for each sex 
and for at least three ages: early childhood (e.g., four years), 
middle childhood (eight or nine years), and adolescence 
(fourteen or fifteen years). A scale for college students 
might also be constructed. 

61. To derive a scale for measuring the seriousness of 
offenses as judged from the standpoint of their interference 
with reasonable standards of social order. The same method 
and the same list of offenses as were used in Problem 58 
should be used here in order that the scales may be com- 
pared with each other. A similar selection of subjects should 
be used. 

62. A historical survey of points of mew with regard to 
child training. Compare the opinions of early writers on child 
training with those of the present day. See especially Seneca, 
Plutarch, Plato, and later, Locke, Comenius, Rousseau, etc. 
The study demands a careful search of the literature, as but 
little of the material will be found under titles which suggest 
its character. 

63. A study of individual and group differences in opin- 
ions regarding methods of handling problem situations aris- 



Problems For More Advanced Students 357 

ing in connection with child training. Prepare a series of 
descriptions of situations illustrating various types of prob- 
lems arising in connection with child management. The age 
and sex of the child concerned should be stated, and the 
difficulty described as concretely as possible. Each descrip- 
tion should be followed by a multiple choice question, "What 
should be done?" followed by several alternatives. Secure 
opinions from parents of both sexes and of varying degrees 
of education and training. Compare the opinions of fathers 
and those of mothers, of college trained parents with those 
having only grade school education, of rural vs. urban 
groups, etc. If a sufficient number of judgments are ob- 
tained for each group studied, the data may be scaled by 
the method of equally often noticed differences. 

64. A study of individual and group differences in opin- 
ions regarding the level of obedience to be expected from 
children of different ages, and the amount of freedom, ad- 
vice (solicited or unsolicited), coercion or restraint which is 
considered desirable. Use methods similar to those employed 
for the corresponding study on methods of handling problem 
situations described in Problem 61. 

65. The relation of intelligence to type of problem shown 
by preschool children registered at a habit clinic. An indi- 
vidual intelligence test should be used. Age, sex, and socio- 
economic status should be controlled. 

Q. Case Histories 

66. To find the reliability of social case history data. Two 
or more social workers are to secure case histories of each 
of a group of subjects through independent interviews with, 
parents and teachers. The amount of agreement in (a) the 
kind of facts secured by each, (b) the quantitative aspects 
of the data, and (c) the interpretative statements made by 
each is to be compared. The study may be extended by com- 



358 Experimental Child Study 

paring the amount of agreement between case histories 
taken with and without formal outlines. Children from a 
behavior clinic or school children who are regarded as 
behavior problems may be used as subjects. 

6j. To ascertain the amount of agreement between psy- 
chiatrists, psychologists, social workers, and pediatricians 
in their interpretation of the causative factors determining 
the behavior of children referred to behavior clinics and in 
their recommendations for treatment. Submit the completed 
histories of several cases including records of the psychiatric, 
medical, and psychological examinations and the reports of 
the social worker to at least ten judges in each of the above 
classes. Prepare a list of possible causative factors, such 
as "unwise treatment on part of mother/ 5 "unwise treatment 
on part of father," "intellectual retardation," "undesirable 
companionship," etc. This list should aim at covering a 
great number of the possible causative factors suggested in 
the histories. Request the judges to rank the various causes 
listed in order of their respective importance for each case. 
Allow space for adding other causes if desired. Compare 
the results to show (a) the average amount of agreement 
between the individual members of each group of judges, 
and (b) constant tendencies in opinion characteristic of the 
several groups. 

In like manner compare the groups with reference to 
recommendations for treatment. 

The number of cases should not exceed twenty or twenty- 
five, in order to guard as far as possible against too hasty 
judgment. Fifteen is probably a reasonable number. The 
cases should constitute a fair sample of the clinic popula- 
tion. All identifying data should be removed from the rec- 
ords before submitting them to the judges. Because of the 
possibility of identifying the cases from the descriptions 
alone, no persons who have had any previous acquaintance 



Problems For More Advanced Students 359 

with the case should be included in the group of judges 

used. 

R. Resemblances in Siblings and Twins 

68. The relationship of mental to physical resemblance 
among non-twin siblings. Either of two methods might be 
used. The preferable method would be to make use of the 
same criteria of physical resemblance which have commonly 
been employed for the study of twins (height, weight, hair 
and eye color, hand and foot prints, etc.} using standard 
scores or percentile ranks to correct for the age factor in 
the case of those measurements which are changing with 
age. If the use of measurements is not feasible, ratings of 
the general degree of physical resemblance may be used, 
but as these would presumably be less reliable than measure- 
ments, the results obtained would therefore be less clean- 
cut. At least two standard intelligence tests, a battery of 
educational tests, and possibly one or more of the better 
standardized tests of emotional and social traits should be 
employed for the study of mental resemblance. On the basis 
of the physical resemblance, arrange the sibling pairs in 
order from the most like to the most unlike. For each of the 
mental traits separately find the correlation between the 
pairs for the upper and lower quartiles of the grouping ac- 
cording to physical resemblance, and for the middle 50 
per cent. A check on these results may be obtained by 
reducing the entire group of physical traits to a single 
standard score value, giving equal weight to each (402) 
or weighting by the method of internal consistency (45) 
and thus by simple subtraction obtaining a single measure 
of physical similarity or resemblance for each pair. In like 
manner a general measure of mental resemblance may be 
obtained by reducing the results of the mental tests to stand- 
ard score values and subtracting. If the correlation between 



360 Experimental Child Study 

the measure of physical resemblance and that of mental re- 
semblance on a given test for the entire series of pairs is 
zero, the genetic factors determining the physical and men- 
tal characteristics in question would appear to be inde- 
pendent of each other, i.e., non-linked. If, on the other hand, 
the correlation is significantly positive, some degree of 
genetic linkage might fairly be assumed. 

Siblings of school age, in whom the age difference between 
the members of the pairs in no case exceeds three years, 
may be used as subjects. In order to avoid irregularities re- 
sulting from the preadolescent spurt in physical growth, it is 
recommended that the study be confined to children between 
the ages of six and ten years. 

dp. The relationship between physical and mental traits 
studied by the method of sibling control. 

Secure a series of mental and physical measurements on a 
group of siblings between the ages of five and ten years, 
using only pairs of like sex who differ from each other in 
age by not over three years. Reduce all measurements to 
percentiles or to standard scores unless previous records 
are available from which comparisons can be made on a 
constant age basis for both members of a pair. 

Begin with height. Separate the siblings into two groups, 
placing in one group the taller member of each pair, in the 
other the shorter member. Compare the mean IQ's of the 
two groups and find the reliability of the difference. Then 
reverse the process. Separate the children on the basis of 
IQ and compare their heights. Do the same for the other 
measures considered. Keep sexes separate throughout. 

70. A study of the comparative resemblance in learning 
ability among identical and fraternal twins. Any of the 
standard learning situations may be used, as digit-symbol 
substitution, maze learning, etc. Preferably two or more 
kinds of learning should be considered. 



PART III 

METHODS FOR THE COLLECTION 
OF DATA 



In the following chapters, the general principles involved 
in the use of different methods of collecting data have been 
brought together for convenient reference. It is suggested 
that the chapters be assigned for the student's reading in 
connection with the particular experiments to which they 
apply. No single experiment carried out by the student can 
in itself give him adequate acquaintance with a method in 
all its implications. The use of any method involves an 
understanding of certain fundamental principles which are 
wider in their scope than the relatively brief and simple 
experiments which are suitable for class use. The purpose 
of a course in experimental child study is not simply to 
train the student to carry out a number of prescribed exer- 
cises, but rather to provide him with a general grounding 
in method, on the basis of which he may proceed to more 
extensive investigations of his own. 



Chapter 41 

INCIDENTAL OBSERVATIONS AND CASE 
HISTORIES 

T INCIDENTAL observation as a guide to scientific inves- 
-l tigation. The place of the incidental observation in the 
advancement of knowledge is likely to be misunderstood 
both by the layman and the scientific worker. The layman 
Is far too likely to ignore the possibility of chance exceptions 
to the general rule and to make sweeping generalizations 
from any event or sequence of occurrences which happens 
to fall within his own personal experience. "I know that 
to walk under a ladder brings bad luck because my house 
burned down the day after I did so." "I bathed twice a day 
all the time I was pregnant and that is why my baby has 
such a lovely skin." "Children should never be allowed to 
skip grades in school. Mrs. Brown's boy skipped a grade 
and now he stutters/' and so on. On the other hand, many 
scientific workers fall into the opposite error of "pooh- 
poohing" all reports of individual observations and of re- 
garding as necessarily worthless any fact whose generality 
has not been proved. 

While it is true that incidental observations do not war- 
rant general conclusions, they nevertheless constitute the 
leading source of material for the formulation of scientific 
hypotheses. Through incidental observations, questions are 
raised and problems are defined which may eventually lead 
to the most significant scientific discoveries. Any observa- 
tion if carefully and accurately made has potential im- 

363 



364 Experimental Child Study 

portance for the advancement of knowledge. How is it, 
then, that the proportion actually resulting in significant 
discoveries is so small? 

New observations must be related to present knowledge. 
Since the number of events observed by any individual 
during even a short period of time is so great, it would 
clearly be impossible to conduct extended investigations re- 
garding more than a very small percentage of them. Selec- 
tion is necessary. On what basis shall this selection be made? 
How shall we determine which of the many hypotheses 
which might be formulated in this way are sufficiently rea- 
sonable and important to warrant further study? 

It is here that the importance of a thoroughgoing knowl- 
edge of the work of previous investigators in the field is 
most clearly apparent. To a visitor from Mars, the sight of 
a pink haired Chinaman might be far less amazing than that 
of a trolley car; and the appearance of an ant-eater or a 
kangaroo on the streets of New York might easily fail to 
arouse notice. The botanist may find a rare plant on the 
very spot which has just been passed over by a dozen un- 
thinking tourists. To the bacteriologist, each of the myriad 
wriggling specks which he views through his microscope 
has an identity and a meaning, though the layman finds 
them well-nigh indistinguishable. So in the study of child 
behavior and development, an acquaintance with what is 
already known is necessary in order to distinguish between 
the usual and the rare, the significant and the trivial, the 
possible and the improbable. New as the subject is, and 
meager as is our stock of information, the time has already 
passed when the casual observations of the uninformed per- 
son are likely to add much to our knowledge. Only when 
these observations are examined in the light of already 
established facts and principles are the hypotheses which 
may result from them likely to have value. The range of the 



Observations and Case Histories 365 

obvious has already been pretty well explored. The value 
of observation is henceforth dependent upon knowing what 
to observe. 

Longitudinal records of the development of single chil- 
dren. Perhaps nowhere can more striking demonstration of 
the importance of the principle just stated be found than by 
examination of the various diary records of the develop- 
ment of single children. Some are made up chiefly of little 
anecdotes, "clever" sayings and the like, with little con- 
sistent attempt at organization or at relating the events 
recorded to preceding ones. Many of the observations are 
interpretative rather than descriptive. "Baby missed his 
father to-day. He fretted almost continually and I am sure 
that was the trouble." Such a report is meaningless in the 
absence of a detailed account of the actual behavior which 
formed the basis for the judgment. In marked contrast are 
some of the diaries kept by competent psychologists in 
which the events recorded are described clearly in such a 
way as to bring developmental sequences into clear relief and 
to show the changes in behavior which occur in response to 
specified changes in the conditions. Many of these ob- 
servations are really accounts of simple experiments. A 
reaction is observed, and the situation which induced it is 
purposely repeated, possibly with some predetermined varia- 
tion intended to check the hypothesis suggested by the first 
event. The following is an example: 

In an attempt to test Watson's well-known studies of 
conditioned fear behavior, Valentine * reports the following 
notes from, the diary record of his little daughter: 

"TEST i. Y (aged 12 months, 2 weeks) was on her 
mother's knee. The opera glasses were placed on a table in 
front of her, after she had handled them a moment or two. 

* Valentine, C. W., The innate bases of fear, /. Genet. PsyckoL, 1930, 
37, 394-420. 



366 Experimental Child Study 

When she stretched out her hands to seize them, and as she 
touched them, I blew a loud wooden whistle behind her as 
loudly as I could. She quietly turned around as if to see 
where the noise came from. The process was repeated with 
the same result. 

She was now put on my knee. I carefully kept the whistle 
from her sight and blew it again when she touched the 
glasses, and she again turned around, showing no sign of 
fear. The tests showed that, in itself, the whistle was inade- 
quate to startle the baby, though I blew on it as loudly as 
I could. This fact provides us with results of considerable 
interest in my next test. 35 

"TEST 2. The same afternoon, Y, seated on my knee, 
was shown a Voolly 7 caterpillar on her brother ^C's hand. 
She had seen one before but had never touched it or been 
plagued with one or had fear or disgust of one suggested 
to her, to the best of my knowledge. She repeatedly turned 
away with a shrug of the shoulder or slight shudder, 'wag- 
gling' her hand from the wrist at it (as she sometimes does 
when annoyed), but without touching it. 

"When she turned again to look at the caterpillar, I 
loudly blew the wooden whistle. At once Y gave a loud 
scream and turned away from the caterpillar. This was re- 
peated four times with precisely the same effects." 

Valentine comments on this as follows: "It is remarkable 
that the blowing of the whistle, which that same morning 
had caused only a slight interest, should now so accentuate 
the reaction to the caterpillar. It can only be explained, I 
think, on the assumption that the attitude toward the cater- 
pillar was a very unstable one, ready to be changed to great 
excitement and fear, or to calm acceptance as seen later. The 
loud whistle, in itself undisturbing, provided just the slight 
added shock to make the fear of the caterpillar burst forth." 

Note how acquaintance with the work of other investi- 
gators has served as a guide in the selection of facts to be 
recorded and in the planning of the checks which were car- 
ried out. It is unlikely that Valentine's simple experiments 



Observations and Case Histories 367 

would have occurred to a person unacquainted with Wat- 
son's earlier studies. 

Statements should always be made in as exact terms as 
possible. Scupin recorded that his little son once opened 
and closed the hinged cover of a can seventy-nine times in 
immediate succession. Such a statement is far more mean- 
ingful than would be a general note to the effect that the 
can was opened and closed "over and over again" or that 
the activity was persisted in "for a long time." One of the 
most noticeable differences between the records of trained 
and untrained observers is seen in the comparative exact- 
ness of their statements, and in their tendency to substitute 
quantitative for descriptive terms wherever possible. 

Although the diary record has lost some of its former 
popularity as a method of studying child development., its 
possibilities, if kept by a competent person, have by no 
means been exhausted. Even to-day we turn back to these 
records for information on many questions of early develop- 
ment. One of the chief difficulties with the method, how- 
ever, lies in the absence of any general agreement as to 
what facts shall be recorded, and in what manner the rec- 
ords shall be made. This makes it difficult or impossible to 
compare the records of different children in anything more 
than a very crude fashion. Even in the case of behavior 
which seems thoroughly objective, the failure to define terms 
frequently renders interpretation difficult. When does a child 
begin to creep ? The infant of two or three months will make 
some progress If placed in a prone position on a flat surface 
and suitably stimulated. How shall we define the beginning 
of speech? Is the child who will repeat certain words on re- 
quest but who makes no spontaneous use of them to be 
given credit for these words in a vocabulary count? When 
counting the vocabularies of children who are slightly older, 
what shall we do about plurals, irregular verbs, compound 



368 Experimental Child Study 

words, social phrases such as "thank you," "good morning," 
and the like which the child learns as units even though 
they actually Include more than single words. Failure to 
specify what principle has been followed in these and similar 
matters probably accounts at least in part for many of the 
apparent discrepancies in the data which have been col- 
lected in this way by different workers. 

The person who is considering the keeping of a diary rec- 
ord which he desires to have of both scientific and personal 
value should therefore observe the following general rules: 

1. First of all, acquaint yourself as thoroughly as possible 
with previous investigations. Find out what plans have 
been followed by other people who have used this 
method. Also, read as much of the experimental litera- 
ture on child development as possible, noting the 
theories which have been put forth and considering 
what kinds of facts are most likely to yield evidence 
for or against them. 

2. Prepare a definite plan or outline to be followed in 
making your records. If possible, make some practice 
observations on other children in order to gain facility 
in recording. 

3. Take all records at the time of observation whenever 
possible, and in any case do not allow more than a 
few hours to elapse between the actual observation 
and the making of the record. 

4. Prepare a subject index for your records and keep 
this index simultaneously with the records. This can 
most expeditiously be done by means of a card file. 
A separate card should be used for each topic, on 
which the pages in the diary record with data bearing 
on the topic in question can be entered in order as the 
observations are made. This makes it possible, later 
on, to trace with a minimum expenditure of time and 
effort the development of any form of behavior from 
the earliest records of its occurrence. Cross indexing 
should be used freely. The making of the index will 
also help to systematize the taking of the observa- 



Observations and Case Histories 369 

tions, since it provides a constant reminder of the topics 
which are to be considered. 

5. Records should aim at clear description rather than 
interpretation. If interpretations are made, be sure 
that they are not confused with the actual descrip- 
tions. Remember that the situation as well as the 
child's response should always be noted. 

6. Keep a glossary or key to the terminology used. This 
key should state clearly just what rules were fol- 
lowed in such matters as making a vocabulary count, 
classifying behavior as "imitative/' "dramatic/ 5 
"angry/ 3 "fearful" and so on. Whenever a term of this 
sort is used for the first time, define it as carefully 
as possible and enter the definition in the front of the 
diary record. As behavior becomes more complex the 
original definitions may have to be modified or ex- 
tended. Be sure to keep them up to date. 

7. If time is limited, it may be well to confine the record 
to the development of a single form of behavior such 
as speech, emotional reactions, social reactions, or 
physical growth. A carefully kept record of a single 
aspect of development will usually be far more valu- 
able than a series of loose notes on a wide variety of 
topics with insufficient data on any one subject to 
render conclusions possible. 

Origin and development of the case history. The case his- 
tory, as it is usually obtained, differs from the child biog- 
raphy in two important respects. In the first place, the facts 
recorded are for the most part retrospective rather than 
immediate records of events as they occur. Secondly, since 
the case history method is commonly used for the study of 
individuals who deviate from the normal standard in regard 
to some aspect of physical or mental health, the data are 
likely to be confined rather closely to an account of events 
and conditions generally believed to have bearing on the 
particular difficulty under consideration. If existing knowl- 
edge on the subject is adequate to explain all the facts, no 



370 Experimental Child Study 

objection to this limitation can be made. It is evident, how- 
ever, that such a method is not calculated to enlarge our 
knowledge of any subject, since the information needed for 
the development of new hypotheses is not likely to be 
obtained consistently. Moreover, it is unlikely that the 
method will lead to the discovery of errors in present theo- 
ries. The general practice of beginning with a known prob- 
lem, and investigating only or chiefly those conditions which 
are believed to have a bearing on it, obviously makes for 
the perpetuation of existent theories, whether they be right 
or wrong. 

Historically, the case history method is an outgrowth of 
the physician's case book on the one hand and charitable 
enterprises on the other. The physician with a large prac- 
tice early found it desirable to write down the chief facts 
regarding his cases for reference In later treatment in order 
to avoid confusion between patients. As charitable work 
gradually passed from the hands of private individuals to 
religious and social agencies of various kinds, it became evi- 
dent that a wise expenditure of funds necessitated some 
means of distinguishing between the truly needy and impos- 
tors. In the beginning the task of investigating applicants for 
assistance was turned over largely to volunteer workers, 
frequently known as "district visitors." However, it soon 
became evident that the best results could not be expected 
from untrained workers, no matter how well meaning they 
might be. Courses for the training of social workers have 
therefore been instituted in many colleges and universities, 
and as time passes the volunteer worker is gradually disap- 
pearing. At present the case history fills an important place 
in the fields of medicine, psychiatry and clinical psychology, 
and in organized social work. Recently a subdivision within 
the field has taken place. In addition to the general social 
worker we now have the specialized psychiatric social worker 



Observations and Case Histories 371 

and the medical social worker with separate courses of train- 
ing for each. 

Purposes of tlie case Mstory. From the outset, the case 
history has been designed to serve a practical rather than 
a scientific end. It is intended as a means of bringing to- 
gether in organized form all the available information re- 
garding an individual, in order to have a basis for diagnosis 
and treatment. A secondary purpose has been to provide 
illustrative material of a type likely to arouse public interest 
and to stimulate participation in campaigns for public wel- 
fare, or for use in general class-room instruction. 

More recently, attempts have been made to utilize the 
facts reported in case histories as a means of throwing light 
on general scientific problems. Theoretically, the material 
should furnish important evidence on the manner in which 
behavior sequences are built up, the relative importance of 
hereditary and environmental factors in the production of 
physical and mental maladjustments of various kinds, the 
extent to which such conditions respond to treatment, and 
so on. Actually, when one attempts a statistical treatment 
of the data from the average case history, many problems 
arise. Few of the facts are reported consistently for all cases. 
Do the omissions indicate that the conditions in question 
were not present, or that the worker failed to investigate 
them? If the latter, what were the reasons for investigating 
them in certain cases and not in others? Another source 
of difficulty is to be found in the loosely descriptive nature 
of many of the statements. "X is overactive, excitable, and 
does not like to go to school." "Y is a very active and ener- 
getic boy, fond of excitement, and would rather play out 
of doors than go to school." The impression gained from the 
two descriptions is very different, yet they may easily repre- 
sent exactly the same behavior, the difference in emphasis 
reflecting the personal attitude of the person interviewed 



372 Experimental Child Study 

or of the social worker herself. It is true that many of the 
factors with which the case history deals are not as yet 
subject to measurement and must therefore be handled in 
general descriptive terms, If at all. More precise definition of 
the terms used would help to clear away the ambiguities 
and bring about greater uniformity between the reports of 
different workers, though much of the difficulty would still 
remain. 

A third source of error is to be found in the errors of 
memory resulting from the fact that a considerable period 
of time has elapsed between the taking of the history and 
the actual occurrence of many of the events reported. This 
error is likely to be accentuated by reason of the strong 
emotional associations which have grown up about many of 
these events because of later occurrences, and which cause 
them to be regarded in a very different light from that in 
which they were originally seen. Thus, parents of feeble- 
minded children are much more prone than others to report 
early falls and bumps, and similar minor injuries. Yet there 
is little scientific evidence to show that such occurrences are 
actually much more frequent among the feeble-minded than 
among normal children. The reason for their more frequent 
report is probably to be found in the fact that the subse- 
quent discovery of the child's mental condition set the par- 
ents to searching their memories for a cause for the defect, 
with the result that minor accidents were brought to mind 
which would otherwise have been forgotten. In like manner, 
juvenile delinquencies of all kinds are recalled for the child 
who later receives a court sentence, although in the absence 
of later behavior difficulties many of these childish escapades 
would have been regarded as trivial. Forgetting is far from 
being a matter of chance. Because of these systematic errors 
of memory and report it is likely to be unsafe to make 
comparisons between groups or individuals on the basis of 



Observations and Case Histories 373 

case history data unless the latter have been carefully 
checked. Nevertheless, because of the immense amount of 
material of this kind which is collected annually for practi- 
cal purposes, it is worth while to consider by what means, if 
any, this great body of source material can be utilized for 
purposes of scientific research with a minimum probability 
of error. 

Principles of collecting case Mstories. While the princi- 
ples here enumerated have been drawn up primarily from 
the standpoint of the research worker, it is believed that to 
the extent that they improve the accuracy of the facts elicited 
they will also improve the usefulness of the history from 
the standpoint of its service function. Accuracy of diagnosis 
is not facilitated by an inaccurate presentation of the basic 
facts. If, for purposes of instruction or social propaganda 
it is desired to have a colorful descriptive account of the case 
in addition to the factual data, the securing of the latter in 
no way interferes with this requirement. Indeed the descrip- 
tive account will often be needed as a means of qualifying 
or explaining unusual features in the more formal arraign- 
ment of facts and figures. 

I. The first principle may be stated thus: A uniform pro- 
cedure must be followed as regards the basic facts to be 
ascertained and the manner in which they are elicited* 
This does not mean that every case must be ap- 
proached in exactly the same way without allowance 
for differences in intelligence, social background, co~ 
operatlveness or antagonism, emotional stress and the 
like, which make the establishment of the necessary 
rapport between interviewer and interviewed so deli- 
cate a problem. To insist upon this would inevitably 
lead to gross inaccuracies in many instances, due to 
failure to establish confidence or to misunderstanding 
of questions. Neither does it mean that when informa- 
tion not called for in the formal outline seems to have 
an important bearing on the case in question, such in- 



374 Experimental Child Study 

formation is to be regarded as superfluous. It does 
mean, however, that a certain minimum amount of 
information is to be obtained for all subjects regard- 
less of whether the facts included seem to the investi- 
gator to be pertinent to the individual case, and that 
this information is to be recorded in a uniform man- 
ner in terms whose meaning has been defined as pre- 
cisely as possible. Additional data should be obtained 
whenever, in the judgment of the worker, such facts 
will be helpful in the practical treatment of the indi- 
vidual case, or when special circumstances are present 
which would modify the interpretation of certain items 
in the formal summary. 

2. In the selection of items to be included in the uniform 
record, care must be taken to choose the facts most 
likely to be of service both for the understanding of 
the individual case and for the scientific study of phys- 
ical, mental, and social problems. Unless great care is 
taken, there is always likely to be a tendency to make 
this part of the record so long and involved that its 
use becomes very burdensome. Such records are likely 
either to be discontinued after a brief trial or to be 
very incompletely filled out. They thus defeat their 
own ends. A dozen wisely selected facts, consistently 
and uniformly obtained for all subjects are more valu- 
able for scientific purposes than a hundred items less 
carefully chosen and incompletely recorded in terms 
whose meaning may be ambiguous. The selection of 
the basic data is a question of major importance and 
should not be left to the hasty judgment of one or two 
individuals. 

3. In order to make sure that the basic data are obtained 
in all instances, the use of a printed summary form is 
essential. This form should be carefully planned, the 
terminology to be used should be specified and defined, 
and wherever possible should be listed in such a way 
that the facts can be supplied by underlining or check- 
ing. Ample space should be allowed wherever a written 
statement is called for, in order to avoid illegibility 
from overcrowding. 

This sheet should be planned to include only the 



Observations and Case Histories 375 

most essential facts. It Is expected that it will be sup- 
plemented by a descriptive account of the home situa- 
tion in which information not readily reduced to tabu- 
lar form will be presented for the guidance of those 
handling the individual case; by the original records 
of the psychological and medical examinations and any 
other data obtained by the psychologist or the pedia- 
trician; by the report of the psychiatric interviews if 
any are given and by a more detailed statement of the 
recommendations made. Follow-up records should be 
added at stated Intervals. 

The sheet should contain brief Instructions as to the 
manner of recording each Item, thus making recourse 
to a key sheet unnecessary. There Is always a tempta- 
tion for the busy worker to guess at the meaning of a 
term, or at the manner In which an item Is to be re- 
corded when the instructions are not at hand. 

No Identifying data except the serial number of the 
case should be placed on this sheet. This makes It pos- 
sible for the records to be turned over to statistical 
workers without fear of confidential material being 
misused. Reference to a master file will identify the 
cases when necessary. 

Always distinguish between negative items and omis- 
sions. Failure to make this distinction, and to record In 
general only positive items Is one of the most serious 
sources of error In case history material. In a recent 
comparative study, based upon behavior clinic case his- 
tories which shall remain unnamed, conclusions were 
drawn regarding traits for which information had been 
recorded In fewer than 10 per cent of the cases! Yet 
these were traits which every one shows to some ex- 
tent, the only differences being those of degree. Such 
material Is worthless for scientific analysis. However, 
because of the great amount of time required to secure 
for every case all the facts which at times seem im- 
portant for the individual, some modification of the 
rule occasionally suggested, viz., that If any fact is 
reported for one case it must therefore be ascertained 
for all, seems a practical necessity. If the following 
conditions are met, the case history need lose none of 



376 Experimental Child Study 

its diagnostic value for the individual, while its possi- 
bilities for research will be adequately fulfilled. 

(a) Every item called for on the general summary 
sheet must be completely supplied for all cases. 
Additional material which seems pertinent to the 
individual case will be included in the descriptive 
case history. There is no requirement that mate- 
rial of this kind shall be uniform. 

(b) If, for any reason whatever, one or more of the 
items in the general summary cannot be ascer- 
tained, the space should not be left blank (which 
might mean that it had been inadvertently over- 
looked) but a special symbol should be used to 
indicate that the facts were not obtainable. The 
reasons for each omission should be written out 
completely in a space provided for that purpose. 
If this is done consistently, such unavoidable omis- 
sions need introduce no systematic error when the 
results are worked up, since the reasons given will 
usually provide a basis for determining how the 
remaining data in the history should be handled. 

5. Data should be verified wherever possible^ Dates of 
birth can be checked against official records. Family 
income can frequently be verified from employers. 
Where a central clearing agency for social service ex- 
ists, it is possible to ascertain whether the family has 
previously been in touch with other agencies and if so, 
to what extent the information obtained checks with 
previous reports. 

Since much of the data in the usual social history 
consists of subjective judgments or opinions, which 
vary considerably from one person to another, it is 
highly desirable that information of this kind should 
be checked by comparison of the opinions of two or 
more competent persons wherever this is possible. For 
example, data on behavior problems should be obtained 
from both parent and teacher. 

The evaluation of case Mstory data. It is always difficult 
to determine how much confidence may reasonably be placed 



Observations and Case Histories 377 

in material of this kind. Assuming, however, that the work- 
ers are adequately trained, and that the demands upon 
their time are not unreasonable, it seems fair to expect that 
information obtained in this way (provided that the prin- 
ciples outlined in the last section have been followed) is at 
least sufficiently accurate to warrant comparison between 
groups. However it is highly improbable that all such ma- 
terial is equally accurate, and it would be an important 
contribution to research technique to ascertain which kinds 
of facts are most reliably reported and what are the best 
sources, on the average, from which to obtain specific kinds 
of information. For example, on which problems do parents 
and teachers agree most closely in their ratings of indi- 
vidual children? On the whole, do parents or teachers agree 
more closely with the judgments of trained experts? (Re- 
member that this may vary with the problem.) If oppor- 
tunity permits, it is worth while to have two social workers 
secure histories on a number of cases independently, and 
compare the results. It would also be desirable to have a 
number of experts go over the records of a group of cases 
independently, and write down their opinions of the main 
causative factors for the problems, and their recommenda- 
tions for treatment, all, of course, without consultation with 
each other. 

The methods suggested above have to do with what is 
commonly known as the reliability of the method, that is, 
the extent to which the obtained facts can be depended 
upon as measures of whatever they happen to be. But we 
are also concerned with the validity of the data; the extent 
to which the various facts obtained help us to understand 
the child and his problems. Suppose that a child is brought 
to a behavior clinic because of persistent stealing. What 
facts in the child's personal history or home background 
are most likely to be related to stealing, and hence most 



378 Experimental Child Study 

likely to repay investigation? Conversely, which of the facts 
commonly collected in social case histories most frequently 
contribute to the understanding of the problems at hand, and 
which are irrelevant? A careful study of factors such as 
these would do much to improve the effectiveness of the case 
study technique in its practical as well as its scientific as- 
pects. The problem is a very large one and there are many 
difficulties in the way, but the general method of attack 
seems fairly clear. It is greatly to be hoped that in the near 
future concerted efforts may improve the present methods 
and make the great mass of material which is being collected 
in this way more amenable to scientific investigation. 



Chapter 42 

THE QUESTIONNAIRE 



and classification of questionnaires. The 

questionnaire may be roughly characterized as a 
method of securing information from others through verbal 
responses alone. Although we are accustomed to think of it 
purely in terms of the forms encountered in our daily mail, 
the actual scope of the questionnaire is far wider than most 
people realize. The United States Census is a questionnaire; 
so also is the medical history taken by the physician, and 
the personal data called for on an application or registration 
blank. Any formally organized list of questions which are 
presented in a uniform manner to a number of persons is a 
questionnaire. The responses may be either oral or written; 
they may be obtained by personal interview, from super- 
vised groups, or through the use of the mails. The data re- 
quested are of many kinds and vary greatly in objectivity 
and in the amount of confidence which they warrant. Some- 
times they call for information regarding past events, con- 
cerning which many, perhaps most of the subjects, will have 
kept no written record. For example, parents may be asked 
to state the birth weights of elementary school children, or 
college students may be asked the grades which they re- 
ceived in certain subjects studied in the elementary school. 
Some parents, it is true, may have kept "baby books" in 
which the birth weights of their children were recorded, and 
some students may have preserved their school report cards, 
but there is little chance that many will have done so, or 

379 



380 Experimental Child Study 

that all who have records will go to the trouble of consult- 
ing them. 

A second type of information often asked for has to do 
with present facts or conditions with which the subject is 
presumed to be familiar., though he is not likely to have 
made them the subject of formal records. The number of 
rooms in the present dwelling, the eye and hair color of cer- 
tain members of the family, the number of living children in 
the family are examples. 

A third type deals either with past events or present con- 
ditions for which formal records have been made which are 
available to the respondents but not to the investigator. A 
social service agency may be asked for a report on the 
number of persons applying for assistance during the past 
year, the number of these which were investigated, the num- 
ber given assistance, the number who were refused, the num- 
ber transferred to other agencies, etc. 

The three types of questionnaire thus far described have 
dealt with material which is presumed to be objective in the 
sense that the facts asked for are or have been verifiable 
by other persons. A fourth and very important use of the 
questionnaire is to secure data on facts which are admittedly 
subjective in the sense that they are at no time open to 
observation by any one except the respondent himself. Ques- 
tionnaires calling for personal opinions, judgments, beliefs, 
interests and preferences, feelings and emotions, and so on, 
belong to this class. It is important to distinguish here be- 
tween two fairly common ways of interpreting material of 
this kind. Sometimes it is looked upon as an imperfect 
substitute for objective measurement, tolerated merely be- 
cause no other method is available. The judgments of sup- 
posedly competent individuals are frequently employed as 
a means of validating tests designed to measure intelli- 
gence, special abilities, character and personality traits and 



The Questionnaire 381 

the like. Here it is assumed that such judgments contain 
some measure of objective truth, although, since the judg- 
ments of two equally competent persons rarely agree very 
closely with each other, it is apparent that they also con- 
tain a rather large element of objective error, or that at 
least one of them must do so. 

Another way of interpreting such material which is rather 
less hazardous and frequently more useful is to take them 
simply for what they are, that is, as expressions of opinions. 
In this case we are not for the time being interested in the 
"real" facts, so much as we are interested in knowing what 
some particular person thinks the facts are. Often such 
knowledge throws much light on the behavior of the person 
in question or of others with whom he is associated. The 
fact that a given individual believes himself to be unfairly 
treated by most of his associates may be a much more 
significant index to his behavior than could possibly be ob- 
tained by an objective study of the treatment which he 
actually receives. Likewise, if a certain father believes his 
boy to be very stupid, his resultant behavior may affect the 
personality of the boy much more seriously in case the boy is 
truly bright, than if he is truly as stupid as his father 
thinks. Beliefs, attitudes, desires and the like are thus very 
real facts, of dynamic and vital importance, concerning which 
far too little is known. 

Tlie reliability of questionnaire data. Since the question- 
naire method permits only verbal responses, its use should, 
in general, be restricted to material for which a verbal 
reaction is usually accepted as adequate, or to situations 
for which no other type of reaction can readily be secured. 
It is evident that the "adequacy" of a verbal response is 
not a hard and fast category but will vary according to the 
degree of precision required in the response, and the extent 
to which the responses are likely to be modified in accord- 



382 Experimental Child Study 

ance with social standards, unwillingness to admit personal 
deficiencies, desire for personal aggrandizement, or similar 
reasons of expediency. Under certain circumstances, there- 
fore, a verbal response may reasonably be considered ade- 
quate which under other circumstances would be quite in- 
adequate. For example, when it is desired to know the ages 
of a group of children who are to be given a certain test, 
it is ordinarily sufficient to obtain this information from the 
parents, or, in the case of older children, from the subjects 
themselves. If, however, the information regarding age is 
needed as evidence for the granting of working papers, a 
birth certificate is usually required, not only because of the 
greater importance of the occasion, but also because of the 
possible temptation to give a false report. 

In considering whether or not any given piece of informa- 
tion may safely be secured through verbal report alone, it is 
necessary to consider both the use which is to be made of the 
results and the nature and extent of the errors which are 
likely to enter into the data obtained. These errors may 
be either variable (as likely to take one direction as the 
other) or constant (tending to take a constant direction or 
to show a consistent trend). Suppose that a group of un- 
selected adults are asked to state their heights. Offhand, it 
might seem that the only errors in response would be oc- 
casioned by the fact that some individuals would not know 
their exact height and would therefore have to make an 
estimate, and that these estimates would, on the whole, be 
as likely to be too high as too low. Actually, however, the 
errors are likely to show a systematic trend in the direction 
of conventional standards of physical attractiveness. The 
very short men will be likely to overstate their height, the 
very tall women to understate it. Likewise, if mothers are 
asked to state the birth-weights of their children some years 
afterward, it is probable that there will be a slight general 



The Questionnaire 383 

tendency to exaggerate the weights somewhat, in line with 
the feeling current among many women that it is an achieve- 
ment to give birth to a "big, bouncing baby." Exception- 
ally tiny infants, on the other hand, may become even 
smaller in retrospect than they were in fact, since in this 
case it is their smallness which contributes to their remark- 
ableness as babies. Persons applying to a welfare agency 
for financial aid are more likely to understate the amount 
of the family income than to exaggerate it, while in dis- 
cussing their affairs with people of their own station the 
reverse may be true. Examples might be multiplied almost 
indefinitely, but the foregoing are probably sufficient to 
show the need of scrutinizing the data obtained in this way 
with especial care and of keeping constantly in mind the con- 
ditions under which the information was obtained and the 
direction which the errors of report are most likely to take. 
This is particularly true when the questionnaires deal with 
past events for which no records were kept, so that reliance 
upon memory is necessary. Memory, it must be emphasized, 
is not a simple mechanical process of reproduction, but al- 
ways involves a considerable degree of reorganization of 
the original experience, in the course of which some elements 
are dropped out, others are modified or elaborated, while 
still others may be transferred bodily from one context 
or setting to another.* The greater the lapse of time be- 
tween the occurrence of the event and its report, the more 
complex and involved does this process of organization be- 
come, and the more difficult it is to make a fair interpreta- 
tion of the results. 

Since questionnaires which require the recall of past events 
are particularly liable to inaccuracies, they should never be 

* In investigating cases of mental deficiency, it is not uncommon to 
find that parents or relatives have ascribed to the mentally defective 
child, accidents which actually happened to other members of the family. 



384 Experimental Child Study 

used when it is possible to substitute actual records of events 
as they occur. There is no excuse for resorting to such a 
method for the purpose of securing general normative data, 
such as age at walking, age at talking, birth weights, etc., 
for an unselected population. However, it is sometimes de- 
sirable to compare the early development of a selected group 
of individuals with that of children in general. The ideal 
method, of course, would be to begin the study during the 
infancy of the subjects and thus secure direct observation 
from the beginning. This method, however, is not always 
feasible, particularly when the study has to do with cases 
whose Incidence in the general population is small and who 
cannot be selected at the outset (famous men, criminals, 
the insane, etc.). The number of cases which it would be 
necessary to include in the original sampling in order to 
make sure of a sufficient number of the special cases which 
it is desired to study would in such cases be prohibitive. 
If their early development is to be studied at all, a written 
questionnaire or a standardized interview seems to be about 
the only practical alternative. 

With what should the results of such a study of a selected 
group be compared? Very often, excellent normative stand- 
ards based upon direct observations or actual measurements 
of an unselected sample of the population are available. 
These data are undoubtedly nearer the facts than similar 
standards derived from a recall questionnaire are likely to 
be. Should they not then be used, in order that the standard 
of reference may be as accurate as possible, even though 
errors are known or presumed to exist in the questionnaire 
data obtained for the selected group? 

If it could be assumed that the errors in the questionnaire 
data would distribute themselves at random, that is, would 
be as likely to take one direction as the other so that they 
would tend to cancel each other for the group as a whole, 



The Questionnaire 385 

the answer to this question would undoubtedly be in the 
affirmative. If, as is usually the case, the recall data are 
likely to include certain constant errors, the nature of which 
will be fairly similar for both the selected and the control 
group, then the comparison will be more accurate if both 
sets of data are obtained in the same manner. For example, 
very accurate standards of birth weight, based upon hospital 
weighings of large numbers of cases, have been reported 
in the literature. These standards should unquestionably be 
used in the comparison of actually measured weights of 
individuals or of groups. But it has been pointed out that 
when birth weights are reported by parents at some later 
date there is likely to be a slight tendency to exaggerate 
size, except possibly in the case of the exceptionally small 
infant. This will result in raising the mean of the group 
for whom the report is made somewhat above its true value. 
If the mean thus obtained is compared with that of another 
group for whom the data were obtained through hospital 
weighings, an apparent difference in favor of the selected 
group will appear even if the two groups are in fact closely 
similar. But if the questionnaire data from the selected 
group are compared, not with hospital weighings but with 
corresponding data obtained by the questionnaire method 
from another group, similar except for the fact which has 
formed the basis for the selection, the size and direction of 
the error is likely to be approximately the same in both 
instances. A comparison of the mean birth weights of the 
two groups may therefore be quite valid, even though each 
of the means entering into the comparison is in error by an 
undetermined amount. Since the questionnaire method is so 
frequently employed for studies of the early development 
of special groups, it would appear to be well worth while 
to conduct a special study for the ascertainment of standards 
of development in an unselected group as they are reported 



386 Experimental Child Study 

by parents. Because of the probability that on the whole the 
constant errors would tend to follow the same direction, 
such standards are likely to be a more suitable basis for 
comparison with results secured in a similar manner for 
selected groups than the more accurate standards derived 
from exact measurement. If the latter also can be secured or 
are already available, the amount of the constant error 
likely to be inherent in the questionnaire data can be ascer- 
tained at least within rough limits, and an appropriate cor- 
rection can thereafter be made. 

The foregoing statements are true only in case the factors 
determining the selection of the special group are unrelated 
to the factors responsible for the constant error. If such a 
relationship exists, the error will not be minimized by the 
use of standards derived in a similar manner, since it has its 
roots in the same facts which caused the special group to be 
selected. In the case of the relationship of childhood acci- 
dents to mental deficiency, it is this very fact of mental 
defectiveness which causes the parents of the defective chil- 
dren to remember and report minor accidents which other 
parents overlook. Putting it conversely, it is the absence of 
any subsequent difficulties which causes a large proportion 
of such accidents to be forgotten by the average parent 
whose children have developed normally. The use of the 
questionnaire method for both groups will not do away 
with the error in such cases. 

In the case of questionnaires of the fourth type, when the 
responses are taken to represent feelings or attitudes and 
not as expressions of objective fact, the question of relia- 
bility or accuracy of statement still enters in, though in a 
somewhat different way. Here we are not concerned with 
the question of how closely the statements as reported agree 
with the objective facts, but rather with their accuracy as 
frank expressions of opinion. How great is the likelihood that 



The Questionnaire 387 

a knowledge of conventional standards of true and false, 
desirable and undesirable, good taste and poor taste, will 
cause the average person to modify his statements to some 
extent in the direction of social acceptability? If asked to 
state her method of controlling her children, will the mother 
who is acquainted with modern ideas of child training be as 
free to admit her use of "scolding/ 5 "threatening," or "slap- 
ping," as she will be to admit "ignoring," "reasoning," or 
"depriving of privileges"? Can the child who has been 
ridiculed for his fear of the dark be depended upon to admit 
that fear when asked the question in a test of "emotional 
stability," particularly if he knows or at least surmises that 
there will be no way of checking up on his response? 

It would be possible, though not always easy, to arrange 
at least partial checks for the purpose of determining the 
average amount of the constant error in statements of this 
kind for groups of known composition. Of course this error 
would not be the same for all individuals, but since material 
of this kind is rarely suitable for the study of individuals 
and is used chiefly for the comparison of groups, individual 
differences are of small concern. Thus, in the example just 
given, if a smaller group of children were actually observed 
for a short time in order to determine their tendency to avoid 
dark places, and the results of these observations were com- 
pared with the children's own statements about fear of the 
dark, at least a rough measure of the extent to which the 
group as a whole tends to deny its fears might be obtained. 
While it would not be correct to assume that other groups, 
similar to the one actually studied in age, sex, and social 
background would behave in an exactly similar fashion when 
given the same questionnaire, such an assumption would 
almost certainly be more nearly correct than would be the 
acceptance of the statements at their face value. 

A question having very important bearing on the amount 



388 Experimental Child Study 

of confidence which can be placed in the results obtained 
from questionnaires has to do with the character of the 
sampling, that is, the group from whom replies are received. 
It is only rarely that our interest in the facts obtained is 
confined to this particular group. As a rule, we wish to look 
upon these persons as representative samples of a larger 
population, and hence to assume that what is found to be 
true for them will also, within certain limits of accuracy, be 
true for the larger group who were not studied. Under what 
conditions are we warranted in making such an assumption? 

In order to answer this question, two things must be 
known. First, what were the general characteristics of the 
group from whom the information was solicited? If the 
subjects were all city dwellers, it would not be safe to ex- 
tend the findings to rural districts unless it is certain that 
the information is of a kind which is unrelated to place of 
residence. If the respondents were all or chiefly persons with 
college educations, it would be unwise to assume that the 
same facts would hold true for persons of little schooling. 
For these, and for another reason which will be brought out 
presently, it is always wise to secure some basic information 
regarding the composition of the group to whom the ques- 
tionnaire is to be given before the request for information is 
actually made. By this means it is possible to select in ad- 
vance a group which resembles the larger population to 
whom the findings are expected to apply, and to avoid over- 
weighting the 'sample with a disproportionate number of 
certain types of cases to the neglect of others. 

But suppose, as frequently happens when a questionnaire 
is sent out by mail, a large number of persons fail to reply? 
Can we assume that the number who do reply constitute 
a fair sample of the total number to whom the request was 
addressed and that the results therefore suffer no other 
defect than having their reliability somewhat reduced by 



The Questionnaire 389 

reason of smaller numbers ? Should special effort be made to 
secure returns from the particular cases first approached, or 
may a deficiency in numbers be made up from other sources 
without loss of accuracy? 

It is here that a knowledge of the composition of the 
original group will be of most service. If educational status 
is known, a comparison of the average amount of schooling 
among the actual respondents with that of the total group 
from whom the replies were solicited will show whether or 
not there was a selective tendency for the less educated to 
fail to reply, or vice versa. Similar comparisons can be 
made with place of residence, occupation, size of family, 
possession of a telephone, and a number of other facts of 
this kind; provided always that the necessary data are ob- 
tained before the questionnaires are mailed. The compari- 
sons will then show how the group of respondents differ 
from the group of non-respondents in respect to these factors 
at least, and further inferences can often be made therefrom 
with fair assurance. 

Unfortunately, there are often present other factors not 
likely to be ascertainable in advance, which may seriously 
affect the representativeness of the returns in cases where 
there are many failures to reply. Suppose, for example, that 
the questionnaire includes a number of questions on the 
religious training of children, and that persons not giving 
religious training to their children commonly failed to answer 
at all, while those particularly interested in religious sub- 
jects did so almost without exception. If taken at their face 
value the results would seem to indicate a keen interest in 
religious training throughout the community, whereas actu- 
ally it might be that only a small proportion possessed such 
an interest. 

Because of the impossibility of knowing all the reasons 
which may operate in a selective fashion to cause persons 



39 Experimental Child Study 

for whom one series of conditions exists to reply to a given 
questionnaire in greater proportion than do those for whom 
the opposite conditions are true, it is always of great im- 
portance to secure as complete a percentage of returns as 
possible. To this end, as well as for reasons of courtesy, a 
questionnaire should always be accompanied by a letter of 
explanation in which the purposes of the investigation are set 
forth in an interesting fashion, and the reasons why the 
study is deemed of importance are stated. A report of find- 
ings should also be promised, and the promise should be 
kept. A stamped and addressed envelope for the return of 
the questionnaire should always be enclosed. At least one 
follow-up letter should be sent to those failing to reply. 

The construction of a questionnaire. Unless great care is 
taken when a questionnaire is first drawn up to foresee 
sources of ambiguity in phrasing and difficulties likely to 
arise in the tabulation and interpretation of the results, dis- 
appointment is practically certain to ensue. The construction 
of a good questionnaire is a problem of major difficulty, call- 
ing for the best efforts of even thoroughly trained and experi- 
enced people. Much of the general criticism of the ques- 
tionnaire as a method is a result of the fact that a consider- 
able proportion of those sent out violate most of the estab- 
lished principles of questionnaire construction. This is inex- 
cusable. The filling out of a questionnaire is a courtesy which 
should not be asked unless the person making the request is 
willing to go to the trouble of making sure that the ques- 
tionnaire has been formulated in such a way that the results 
secured will require a minimal expenditure of the respond- 
ent's time, and yield a maximal amount of usable data for 
the time expended. The questionnaire has been traditionally 
looked upon as a "lazy man's way" of collecting data. It 
might be added that the lazy man's reward is in this case 
usually commensurate with his effort. 



The Questionnaire 391 

It is impossible to formulate a set of rules for question- 
naire construction which will cover all the conditions or topics 
for which the method might conceivably be used. However, 
the following suggestions, if consistently carried out, will be 
found to add materially to the accuracy of the facts obtained 
and to the ease with which results may be summarized. Well- 
constructed questionnaires, moreover, will usually yield a 
higher percentage of returns, thus reducing the sampling 
error, which is a matter of much importance in interpreting 
the data. 

1. The information asked for should be simple, concrete, 
and objective. It should deal only with facts which the 
respondents will be able to supply without going to 
the trouble of looking them up. Respondents should 
not be asked to take measurements, count minor items 
of clothing or books, or perform similar tasks when 
the investigator has no way of knowing whether the 
instructions are fulfilled. Unless the members of the 
group are known to be exceptionally conscientious and 
cooperative it is safe to assume that when such counts 
or measurements are asked for, a fairly large percent- 
age of the replies will be estimates rather than actual 
measurements. If an estimate is all that is required, it 
is better to word the request in that way and to inter- 
pret the results accordingly; bearing in mind that such 
estimates are likely to be somewhat more favorable 
than the actual facts. If precise facts of this kind are 
needed, some other method must be employed to secure 
them. 

2. Questionnaires should be brief and should look so. 
Through careless arrangement or unnecessary verbiage 
questionnaires which actually require but a few 
minutes to fill out may take on so formidable an 
appearance as to discourage many respondents at the 
outset. In planning questionnaire forms it is well worth 
while to devote thought to arranging the sheet in such 
a way as to minimize the apparent as well as the actual 
labor required to supply the data. 



392 Experimental Child Study 

3. Questions should be so phrased as to call for a mini- 
mum of writing in reply, and to facilitate tabulating. 
Whenever possible, answers should be classified in ad- 
vance and presented in the form of a "multiple-choice" 
series of responses. The respondent can then indicate 
his response by underlining or encircling the correct 
word or phrase. Encircling is to be preferred to under- 
lining whenever the responses are so short that con- 
fusion is likely to result from underlinings which are 
not accurately placed. The method to be used should 
always be specified. When the answers are to be re- 
garded as mutually exclusive, ambiguities will be 
avoided by specifying that only one response should be 
underlined. 

If the number of possible responses exceeds four or 
five, a double- or triple-column arrangement is to be 
preferred. Each response should then be followed by a 
"box" (see p. 400) in which a check mark can be 
placed to indicate the choice. Some questionnaires also 
employ the box method for multiple choice responses 
arranged in the form of a running text. This method 
has been used in the sample questionnaire given on 
p. 400. Note that when the box method is used in this 
way, care must be taken to insure that each of the 
responses with its accompanying box is clearly sepa- 
rated from those preceding and following it. Unless 
this is done, confusion and inaccuracy are almost cer- 
tain to result, since some respondents will place their 
check in the box preceding an item, others in the one 
following it, so that it is impossible to know which was 
intended. In the example given, a semicolon has been 
used for this purpose. An even better method is to 
group the items in such a way as to leave an appre- 
ciable space between them. This catches the eye and 
admits of no possible confusion, but has the disadvan- 
tage of requiring more space. 

4. Each question should be complete in itself, that is, it 
should be in no way dependent upon the response to 
any other question. In a certain questionnaire sent to 
public school teachers the following questions designed 
to throw light on the extent to which specialization of 



The Questionnaire 393 

ability among children is recognized by their teachers 
were included: 

A. "Is this child's mental ability very even, fairly 
even, rather uneven, very uneven? (Underline. )" 

B. "If child's ability is uneven, in what respects is he 

(1) Very superior as compared to the average 
child of his own age ?..... 

(2) Very inferior as compared to the average child 
of his own age ? " 

Regardless of how the first question was answered, 
considerably more than 50 per cent of the teachers who 
filled out the questionnaire answered the second ques- 
tion in simple terms of "yes" or "no." This is not sur- 
prising when we note that this question is doubly de- 
pendent. As a whole, it is to be answered only in case 
one of the last two alternatives is underlined in the 
preceding question. In addition to this, the question is 
divided into two parallel sections with the significant 
phrase in what respects effectively separated from both 
by being placed in a different line, which suggests that 
it belongs to a different question. As a result, the great 
majority of the respondents looked upon the two de- 
pendent sections as independent questions referring to 
the child's general ability, and thus the entire force of 
the question was lost. 

The double question is open to the same hazard as 
the dependent question; that is, the likelihood that only 
half the question will be read. Such a question, for 
example, as "Are the children in your nursery-school 
kept in a single group, or is there separation into 
groups or classes on the basis of age?" is likely to 
bring forth a discouragingly high percentage of "yes" 
and "no" answers from obliging but busy respondents. 
The statement of both alternatives is intended to 
clarify the meaning of the question but actually intro- 
duces a worse confusion than that which it is designed 
to correct. In most cases such questions can be re- 
phrased in such a way as to state one alternative only, 
with space for an affirmative or negative response. 
When this Is done, however, care must be taken to 
insure that the categorical "yes" or "no" really pro- 



394 Experimental Child Study 

vides for all possibilities with no need for intermediate 
or qualified responses. In the example just cited, no 
provision is made for a condition commonly found in 
nursery-schools, where the children are separated into 
classes or groups for parts of the day or for certain 
activities, but otherwise mingle freely. This illustrates 
another important principle of questionnaire construc- 
tion, namely, that in order to plan a questionnaire 
properly the investigator must have a thorough 
acquaintance with the field which he proposes to in- 
vestigate. 

5. Questions should be so formulated as not to suggest or 
javor one type of response more than another. Such a 
question as "Does child usually take a daily nap?" is 
likely to elicit positive responses from many parents 
when as a matter of fact the nap is an occasional rather 
than a customary event. When an estimate rather than 
an exact record is requested, the terms of the estimate 
should always be defined as precisely as possible. The 
foregoing question might better read: "About how 
often does the child take a daytime nap: more than 
twice a day; twice a day; once or twice a day; once a 
day; from four to six times a week; from one to three 
times a week; rarely or not at all." 

Not only the wording of a question, but the context 
in which it occurs may affect the responses likely to 
be given to it. If it is desired to test the truth of a 
theory with which some of the respondents may be 
familiar or which they may infer from the nature of 
the questions asked, it is usually well to separate the 
critical items from each other by intervening questions 
which will lessen the probability that the replies will be 
affected by a knowledge of the general theory. Thus, a 
rather well-known but unsubstantiated hypothesis 
regarding the origin of stuttering ascribes this difficulty 
to an early enforced change in handedness, e.g., when 
a normally left-handed child is consistently required to 
use his right hand for such tasks as writing, eating, 
etc. If the question regarding stuttering is immediately 
preceded or followed by a question concerning attempts 
to modify hand preference, persons familiar with the 



The Questionnaire 395 

hypothesis just mentioned may be influenced by this 
knowledge in making their responses. Again, this does 
not necessarily involve deliberate or conscious falsifica- 
tion. Most children sometimes use the left hand for 
purposes which are conventionally carried out with the 
right. Most parents train their children to use the right 
hand for such activities, either deliberately by use of 
verbal precept, or unconsciously by putting the spoon 
into the right hand rather than the left, and so on. The 
question at issue is, whether or not tendencies to use 
the left hand were on the average more definite, and 
met with more insistent attempts at modification in 
the case of children who stutter than with those who 
do not. Apparent support for the hypothesis would be 
found if a significantly greater proportion of the par- 
ents of the stutterers reported an early left-hand pref- 
erence which was corrected or interfered with by train- 
ing than did the parents of the non-stutterers. But if it 
should happen that in a large proportion of the cases 
the parents had this particular hypothesis in mind at 
the time of answering the questions, it might readily 
come about that their very desire to respond truth- 
fully would cause the parents of the stutterers to search 
their memories more carefully for evidence of an orig- 
inal left-hand preference in their children, and to inter- 
pret their attempts at training more rigidly than they 
would otherwise do. Parents of the non-stutterers, on 
the other hand, would be more inclined to take the 
absence of stuttering as evidence that whatever tend- 
encies toward use of the left hand in early childhood 
might have been observed were merely "passing 
phases" not worthy of record, since no disturbances of 
speech were consequent upon their correction. While 
separation of the two questions by placing them in 
different parts of the questionnaire does not make it 
certain that each will be answered on its own merits, it 
does lessen the probability that such distorting asso- 
ciations will arise. 

6. Questions dealing with matters likely to have strong 
emotional associations^ or those which convey definite 
implications of social or moral values for many or all 



396 Experimental Child Study 

of the respondents should be avoided. At best the re- 
sponses to such questions are of doubtful significance. 
Many respondents will fail to answer, or will qualify 
their responses in such a way that interpretation is 
difficult. Others may rationalize concerning the ques- 
tion or the situation with which it deals until they find 
warrant for a favorable response. Thus, a mother who 
is asked to reply to the question, "Do you criticize "the 
school or teachers unfavorably in the presence of your 
children frequently, occasionally, never?" may argue 
something as follows. "I don't make unfavorable 
criticisms of the school or teachers. But when some- 
thing happens at school that I consider wrong, or when 
the teacher does something that I should not want my 
children to imitate, I do express my opinion. That is not 
criticism, it is merely setting a high standard of con- 
duct." This mother thus justifies herself in underlining 
the word never. Or a negative reply may be made to 
such a question as "Have you ever intentionally in- 
duced an abortion or miscarriage?" with the mental 
reservation, "It is true that I took the medicine that 
Mrs. Smith told me about. But Mrs. Jones took it too 
and it had no effect on her, so I probably would have 
had the miscarriage anyway. And besides it's none of 
their business." 

If questions of this kind are asked at all, the require- 
ment of affixing signatures should be waived, the pur- 
pose and significance of the investigation explained 
with even more than the usual care, and the need for 
absolute frankness stressed. With adequate assurance 
of anonymity fairly satisfactory returns may some- 
times be obtained even from questionnaires dealing 
with highly personal matters. Dr. Katherine B. Davis' 
study of the sex life of college women (59) is an ex- 
ample. It may be well to add the caution that serious 
difficulties are likely to arise from the circulation of 
questionnaires containing items on tabooed subjects, or 
even on subjects which some respondents may regard 
as personal. For this reason it is usually unwise to 
attempt to distribute such questionnaires within a 
school or college group, even though signatures are not 



The Questionnaire 397 

requested. Such information may better be obtained 
through other methods. 

7. In questionnaires of the third type which involve a 
transcription of written records 3 errors may be made in 
tabulating or copying the data as well as in the original 
records. The copy should therefore always be proof- 
read carefully. Copying will be easier and errors less 
frequent if the form of the questionnaire is made to 
correspond as nearly as possible to that of the original 
records. If printed forms have been used, copies of these 
should be secured for reference in preparing the ques- 
tionnaire. If all the data are to be obtained from a sin- 
gle source the questionnaire may simply duplicate the 
form of the original record, but when the information 
is to be secured from a number of different organiza- 
tions or communities whose records have been kept in 
various ways, considerable ingenuity is sometimes 
needed in order to construct the questionnaire form in 
such a way that errors in transcription due to the con- 
fusion or misplacement of items are least likely to 
occur. If much copying is asked for, arrangements 
should be made to defray the clerical expenses in- 
volved. 

On pages 400 ff. are reproduced certain sections of a ques- 
tionnaire used by the Committee on The Infant and Pre- 
School Child of the Section on Education and Training 
of the White House Conference on Child Health and 
Protection. The purpose of this questionnaire was to ob- 
tain general information with regard to the conditions under 
which children the country over are being reared. The data 
were obtained by interviews secured by field workers con- 
nected with many different organizations throughout the 
country. It was thus used as an oral rather than a written 
questionnaire, though it is evident that with the omission of 
certain items to be noted directly by the field worker, and 
with suitable changes in the instructions, it could be filled out 
directly by the respondents. The method used in construct- 



398 Experimental Child Study 

ing this questionnaire is a good example of the care which is 
needed in preparing forms of this kind. 

First it was decided what general topics were to be covered 
in the investigation and the manner in which the data would 
be obtained. These topics, together with notes as to the range 
of information to be considered under each,, were listed as a 
means of guiding the discussion of the subcommittee who 
were to draw up the questionnaire. The subcommittee was 
then assembled for a two day meeting, at the end of which a 
long list of questions had been roughly formulated, and the 
general arrangement of the material decided upon. 

After the committee meeting, the questions were put into 
tentative form and blanks were mimeographed for use in a 
practical tryout. 

Letters were then sent to about forty directors of nursery- 
schools and workers in child welfare organizations of various 
kinds, describing the project and asking if they would be 
willing to give the forms which had been prepared a pre- 
liminary tryout. They were asked to secure from five to ten 
interviews each and to make a critical report of their experi- 
ences, stressing any practical difficulties encountered such as 
antagonism toward answering certain questions, ambiguities 
in the instructions, conditions not provided for in the list of 
answers to certain questions, questions for which information 
was frequently lacking, etc. The responses to this request 
were very gratifying. A total of 175 trial interviews were se- 
cured together with many valuable criticisms, comments and 
suggestions. The findings and the criticisms were then tabu- 
lated for each question separately. A tabulation was also 
made of the criticisms of the blank as a whole. This concrete 
trial of the procedure revealed many sources of error which 
would otherwise have crept into the data in spite of the care 
which had been exercised in the preparation of the forms up 
to this point. 



The Questionnaire 399 

Each item in the questionnaire was then gone over with 
the utmost care, the criticisms which had been sent in were 
compared and the doubtful questions were either thrown out 
completely or were reformulated in such a way as to obviate 
the difficulties which had been found. Much of the material 
was rearranged, and the instructions to the field worker were 
revised at the points where they had been found unsatis- 
factory or incomplete. Before submitting the final copy to 
the printer it was gone over independently by three members 
of the original committee, each of whom, it is interesting 
to note, had one or two minor improvements to suggest even 
after the extremely careful editing which the forms had 
already received. 

If persons with extensive training and experience find it 
necessary to spend so much time and effort in the prepara- 
tion of a questionnaire, how much more necessary it is for 
the beginner to do so. Perhaps one of the surest ways of 
overcoming the "plague of the questionnaire/' as it Is some- 
times called by those who sort out the bulky envelopes in 
their daily mail with one disillusioned eye on the waste- 
basket, would be to start a determined crusade against the 
answering of any which do not bear evidence of at least rea- 
sonably careful planning. The time thus saved could then be 
expended upon more careful replies to those which merit it. 
If this plan were uniformly adhered to, many of our present 
aspirants to easy fame would be forced to adopt some other 
and perhaps less troublesome road, while the questionnaire, 
which has long been regarded as a changeling in the lap of 
science, might take its rightful place among its methodo- 
logical brothers and sisters. 



400 Experimental Child Study 

WHITE HOUSE CONFERENCE ON CHILD HEALTH 
AND PROTECTION* 

COMMITTEE III, B, EDUCATION AND TRAINING OF THE INFANT 
AND PRESCHOOL CHILD 

John E. Anderson, Chairman 

THE YOUNG CHILD FROM I TO 5 YEARS, INCLUSIVE 

(Check small square to indicate answer where choice is given, 
thus [VD 

1. Name of child 

2. Sex Male G; Female G; 

3. Age . yrs. 4. Date of birth 

5. Was he breastfed? ^ Yes G/ No G 

6. If so, how many months was he entirely breastfed? 



7. Height 

8. Was height obtained by measuring? Yes G/ No G 

9. If not, was height estimated? Yes G/ No G 

10. Weight: 

11. Was weight obtained by use of scale? Yes G/ No G 

12. If not, was weight estimated? Yes G/ No G 

13. Does this weight include clothes? Yes G/ No G 

14. Is he weighed regularly? Yes G/ No G 

15. If so, how often is he weighed? weekly G; monthly G; 
half yearly G; yearly G; other 

SLEEP 

16. At what time did he retire last night? P.M. 

17. At what time did he arise this morning? A. M. 

1 8. Did he take a nap yesterday morning? Yes G; No G 

19. If so, from to 

20. Did he nap yesterday afternoon? Yes G/ No G 

21. If so, from . . . to 

22. How many others sleep in his bedroom? 

men women boys girls 

infants // none, check here G 

* Published by permission of the Director of the Conference. 



The Questionnaire 401 

23. How many others sleep in his bed? ............ . ..... 

men ........ women ........ boy s ....... girls ....... 

infants ........ // none, check here G 

INTELLECTUAL LIFE 

1 02. Does he have a favorite book or story? 

Yes G; No Q 

103. If so, name and author ........................... 

104. Did mother tell or read stories to child yesterday? 

Yes Q; No G 

105. Did father tell or read stories to child yesterday? 



106. Has he learned or is he learning to read Q; to 
count G; rhymes Q; prayers Q; songs G/ alphabet G; 
other ........................................... 

107. Has he asked where babies come from? 



108. How old was he when he first asked this? ........ yrs. 

109. Did mother answer? Yes G/ No G 
no. If so, what did she say? ............... . .......... 



SOCIAL LIFE 

in. Is he restricted when unsupervised to the home G/ 
to the home yard Q; to the block G/ to neighbor- 
hood G/ // not restricted, check here G 

112. Does he play with other children 

in his home? Yes G/ No G 

elsewhere? Yes\^\; No G 

113. Does he have a favorite playmate outside of family? 

Yes G; No G 

114. If so, how old is favorite playmate? yrs. 

115. Did child play outdoors yesterday? Yes G; ^Vo G 

116. If so, about how many hours? hrs. 

117. Where does he play away from home? in street G/ 
park G/ vacant lot G/ neighbors 3 yards or homes G/ 
playground G/ other 

118. Has he ever attended the movies? Yes G/ No G 



402 Experimental Child Study 

119. How many times has he attended movies in last month? 



120. Has he ever attended Sunday School? Yes [Jj; No 

121. Times attended Sunday School in last month? 

122. At what age did he begin Sunday School? 

123. Does he attend nursery school Q; kindergarten 
junior kindergarten Q; day nursery Q; play school 
other of similar nature 



Chapter 43 
DIRECT MEASUREMENTS 

THE purposes of measurement. The uses of measure- 
ment in everyday life are so many and so obvious that 
it is hardly necessary to mention them. No housewife would 
think of asking her grocer to send her "a moderate amount 3 '* 
of sugar, or "several" eggs; nor does the carpenter plan the 
building of a house in terms of "so many piles of lumber." 
In the physical sciences, measurement is so important that 
instruments of almost unbelievable delicacy have been de- 
vised. Scales exist which literally weigh the dot on the letter 
i ; there are micrometers which measure accurately the differ- 
ences in the diameters of two hairs. Advance of knowledge 
in the physical world has been accomplished very largely 
through the development of such instruments of precision. 
In the social sciences such as education, psychology, and 
sociology, measurement is hardly less important though as 
yet it is far less precise. This is not surprising when we recall 
that while measurement in the physical world reaches back 
over thousands of years into the unknown past, measure- 
ment in the study of human behavior has been used even 
crudely for hardly more than a century. Yet it is to the use 
of measurement that psychology owes its emergence from 
a matrix predominantly philosophical to the status of a 
definite science. By the use of measurements education has 
developed a body of scientific knowledge upon which to 
base its practices, and sociology is finding a way to put its 
numerous theories to empirical test. No science can progress 
far without measurement. 

403 



404 Experimental Child Study 

In the study of child development, measurements of many 
kinds are employed. The child's physical growth is measured 
not only in gross terms of height and weight, but the various 
parts of the body are measured separately and their indi- 
vidual growth curves studied. In this way it has been found 
that different parts grow at different rates and reach their 
maxima at different periods. Not only does the body change 
in size with advancing age, but the composition of its tissues 
also changes. The infant's body has a much higher percent- 
age of water than the body of the adult; its bones have a 
smaller mineral content, and there are many other measur- 
able differences. 

But the use of measurement is not confined to the study 
of body structure. It is also our chief source of information 
regarding bodily and mental function. To measure function 
is commonly more difficult than to measure structure, not 
only because of the rapidity with which the various acts are 
carried out, but also because of the varying and frequently 
obscure factors by which they are affected from one instant 
to the next. Thus we may measure the time required for an 
individual to react to a given stimulus by pressing a tele- 
graph key. This is known as the "simple reaction time." But 
the reaction time is not as "simple" as the name might indi- 
eate, since experiment has shown that it varies according 
to a number of factors. It is shorter when the stimulus is 
auditory than when it is visual; shorter when the subject 
concentrates his attention upon the movement to be made 
than when he directs it chiefly toward watching for the 
stimulus to be given, and so on. Even when all factors known 
to affect the results are held constant, the reaction time of 
any individual will still vary appreciably from one trial to 
another, so that it is necessary to take the average of a large 
number of trials in order to get a reliable measure. When 
this is done it will be found that under the same conditions 



Direct Measurements 405 

subjects differ appreciably from each other in average re- 
action time. This shows that reaction time is determined not 
only by the conditions under which it is taken, but that even 
when conditions are the same, people differ from each other 
in the speed with which they can react. Although little work 
has thus far been done upon the reaction time of young 
children, such data as have been obtained show that on the 
average it is slower than the reaction time of adults, and that 
differences between individual children are at least equally as 
great as those among adults. In like manner we make use of 
measurement to determine the extent of the differences 
which are associated with age, sex, conditions of experiment, 
and so on in practically all types of mental and motor per- 
formances and physiological processes. In the absence of 
measurement we can sometimes give crude descriptions of 
facts as they take place. However, such descriptions are too 
inexact and too subject to varying interpretation to be of 
great service in the advancement of scientific knowledge. 

Wliat can be measured? Strictly speaking, the term meas- 
urement should be confined to facts or processes which can 
be observed directly and which can be expressed in terms of 
space, time, or number. Thus we say that Johnny Brown is 
46 inches tall; that he ran 25 yards in 20 seconds; and that 
he repeated 5 digits after a single hearing. All these are 
simple facts, observed and measured in terms which have 
universal meaning. An inch is a unit of space which may be 
applied indiscriminately to all physical structures whether 
animate or inanimate. Its use is not confined to any single 
purpose. Likewise time and number are universal measures. 
But there are other ways of describing individuals, some- 
times spoken of as measurements, which lack this feature 
of universality and whose meaning is therefore limited in 
ways which it is important for the student to understand. 
These methods will be described in more detail in Chapter 



406 Experimental Child Study 

46, Standardized Tests of General Traits or Characteristics. 
To avoid confusion for the present, it is sufficient for the 
student to note that the ordinary mental test is not a meas- 
urement of intelligence in the same sense that the time inter- 
vening between stimulus and response is a measurement of 
reaction time, or that the distance from head to foot is a 
measure of height. For the latter we have units of measure- 
ment which have meaning apart from the individuals to 
which they are applied. For the "mental test/' on the other 
hand, we have no units except those derived from applying 
the test to many different persons and noting their responses. 
On the basis of this experience we can say that a given child 
has a "mental age" of so many years; that is, his perform- 
ance on this test is equal to that of the average child of the 
age specified Or we can say that he ranks in the seventy- 
fifth percentile for his age; meaning that out of a hundred 
children of his age he would rank seventy-fifth from the bot- 
tom (or twenty-fifth from the top). Strictly speaking this is 
classification rather than measurement) even though some 
sort of a quantitative comparison which has many features 
in common with measurement must be made before the clas- 
sification becomes possible. 

The reliability of measurement The inexperienced per- 
son is inclined to think that any measurement of an object 
or process which can be observed directly is for that very 
reason a "true" measurement, whose reliability can be taken 
for granted. Further consideration will usually cause such 
persons to admit that carelessness may cause errors in 
measurement, but it is less easy for them to see that every 
measurement, no matter how carefully taken, has its limits 
of accuracy. It is highly important that these limits be de- 
termined, since in some cases they may be so great as to 
render conclusions very doubtful unless methods can be im- 
proved. 



Direct Measurements 407 

How can the accuracy of a measurement be determined? 
In the case of physical structures such as the human body 
in which changes take place so slowly that a brief time in- 
terval can be ignored, accuracy can be tested by consecutive 
measurements of a number of cases by two or more com- 
petent persons working in complete ignorance of each other's 
results. In the case of processes or activities which are likely 
to vary somewhat from trial to trial, both simultaneous and 
consecutive measurements by two or more investigators are 
needed as a rule, in order to ascertain both the amount of 
error in the individual measurements, and the extent of the 
variation which takes place from time to time in the same in- 
dividual. By this means we are able to determine how many 
measurements it is necessary to take in order to secure a 
dependable measure of the subject's average or most typical 
performance. 

It is customary among many people to speak of the relia- 
bility of a measurement as a sort of final determination of 
which no further analysis is possible. This is an unfortunate 
point of view. By reliability, let us remember, we mean the 
accuracy with which objects or processes are measured by 
means of the procedure under consideration. Expressed 
somewhat differently, it refers to the consistency of the re- 
sults obtained by a measuring process applied repeatedly to 
the same individuals under similar conditions. There are 
a number of factors which make for inconsistency in results. 
These may be classified as follows : 

I. The measuring instrument may vary. If lengths are 
measured with a damp cotton tape which stretches 
when it is drawn tight, consistent results can hardly 
be expected. Or if "digit span" (the number of digits 
which can be repeated correctly after a single hear- 
ing) is^ tested by an examiner who sometimes repeats 
the digits rapidly, sometimes slowly; sometimes 
rhythmically, at other times monotonously; inconsist- 



408 Experimental Child Study 

encies due to variation in the instrument (which in 
this case consists of the verbal recitation of the digits 
by the examiner) are almost certain to occur. 

2. The instrument may register correctly, but the observer 
who makes the record may make it imperfectly or with- 
out sufficient precision. To a certain extent imperfect 
observation is inevitable. Human perception has its 
final limits of exactness, which no amount of care or 
training will overcome. As two lines are made more 
and more nearly alike in length, a point is reached at 
which no amount of effort will enable the unaided 
human eye to distinguish between them. By the use of 
special instruments greater precision can be attained. 
However, no matter how delicate the instrument finer 
distinction is always theoretically possible, though it 
may be unnecessary for the purpose at hand. 

But errors due to limits of precision are far from 
being the most vicious to which the observer is subject. 
If his method or his standards vary from time to time 
more serious distortions may arise. In taking measures 
of length the observer may fail to change his own posi- 
tion when the measurements fall at different points 
on the scale, and thus read the extremes always from 
an acute visual angle which tends to distort the re- 
sults. In trying to determine the average size of the 
group within which a given child is most commonly 
found during his play-hours the observer's ideas as to 
what constitutes a "group" may vary somewhat from 
time to time in spite of careful definition, and are 
practically certain to do so if no formal definitions 
have been drawn up. 

3. In addition to instrumental and observational errors 
true variations may take place within the subjects 
themselves from one occasion to another even when 
the trials take place in immediate succession. This is 
sometimes true even in the case of physical dimensions. 
For example, chest girth is affected by changes in 
respiration rarely susceptible to exact control. In meas- 
urements of physical, mental, and motor processes or 
activities such changes almost always occur, since only 



Direct Measurements 409 

occasionally will an act be repeated in exactly the same 
way. Since most of these changes are due to factors 
which the experimenter is unable to ascertain or con- 
trol, it is usually necessary to repeat these measure- 
ments many times and to take the average of all the 
repetitions as the subject's measurement or score. The 
number of repetitions necessary will vary with the 
degree of precision needed and the amount of variation 
in the responses. A good rule is to continue until the 
addition of more measurements will not affect the aver- 
age to an extent which would interfere with the 
conclusions which are to be drawn. Inaccuracy of 
measurement resulting from true but uncontrollable 
variations in the subjects measured is known as the 
intrinsic error. 

A fourth source of error which is always present in 
some degree but which is likely to be greatest when the 
number of subjects used is small, is the sampling error. 
Reference was made to this in the chapter on the ques- 
tionnaire. One of the most important uses of measure- 
ment in the study of child development is the estab- 
lishment of norms or standards of reference with which 
other individuals can be compared. If we know the 
average height of four-year-old girls, we can thereafter 
measure any girl of that age and say at once whether 
she is taller or shorter than the average. If we know 
the average weight of children of certain ages and 
heights we are able to ascertain whether other chil- 
dren are above or below the usual standards in weight. 
If properly interpreted, this may afford a useful indi- 
cation of their state of health. It is necessary, however, 
if such norms are not to be misleading, that the com- 
position of the group measured in establishing these 
norms be carefully described or defined. It would be 
foolish to use norms derived from measuring the height 
of a group of Scotch children as standards for Japanese 
children of the same age. Errors as gross as this, to be 
sure, are not likely to occur, but others which are less 
obvious may be quite as serious. To assume that find- 
ings for a particular group which has been measured 



410 Experimental Child Study 

will on the average be true for other groups who have 
not been measured is warranted only if (a) the group 
measured is large enough so that the addition of more 
cases does not materially change the value of the 
averages obtained, and if (b) its composition is suffi- 
ciently well-known to make it possible to state with 
reasonable accuracy to what other groups these stand- 
ards may safely be applied. This means that it is not 
safe to measure a group of children chosen at random 
from one community and to assume without further 
investigation that the same findings will hold for an- 
other group selected at random from another com- 
munity. It is necessary first to consider what facts 
(such as age, sex, racial composition, social or cultural 
background, etc.) may reasonably be expected to affect 
the results and then to find out how the group in ques- 
tion is made up with respect to these facts. Are the 
children predominately Irish, German, Jewish, or 
Italian? Do they come from poor or wealthy neighbor- 
hoods? About how much education have the parents? 
and so on. The facts which should be ascertained vary 
with the type of measurement which is being made 
and it may sometimes be impossible to secure all the 
data exactly, but the more carefully the sampling is 
defined the more useful and accurate will be the results 
obtained, and the smaller will be the likelihood of 
serious errors in interpretation. 

The reliability of a measurement should therefore be 
stated not merely in gross terms without attempt at 
analysis into the separate factors which make for error, 
but each possible source of unreliability should be 
examined separately. This takes more time, to be 
sure, but is necessary if accuracy of measurement is to 
be improved. If we know that the instrument is im- 
perfect we can often find means to improve it. If we 
know that the observer is inconsistent in his methods, 
more precise regulations can be laid down. If we know 
that the subjects vary in their responses from one trial 
to another, two lines of attack are open. The first is 
to make sure that the situation remains uniform and 



Direct Measurements 411 

that the instructions given are sufficiently exact to in- 
sure a uniform method and effort. Particularly in the 
case of young children, such matters as attention, 
fatigue, interest, boredom, shyness, and the like must 
be watched carefully. When all these factors have been 
controlled as completely as possible, a sufficient num- 
ber of trials must be made to secure a stable average. 
Care in controlling the factors which make for varia- 
bility in the subjects' performances will greatly reduce 
the number of trials needed. And finally, the composi- 
tion of the group actually measured must be care- 
fully described in such a way as to lessen the dangers 
of serious errors of sampling which may result from 
attempting to apply standards derived from one group 
to another which is widely different. 

Tie Importance of norms in cMld study. Since one of the 
most important aspects of child study is the study of de- 
velopment, of the changes which take place with advancing 
age, the establishment of a wide variety of norms or stand- 
ards by which development can be measured is a task of 
first importance. On the physical side we need to extend our 
present norms for the growth of gross portions of the body 
to include finer units. We need to define all standards more 
clearly in terms of racial background, perhaps even in terms 
of immediate family history. Should the same weight norms 
calculated on the basis of age and height be applied to the 
child whose parents and grandparents are tall and lean as to 
the one whose ancestors are short and tubby? We also need 
more adequate standards for physiological processes and 
body chemistry. On the mental side as well, more analytic 
standards are needed. We need to supplement our general 
norms of mental development as a whole by more specific 
knowledge of the development of its different aspects or 
processes. Norms of social and emotional development and 
of the development of special habits, and the like, are at 
present almost wholly lacking. 



412 Experimental Child Study 

With the establishment of a greater variety of accurate 
norms we shall not only be able to study and describe the 
individual child in a more truthful fashion and thus be in a 
better position to determine his particular needs, but the 
entire growth process will be brought into stronger relief, 
and its interrelationships more clearly understood. 



Chapter 44 

RATING SCALES AND RANKING METHODS 

DEFINITIONS and descriptions. In addition to such 
properties or qualities as height, weight, speed of move- 
ment, and so on, which can be measured directly, human 
beings have many other characteristics which can be ob- 
served in a general way but for which no measuring devices 
are as yet available. Nevertheless, such qualities or traits as 
persistence, aggressiveness, emotional stability, truthfulness, 
optimism, and social adaptability are often more important 
factors in the life of a child or an adult than the more 
objective factors which are subject to measurement. For this 
reason it is worth while to examine the methods which have 
been developed for reducing the incidental observations and 
judgments of characteristics such as those just mentioned to 
a form which renders them suitable for quantitative treat- 
ment. 

Judgments of this kind, made in an informal way and 
couched in varying terms, are heard daily. "Mary Smith is 
the most tactless creature!" "Henry Jones is rather clever, 
but unbearably conceited" "Johnny is a born leader" and 
so on. Such comments are often illuminating, but they do 
not lend themselves to formal study because of the many 
different ways in which the same fact is expressed and the 
fact that they are often made hastily or with a single instance 
in mind which may be quite different from the subject's 
usual behavior. 

Two methods of organizing unsysternatized opinions which 

413 



414 Experimental Child Study 

have been formed through everyday acquaintance with the 
subjects judged are in common use. The first is the ranking 
method in which the judge is asked to arrange the subjects in 
order of merit, placing at one extreme the subject who, in his 
opinion, possesses the trait in question to the most marked 
degree and at the other extreme the one who is most lack- 
ing in it, with the remaining cases arranged in order be- 
tween the extremes. The second is the method of rating, in 
which the judge is asked to classify each subject with regard 
to the trait in question according to a series of graded cate- 
gories formulated by the investigator, such as "very supe- 
rior" "somewhat inferior" or "average." Sometimes, in order 
to give these terms a more concrete meaning, the investigator 
adds a series of descriptive notes, such as "Very marked 
qualities of leadership. His advice is sought by most of his 
associates, and his opinions and authority are rarely ques- 
tioned" or on the other hand, "Conspicuously lacking in 
leadership. Yields to the wishes and opinions of others with- 
out question, often to his own disadvantage. Rarely proffers 
a suggestion, and when he does so it is commonly disre- 
garded by the group" 

Whether the ranking or the rating method is to be re- 
garded as preferable depends upon the circumstances under 
which the data are to be obtained. Each has certain points 
in its favor as well as certain disadvantages or limitations. 

'The ranking method is generally to be preferred when the 
number of subjects or samples to be ranked does not exceed 
forty or fifty, and when the judge or judges have sufficient 
acquaintance with all of them so that the method is feasible. 
It evidently cannot be used if the individual judges are 
acquainted with only part of the subjects. With large num- 
bers of subjects its use becomes so laborious as to be im- 
practical. Its advantages lie chiefly in the fact that it can be 
used with judges whose experience is too limited to make 



Rating Scales and Ranking Methods 415 

their concepts of "average" or "inferior" of much value, since 
it requires only the comparison of one concrete person or 
object with another. This is always easier than comparison 
with an abstract standard. It is particularly useful when the 
subjects to be judged are not persons but work products, 
such as samples of handwriting, sewing, woodwork, drawing, 
etc., where the samples to be ranked can be examined at 
leisure and arranged in order of merit by as many judges as 
it seems desirable to consult. This is the method commonly 
used in the construction of handwriting scales, drawing 
scales, and the like. The same method can be used for 
written descriptions of acts or events concerning which the 
combined judgments of competent persons are desired. Such 
a method, for example, might very profitably be employed 
in the study of behavior problems, or in evaluating the im- 
portance for child welfare of certain defined conditions in 
the home or in the family relationships. 

The rating method has a somewhat wider range of applica- 
tion than the ranking method, since it does not necessitate 
that the ratings of all the subjects be made by the same 
judges. It can therefore be used when selected subjects from 
many localities are being studied (as in investigations of the 
behavior of foster children, of the feeble-minded or the 
specially gifted). Since comparison is made with a general 
standard rather than between concrete individuals there is 
danger that, unless careful definitions are given, different 
judges will vary in their concepts of what that standard 
should be. Thus, a teacher whose experience has been largely 
with children from highly cultured homes may rank a child 
as "inferior" whom another teacher accustomed chiefly to 
children of very limited cultural background may consider 
"superior." Their actual opinions of the child if made without 
reference to others may be much the same, but the first 
teacher is comparing him with a very high standard, the 



416 Experimental Child Study 

second with one which is much lower. He excels the latter 
standard but does not quite measure up to the first. This 
danger may be in part overcome by describing as exactly as 
possible just what degree of excellence is to be understood 
by each step on the scale. The rating method has the 
further advantage of requiring less time except when the 
number of subjects to be judged is very small, and of per- 
mitting easy combination of ratings on a number of specific 
traits into a more generalized scale. This method is de- 
scribed on page 421. 

Methods of securing rankings. Three ways of securing an 
order-ofmerit arrangement of a group of subjects have been 
used. The first method, which is probably the most accurate, 
is known as the method of paired comparisons. A written 
check list is prepared in which each subject is compared with 
every other subject. The judge is asked to state in each case 
which member of the pair he considers superior in the trait 
in question. Thus, if the task is that of arranging the children 
in a certain kindergarten in order of physical beauty, the < 
judge is given a prepared list in which each child's name is 
presented for comparison with that of every other child, and 
is required to check the member of the pair whom he re- 

2 

gards as the more beautiful. This will necessitate 

2 

comparisons, or 435 judgments if there are 30 children in the 
class and position within the pair is disregarded. If, as is 
sometimes recommended, each comparison is repeated so 
that the name of each child occurs once in the initial and 
once in the final position in each comparison, 870 judgments 
will be required for a class of 30. Because of the amount of 
time required, this method is rarely used except for problems 
of scale construction where the results are expected to have 
general significance (as, for example, in the construction of a 
handwriting scale with which other specimens may be com- 



Rating Scales and Ranking Methods 417 

pared, or in the development of a scale for rating the serious- 
ness of certain "behavior problems"). 

A method which retains most of the advantages of the 
method of paired comparisons, but which requires less time 
and appears far less formidable, may for convenience be 
called the method of comparative arrangement. Each judge 
is given a set of the samples or descriptions to be ranked, 
or if the comparison is to be made between human beings as 
in the example just cited, he is given a set of cards or paper 
slips each of which bears the name of a single subject. He is 
told to select any two slips at random, compare them with 
each other and place the one which he regards as superior 
on the right, the other on the left, as shown below: 



He then selects another card at random, and compares it 
with A. If he thinks it inferior to A, he places it still further 
to the left. If he thinks it better than A, he compares it with 
B, and places it to the right or left according as it is judged 
to be superior or inferior to B. Suppose that he considers 
it to be superior to A but inferior to B. He would then place 
it in an intermediate position, as shown below: 



A fourth card, D, is then selected and the successive com- 
parisons made as before. If it is judged to be better than A 
or C but inferior to B the arrangement would then be: 



The process is continued in the same way until all the 
cards or samples have been arranged in order. The arrange- 
ment should then be checked through by reading the suc- 
cessive cards in order first from left to right, that is from 



4i 8 Experimental Child Study 

lowest to highest, and then backward from right to left 
(highest to lowest) and any changes in order which seem 
warranted should be made. The arrangement is then copied 
and the list turned over to the investigator. This method has 
the advantage of simplifying and objectifying the task 
through requiring comparison between only two subjects at 
a time., and takes little more time than the method next to 
be described, which is usually much less accurate. 

The third method consists in ranking from a random list 
without formal rearrangement. The subjects are listed in 
random order, and the judge is asked to write before each 
name (or each description) a number corresponding to the 
rank-order which he thinks It should take. Thus the best 
subject is numbered i; the second best 2; and so on. If the 
list is short the method may be fairly accurate, but with 
longer lists the difficulty of keeping the attention fixed on 
the subject last ranked while rereading the names of so 
many others is very great, and confusions and Inaccuracies 
are extremely likely to result. 

Methods of securing ratings. In the making of ratings as 
well as in ranking, a number of different devices are used. 
The oldest and least adequate method was referred to in a 
previous paragraph. It consists in asking each judge to indi- 
cate the general degree of superiority or- inferiority of the 
subject rated, without specifying how the various grades are 
to be defined, as in the example shown below: 

"Is this child's general health very superior, somewhat 
above average, average, somewhat inferior, very inferior? 
(Underline.)" 

A method very similar to this is that in which the judges 
are requested to refer their judgments to a definite standard 
within their own experience. For example, if they are to rate 
a group of children with regard to beauty, the instructions 
would be given somewhat as follows: 



Rating Scales and Ranking Methods 419 

"Think of the most beautiful child you ever saw. Write 
that child's name on a separate sheet of paper and mark it I. 

"Now think of the ugliest child you ever saw. Write that 
child's name on the paper and mark it 5. 

"Now try to think of some child whom you would judge 
to be just about half-way between these two in beauty. Write 
his name and mark it 3. 

"Here is a list of the children in your class. You are to rate 
each one for beauty by comparing them with the children 
whose names you have just written. Take the first child on 
the list. If you think he is as beautiful as the child whom 
you rated I, write the number I after his name. If he is less 
beautiful than that child but more beautiful than the one 
you rated 3, write a 2 after his name; if he is about equally 
as beautiful as the child you rated 3, write 3 after his name. 
If he is less beautiful than 3, but more beautiful than 
5, rate him 4, and if he is no more beautiful than 5, rate him 
5. Do the same with each of the others." 

This method has some advantage over the former in that 
it provides each judge with a fairly constant standard for 
making his ratings, and thus makes it improbable that he 
will become progressively more lenient or more critical in 
rating the children at the end of the list than he was at the 
beginning, but it does not guard against the probability that 
different judges will have different standards. It works fairly 
well when all the ratings are made by a single judge, but 
does not provide a good basis for combining the ratings from 
several judges. 

A better method is for the investigator to prepare a set of 
definitions for each step on the scale in advance, and to ask 
the judges to rate the subjects according to these definitions 
rather than according to any standards within their own 
personal experience. If the judges have had some experience 
in making ratings of this kind, it will usually be sufficient to 
give each one a copy of the definitions and a list of the 
subjects to be rated, and to ask him to write after the name 



420 Experimental Child Study 

of each subject the number of the definition which he thinks 
best describes that person. With inexperienced judges it is 
often better to make use of what is known a-s the graphic 
rating scale. 

In the graphic rating scale, a line several inches in length 
is drawn across the sheet with division points at regular 
intervals. Above each division point is a definition or descrip- 
tion indicating the degree of the trait in question to which 
the division point is supposed to correspond. An example is 
given below: 

Instructions: Read through each of the descriptive phrases 
above the line. Decide which one best describes this child, 
or between which two he seems to fall; then place a cross 
(X) on the line at the point where you think he belongs. 
Note that you do not have to make the cross correspond 
exactly to any one of the descriptive phrases. If you think 
the child falls between two of these points, make the ^ cross 
as far to the right or left of one of them as you think it 
should be placed. 

Physical courage. 

Exceedingly Timid but male- Reasonably Inclined to Foolhardy. No 

cowardly, ing- effort to cautious in be over-bold, recognition, of 

afraid to take overcome it. face of danger often takes danger. A 

slightest risk. but fearless unwise chances. darc-deviL 

under ordinary 

conditions. 



Since the definitions in the graphic rating scale are placed 
directly above the line on which the ratings are to be made, 
the likelihood that the judges will fail to make the necessary 
reference to them is considerably lessened. The method also 
makes allowance for intermediate ratings of any desired 
degree of fineness. As a matter of fact, however, the number 
of people who make use of intermediate ratings is usually 
rather small. Actually, since few people seem able to dis- 
tinguish more than five or at most seven degrees of difference 



Rating Scales and Ranking Methods 421 

in traits for which measuring devices are lacking, the pro- 
vision of opportunities to make finely graduated judgments 
is a useless refinement of method. 

The graphic rating scale is most frequently used when it 
is desired to secure ratings on a large number of different 
traits for the same individual. The scales for the different 
traits, with their definitions, are printed on a single sheet or 
folder, together with the instructions for rating, and the 
judges are requested to rate each subject on each trait 
listed. 

A recent development of the trait rating method is the 
composite scale. A general trait is selected which it is desired 
to study more carefully. This trait is then analyzed into a 
number of finer elements or subtraits, of which it may be said 
to be composed. Ratings are then made on each of the sub- 
traits independently; and numerical values, say from i to 5, 
are assigned to each step on each of the scales. The sum of 
all the ratings on the subtraits is then taken as the indi- 
vidual's "score" on the more general trait. Thus, beauty 
might be subdivided into beauty of eyes, of hair, complexion, 
bodily proportions, and so on, and ratings on each of these 
separate features be combined to give a single score. Olson 
(200) has used this method in a series of ratings designed to 
predict the likelihood that a given child will be a "behavior 
problem"; Furfey (82) uses it in rating "developmental 
age," andMarston (176) in rating introversion-extroversion. 
The ratings given by different judges on these combined 
scales usually show much closer agreement with each other 
than do ordinary undifferentiated ratings. In this sense the 
scales may be said to be more reliable. 

Reference should also be made here to ratings made by 
comparing actual specimens of children's work (drawing, 
handwriting, etc.) with standardized scales of excellence. 
These scales may be considered somewhat analogous to the 



422 Experimental Child Study 

printed descriptions of the successive steps on the ordinary 
rating scale, except that their numerical values have been 
worked out statistically instead of being arbitrarily assigned. 
Since they represent the same kind of product as that with 
which they are compared they permit more exact compari- 
sons than can possibly be made by means of a verbal de- 
scription alone. 

Methods of scaling. The assignment of arbitrary numerical 
values to the successive steps on a rating scale is frequently 
all that can be done, since the determination of the true 
values of these steps requires more data than are obtained 
in the majority of investigations. The student should realize, 
however, that these arbitrary values may be quite wide of 
the mark, and that much more precise methods exist which 
should be used whenever the data warrant it. It is impossible 
to set any hard and fast rule as to the amount of data 
required for scaling to be worth while, since it depends in 
part on the extent of agreement between the judges. With 
the agreement commonly found, if rankings are made by as 
many as twenty-five different judges or if ratings are avail- 
able on a hundred or more different subjects regardless of 
the number of judges, the statistical determination of more 
exact scale values is usually to be preferred to the simple 
averaging of ranks or the assignment of arbitrary values to 
ratings. For methods of determining scale values the reader 
is referred to Section IV of the bibliography. 

The reliability of ratings and rankings. The problem of 
determining the reliability of judgments of this kind is a 
very difficult one. It is complicated first of all by the fact that 
judges differ in their ability to appraise others, and that their 
opportunities for acquaintance with the subjects usually differ 
not only in amount but in kind. One would hardly expect 
even an unbiased parent to rate the behavior of her child ex- 
actly the same as an equally unbiased teacher, since they 



Rating Scales and Ranking Methods 423 

have been accustomed to observe him in such very different 
situations, and since few children behave in quite the same 
way at home as they do in school. Not only are some people 
better judges than others, but the same person will usually 
be a better judge of some traits than he is of others. It 
is impossible, therefore, to speak of the reliability of a 
rating scale in the same way in which we speak of the 
reliability of a measurement. If two well-trained persons 
make a certain measurement independently of each other, 
we are fairly safe in taking the amount of disagreement 
between their results as an indication of the amount of dis- 
agreement likely to be found between the measurements 
of any other two equally well-trained persons. In other 
words, we can make generalized statements as to the re- 
liability of the measurement in question without reference 
to the particular persons who happen to make it, since the 
difference in the ability of well-trained persons to take 
measurements is usually so small. In the case of ratings or 
rankings given by persons of equal training and equal ac- 
quaintance with the subjects, differences in the ability of the 
different judges is usually so great that statements as to 
their reliability must either be made separately for each 
individual judge, or must be based upon averages for 
large numbers of judges whose experience with the subjects 
is similar. 

Methods of calculating the reliability of ratings are some- 
what complex and will not be taken up here. The student 
who contemplates making much use of these methods should 
consult Kelley (390) and Shen (220). The article by Shen 
is particularly important since it calls attention to a sys- 
tematic error which arises in correlating the ratings of two 
judges of unequal reliability with each other. It also gives 
a method for weighting the ratings given by a number of 
different judges for the same subjects in accordance with 



424 Experimental Child Study 

their respective reliabilities. By this method the ratings 
given by the poor judges play a much smaller part in de- 
termining the total or average score than do those of the 
good judges, which is as it should be. 

Tlie uses of rating scales. In addition to securing quanti- 
tative data in fields for which no formal measuring devices 
have been devised, rating scales furnish one of our chief 
methods of determining how well the results of newly de- 
vised tests agree with the judgments of reasonably com- 
petent individuals as to the personal qualities of others who 
are given these tests. The mere fact that a certain set of 
tasks has been called a test of "character," "persistence/' 
"will power," or what not does not mean that it is necessarily 
a good test of these qualities. Unless the results of the tests 
correspond fairly well with the judgments of competent 
persons it is usually unwise to place much confidence in 
them. 

A third and very important use of rating scales is in 
the study of self-estimates, particularly in comparison with 
the estimates of associates. To what extent do we "see our- 
selves as others see us" and, conversely, how does the way 
in which we regard ourselves affect our opinions of others? 
Does the person who regards himself as exceptionally free 
from conceit tend to see others as more or less conceited 
than they are judged by their other associates? Is the 
person who admits that he is sometimes untruthful more 
or less likely to impute untruthfulness to his acquaintances 
than the one who claims impeccable honesty? In what kinds 
of traits are self-ratings commonly more favorable than the 
ratings of associates, and vice versa? The possibilities for 
the investigation of human behavior to be found in studies 
of this kind are almost endless, and while a small amount 
of work has been done with adults, practically no such 
studies have been carried out with children. The method 



Rating Scales and Ranking Methods 425 

is nevertheless entirely feasible for children who have reached 
the third or fourth grade in school if the traits selected 
are such as fall within the range of childish vocabulary and 
experience, are simply and clearly defined, and only rather 
coarse distinctions are required. 



Chapter 45 

SYSTEMATIC OBSERVATIONS WITHOUT CONTROL 

OF CONDITIONS 

THE difference "between systematic and incidental obser- 
vation. Although incidental observation of facts as they 
chance to occur forms the starting point of most scientific in- 
vestigation, it is not of equal service in the solution of specific 
problems or in the determination of general principles of 
behavior. When there is no attempt to introduce experi- 
mental control of conditions, the possibilities of variation 
are so great that unless some method of limiting and defin- 
ing the facts to be observed can be devised, the drawing of 
general conclusions becomes extremely hazardous. The single 
incident may be a useful point of departure but it is an 
unsafe terminal point. 

There are, however, a number of ways by which observa- 
tions taken under "natural" conditions, i.e., without the 
setting up of a formal laboratory situation, may be rendered 
suitable for scientific study. These methods are especially 
important since there are many forms of behavior which 
it is desirable to study that cannot readily be induced at 
will. We may take a child into a laboratory and instruct 
him to tap as rapidly as he can on a brass plate with a metal 
stylus. In this way we may secure a fair index of his 
manual speed. But we shall be less successful if we bring two 
children together into the laboratory and say to them, "Now 
let us see how sociable you can be." Moreover, we are 
rightly hesitant about subjecting children to experiences 

426 



Systematic Observations 427 

which might carry undesirable consequences, such as severe 
frights, unnecessary thwarting of desires, and the like, merely 
in order to study their reactions. Instead, it is preferable 
to take advantage of such situations as they naturally and 
unavoidably occur^ and to record the facts in a uniform and 
systematic fashion which makes it possible to combine the 
findings from many such episodes for statistical treatment. 

The first requirement for this purpose is that the manner 
of keeping the records be uniform. The ^terminology must 
be the same from record to record; the same series of facts 
must be recorded each time, and every occurrence of the 
behavior in question which takes place during the period of 
observation must be set down. None of these conditions are 
likely to be met without careful planning at the outset. 
Moreover, unless the facts to be recorded are very simple 
and few in number, omission of significant items is almost 
certain to occur from time to time through oversight. For 
this reason it is highly desirable to prepare a definite record 
form in advance upon which the facts can be entered. The 
use of such forms has the further advantage of keeping all 
records in uniform arrangement, greatly facilitating tabula- 
tion. Forms can be printed, mimeographed, or, if the data 
are not too complex, the items can be entered in ruled 
columns properly labeled. 

The time factor must also be controlled or recorded. This 
can be done either by having each observational, period 
occupy a definite and predetermined period of time, or by 
recording the length of time occupied by each event which 
is recorded. This brings the time factor under the same rules 
as those used in general laboratory experiments or in mental 
testing where scoring is done either in terms of the number 
of tasks per unit of time, as in the ordinary group test, or 
in terms of the time required to perform a certain task, as 
in most of the individual performance tests. 



428 



Experimental Child Study 



The situations under which the behavior takes place must 
also be recorded. If these situations can be classified in ad- 
vance into certain broad groups and the records made in 
terms of this classification, not only will tabulation be easier 
but less time will be required for recording. However, since 
it is rarely possible to foresee in advance all the situations 
that may occur, it is usually well to reserve space on the 
record blank for the description of unforeseen situations 
which do not properly fall into any of the original classes. 
These can be recorded in descriptive terms at the time and 
classified later when the study is completed. 

The differences between the systematic observations which 
are filling an increasingly important place in modern studies 
of behavior, and the unsystematized or incidental observa- 
tions which were popular at an earlier period may be sum- 
marized somewhat as follows: 



Nature of 
facts to be 
recorded 

Time limits 



Place or 
situation 



Systematized 

Determined and 
fined in advance. 



Unsystematized 
de- Miscellaneous. 



Either kept uniform Frequently unre- 
for all observations or corded. No uniform 
records made of time system of time 
required for a sped- limits, 
fied unit of behavior. 



Always recorded. 
Sometimes partially 
controlled by selecting 
a constant time and 
place favorable to the 
free display of the be- 
havior in question and 
taking all observations 
under these conditions. 



Usually recorded, 
but in such general 
descriptive terms 
as to render classi- 
fication very diffi- 
cult. 



Systematic Observations 429 

Systematized Unsystematized 

Manner of 
making records 

(a) Terminology Uniform, with all Loosely descrip- 
terms defined in ad- tive, varying from 
vance. record to record. 

(b) Arrangement Uniform, planned to No formal arrange- 

eliminate all unneces- ment. Diary plan 

sary writing and to most common, 
facilitate tabulating. 



Number of 
records taken 



Number required to Indefinite, 
yield reliable conclu- 
sions determined sta- 
tistically and observa- 
tions continued until 
required amount of 
data has been secured. 



Treatment 
of results 

Completeness 
of information 



Quantitative 
tical)." 



(statis- Qualitative 
scriptive). 



(de- 



Chief 
application 



Selected facts record- Entire freedom in 
ed in full, but little or selecting kind of 
no attempt to note be- facts to be noted 
havior falling outside but no requirement 
the predetermined that any one form 
field of investigation, of behavior will be 
recorded consis- 
tently. 

For the solution of For the setting of 
problems formulated new problems, 
in advance. 



Definitions and descriptions of methods. An observational 
technique which has many points in common with the con- 
trolled experiment may be called a situational analysis. Its 
purpose is to study the changes in behavior which take place 



430 Experimental Child Study 

in accordance with known changes in the situation under 
which the behavior occurs. For example, McCarthy (169) 
studied the differences between the conversation of nursery- 
school children with each other during the free play hour, 
and with an adult who took them into a separate room and 
showed them toys and pictures. Moore (187) and Landis 
(160) recorded the snatches of conversation which were over- 
heard on city streets, and classified it according to whether 
the participants were (a) men only, (b) women only, or 
(c) of opposite sex. Very characteristic differences were 
found under these circumstances. It would be well worth 
while to carry out a corresponding study over a wide age 
range, in order to determine at about what age modifica- 
tions in the subject matter of conversation according to sex 
can first be detected. The situational analysis is suitable for 
many comparative investigations, such as the differences 
between indoor and outdoor play, in the amount of activity 
before and after naps, behavior of the children in the 
nursery-school as contrasted with that at home, etc. 

A second method which has been reduced to a high degree 
of objectivity is known as the time sample or the method 
of short samples. This method differs from the situational 
analysis just described in that it Is commonly used for the 
study of individual differences in behavior, rather than for 
the study of changes induced by modifying the situation. 
A considerable amount of data for each subject is therefore ; 
needed. The number of observational samples required will 
vary with the length of the separate time samples, the size 
of the observational error, the frequency with which the 
behavior in question is displayed and the variability in the 
behavior of the same subjects from time to time. The greater 
the number of observations, the higher will be the reliability. 

The use of the time sample was first developed by Olson 
(199) in a study of so-called nervous habits in school chil- 



Systematic Observations 431 

dren. Since then, various modifications of the method have 
been worked out by different investigators. Olson's procedure 
was devised particularly for use with large groups of children 
in a situation where the subjects are not moving about and 
are in close proximity to each other. This makes it possible 
for the observer to choose a position which will enable him 
to see the entire group at one time. Since the subjects can 
be identified by position as well as by appearance, the task 
of learning to recognize the individual members of the group 
is reduced to a minimum. An ideal situation of this kind is 
provided by the ordinary school class-room. A plan of the 
seating arrangement can be prepared in advance, and the 
records of the individual subjects entered directly on this 
plan. Olson's method was to select a very simple form of 
behavior, such as inserting the finger into the mouth (re- 
gardless of the length of time it was kept there) and to 
record the number of five minute periods out of a total 
of twenty in which this form of behavior was observed to 
occur. Since an entire group was being observed simultane- 
ously, it was not found feasible to attempt to record every 
occurrence of the event in question, but only to indicate for 
each individual subject whether or not' it was observed at 
least once during a given five minute period. The highest 
possible score for each child would thus be equal to the 
number of separate time units included within the total 
series of observations. If a series of 20 five minute periods 
was used, as in the case of Olson's study of oral habits, a 
child who was seen to insert his finger into his mouth at 
least once during each five minute period would receive a 
score of 20, while one who did not do so at all would receive 
a score of o. This method has the great advantage of being 
very economical of time, since an entire group of subjects 
can be observed simultaneously in little more than the time 
required to secure an equal amount of data for a single 



432 Experimental Child Study 

subject when the individual method is used. Obviously, how- 
ever, it is not well suited to the study of complex forms of 
behavior. 

As used by Olson the method has a distinct defect in that 
all observations were taken in immediate succession thus 
making it possible that temporary conditions may have oper- 
ated to cause certain subjects to react in a manner not at all 
characteristic of their usual behavior. Thus in the observa- 
tions on oral habits, temporary conditions such as the pres- 
ence of a hangnail or some other minor irritation might well 
cause certain children to insert the finger into the rnouth very 
frequently throughout the series of observations, although 
such behavior might be quite contrary to their usual habits. 
In like manner hirsutal habits (scratching the head, pulling 
or fingering the hair, etc.) might reasonably be expected to 
be somewhat related to the length of time since the last 
shampoo. Errors of this sort will be avoided if the precaution 
is taken of scattering the observations over a number of 
occasions. 

Several modifications of the Olson technique have been 
worked out by other persons. A method was devised by 
Parten (201) for studying social behavior at the early ages. 
At Columbia, Thomas (245) and her assistants have de- 
veloped a number of procedures of this type. Physical con- 
tacts between children are observed and recorded in terms 
of such units as hit, push, pull, point, etc., and note is also 
made as to which child initiates the contact and which is 
subjected to it. Other methods reported by Thomas, in which 
the time sample is used, include a study of the space covered 
or distance traversed in a given number of observational 
samples of known length. Thomas also employed the time 
sample method in studies of interests and occupations, the 
composition of social groups, etc. At Minnesota (108) a 
one-minute time sample has been used in studies of laughter, 



Systematic Observations 433 

compliance, anger, talkativeness, physical activity, and a 
number of other characteristics. 

It is sometimes desirable to study the behavior either of 
individual children or of certain groups for considerable 
periods of time. At Minnesota a number of interested parents 
kept records on every outburst of anger shown by their 
children over intervals lasting from one to four months 
(109). The establishment of bladder control in an infant 
was studied by Hull (137). Records of the eating habits of 
nursery-school children at the lunch period are kept in a 
number of nursery-schools. 

The situational analysis and the time sampling method 
are particularly significant, in the first place because of the 
readiness with which they lend themselves to quantitative 
treatment and secondly because of the amount of experi- 
mental control which is introduced. Other methods of carry- 
ing out observational studies, while they sometimes yield 
interesting conclusions, are less easy to evaluate. As a rule 
there is no way of determining the reliability of the records, 
and beqause of the descriptive nature of much of the data 
it is often difficult to distinguish between interpretation and 
fact. There are of course wide differences in the technical 
adequacy of the observational methods employed by investi- 
gators whose work does not come strictly under either of 
the two methods just cited. In some cases, particularly those 
which have dealt with specific developmental traits such as 
the acquisition of speech or the learning of fundamental 
habits, a high degree of scientific control has been intro- 
duced. It nevertheless remains true that when the behavior 
to be studied is of a kind which lends itself well to either 
the time-sampling method or the situational analysis, the 
use of these methods is likely to result both in a gain in 
scientific accuracy and in a more efficient use of the ob- 
server's time. 



434 Experimental Child Study 

In the Yale Psycho Clinic a one way vision screen has 
been devised which greatly facilitates the use of observa- 
tional techniques, since it permits the subjects to be seen 
and heard with perfect clearness while the observer remains 
invisible to them (95). This screen will be found very use- 
ful for indoor observation. 

The statistical treatment of data obtained through sys- 
tematic observations. Several of the experiments outlined 
in Part II of this book made use of special observational 
methods. The student is referred to those discussions for 
an account of the statistical devices most commonly used. 

Since the observations are made directly and are recorded 
in terms of the facts actually observed, their validity may 
be taken for granted so long as the interpretation is con- 
fined to those facts and is not extended to cover more general 
characteristics for which the observed behavior is taken as 
an index. For example, in investigations such as Olson's 
study of "nervous habits," so long as the observer is inter- 
ested simply in thumb sucking, pulling and fingering the 
hair and so on, in and for themselves the only question as 
to the truth of the facts recorded centers about the accuracy 
of the observations made. But if he is studying "nervous- 
ness" and assumes that thumb sucking is a partial or com- 
plete sign of a nervous tendency, it is necessary for him to 
show not only that he has observed the facts correctly but 
that his interpretation of their significance is correct. As 
a rule it is better to avoid such assumptions and to interpret 
the findings in terms of the actual facts as they are observed. 
When this is done, the accuracy of the findings becomes 
purely a question of their reliability. 

The reliability of the observations should be determined 
by the same kind of analysis as was described in the chapter 
on measurements, since in this way improvement in method 
may often be brought about. In the case of the situational 



Systematic Observations 435 

analysis, unreliability may be due to inaccurate classification 
of the situations, to inaccurate observation and recording 
of the behavior, to selective factors operating in such a 
way as to make for different samplings of subjects in the 
different situations studied * or to failure to secure a suffi- 
cient amount of data to bring out the facts. If it can safely 
be assumed that differential selection of the kind described 
in the footnote is absent, inadequacies in amount can be 
made up either by adding to the number of subjects or 
to the number of observations secured for each subject. 
The amount of reliance which can safely be placed upon the 
differences found is expressed in terms of the standard error 
of these differences. 

In studies of individual differences in behavior by the 
time sampling method, reliability is most conveniently ex- 
pressed by the coefficient of reliability determined by corre- 
lation. The reason for using the coefficient of reliability here 
and not in the situational analysis is to be found in the 
different purposes for which the two methods are used. 
The situational analysis is concerned with the difference in 
behavior between groups studied under different circum- 
stances. The reliability of the group difference is therefore 
the fact to be established. The time sampling method is most 

*If the subjects observed in the different situations are not the same, 
care must be taken that they are similar in gross characteristics at least. 
Otherwise, it may well be that the differences observed are due primarily 
to differences in individuals which cause them to choose certain situations 
rather than others, and not to the situations themselves. If, for example, 
older children tend to prefer Situation A and younger children Situation B, 
the differences observed in the behavior of subjects observed in the two 
situations may be really determined by the differences in age rather than 
by differences in the situations. Ambiguities of this kind may be avoided 
in either of two ways: by using exactly the same group of subjects in all 
situations which are to be compared as was done by McCarthy (169), 
or by securing a. considerable amount of supplementary data for each 
subject observed and analyzing the situations with regard to the charac- 
teristics of the subjects most commonly found in each. 



436 Experimental Child Study 

commonly used for the study of differences between in- 
dividuals; hence the question of reliability centers about 
the accuracy with which the display of these differences 
on further occasions can be predicted from the behavior 
actually observed. In computing the reliability coefficient, the 
odd-even method is commonly employed. The observa- 
tions are numbered in order as they are taken, and the 
sum of the scores for each subject on the odd numbered 
occasions are used as the first variable, those on the even 
numbered occasions as the second. Since the correlation 
thus obtained represents the reliability of only one-half the 
sample actually obtained, the Spearman-Brown prophecy 
formula should be applied to determine the probable re- 
liability of the total. 

A distinction should be made between unreliability due 
to variability in the behavior of the same subjects from day 
to day, and unreliability due to observational errors* The 
latter can be checked by having two simultaneous observers 
record the behavior of a group of subjects independently 
of each other. 

Another factor which affects the reliability of Individual 
differences as determined by the time sampling method is 
the frequency with which the form of behavior under con- 
sideration is manifested. If the events to be observed rarely 
occur in any of the subjects, so much of the observer's time 
is wasted that the number of observations which must be 
made to secure an adequate sample of behavior will be 
greatly increased. It is important, therefore, to make the 
observations under conditions which afford ample oppor- 
tunity for tte display of the behavior in question. Provided 
that all the observations are made under reasonably similar 
conditions, the Spearman-Brown prophecy formula will en- 
able one to predict from any given number of observations 
how many additional observations will be needed to secure 



Systematic Observations 437 

a reliability coefficient of any required magnitude.* This Is 
an important property of the method, since if a given total 
amount of time is available for a particular investigation 
it is possible after a relatively short tryout to state with 
fair assurance whether or not the time sampling method, is 
likely to be suitable for the purpose. 

When the behavior observed may fairly be regarded as a 
continuous variable of approximately normal distribution 
so that the scores recorded constitute successive steps on 
a linear scale, it is often worth while to combine them in 
such a way as to yield a single final score for each child. 
For example, such characteristics as amount of laughter 
or talkativeness may be scored in terms of a series of graded 
and defined steps running from absence of the behavior 
(complete soberness or silence throughout the period of 
observation) to a very high degree (loud, boisterous laughter 
or continued chatter) at the upper extreme. If a normal 
distribution may be assumed, the data for all the subjects 
may be combined and the scale value of each defined step 
be determined from the proportion of the total number of 
observations which fall within each category (108, 390). 

Certain unique advantages of the observational method. 
There are many forms of behavior which cannot be induced 
satisfactorily in the laboratory or the induction of which 
might lead either to undesirable consequences for the sub- 
jects or lay the investigator open to serious adverse criticism. 
This is particularly true when the subjects are little children, 
and overanxious parents or conscientious institution attend- 
ants have to be reckoned with. Attempts to arouse such 
emotions as anger or fear except of an extremely mild de- 
gree, and similar experiments dealing with behavior which 
is generally considered undesirable, are almost certain to 
arouse antagonism on the part of the general public. Careful 

* Within the limits of chance variation. 



438 Experimental Child Study 

systematic records based upon observations of such events 
as they chance to occur have therefore considerable value. 
Parents and teachers in particular, because of their close 
contact with children over considerable periods of time, are 
in a favored position for securing observations on behavior 
of this kind. 

The study of social behavior is another example. There are 
many aspects of social behavior which cannot well be ap- 
proached by the experimental method, since most real social 
reactions arise spontaneously and cannot be evoked at will. 
Such factors as choice of companions, choice of occupations 
or activities, and many other similar phenomena must be ap- 
proached by the observational method if at all, at least dur- 
ing the early years. While the questionnaire method is 
sometimes resorted to for studies of this kind among older 
children, questionnaires at best must be regarded as a poor 
substitute for the observation of actual behavior, since most 
people have a tendency to rationalize their own conduct 
along lines commonly regarded as desirable when making 
self-reports. The fact that observational techniques can be 
adapted to the solution of so many different problems, for 
many of which no other direct method of study is at present 
available, makes the method well worthy of careful study. 
Although casual and unsystematized observations have been 
used for many years, attempts to reduce such observations 
to a more exact and quantitative level are still comparatively 
new. There can be little doubt that with further use of these 
methods many improvements in technique will be worked 
out. 



Chapter 46 

STANDARDIZED TESTS OF GENERAL TRAITS OR 

CHARACTERISTICS * 

TXEFINTTIONS and examples. As we observe the be- 
JL<^ havior of those about us, we are frequently impressed 
by certain consistencies in the patterns of reaction most typ- 
ical of each individual. We say that this person is "unusually 
intelligent/' that one is "stupid," another is "honest," a 
fourth is "deceitful," and so on. In making such statements 
we are unconsciously taking a sort of average of each in- 
dividual's behavior and comparing these averages one with 
another. When we say that one person is "unusually intelli- 
gent" we do not imply that he invariably displays excep- 
tionally good judgment whatever the circumstances. We do 
mean that on the average, his judgment is likely to be 
superior to that of others who have had equal experience 
with the matter in question. The person who is justly said to 
be "very deceitful" does not always attempt to deceive, but 
he does so more frequently than others who are rightfully 
described as "honest" in spite of the fact that their behavior 
is not invariably free from traces of deceit. Characteristics 
of this sort are not displayed in an "all-or-none" fashion, but 
in varying degrees. The extent of display varies somewhat 

* No attempt will be made here to enter into a discussion of the various 
theories of mental organization as they have been advanced by such men 
as Spearman, Thorndike, and others, since a useful understanding of 
these theories demands a statistical knowledge considerably in advance 
of the requirements of this book. The student who is interested in the 
subject should consult the references given in the bibliography. 

439 



440 Experimental Child Study 

for the same individual according to the situations which call 
it forth, but the average extent of display under all situa- 
tions capable of arousing the behavior in question will also 
differ from one individual to another. Our classification of 
individuals theoretically is based upon the extent to which 
they differ in their average or most typical reactions to 
situations of the same general class. 

But it is rarely, if ever, that any one person has the op- 
portunity to observe all the behavior of another. Even if 
he had such opportunity, the chances are that he would 
notice and remember the behavior shown on certain occa- 
sions and ignore or forget that shown at other times. This 
selective attention, though in part determined by chance 
factors, is even more likely to be due to the personality 
characteristics of the observer himself and to his attitude 
toward the person observed or the kind of behavior dis- 
played. Ratings of children by parents and teachers rarely 
agree closely with each other, not only because parents and 
teachers see the children under different circumstances but 
also because their attitudes toward them are different and 
their standards of comparison vary. 

Factors such as these will continue to set an irreducible 
limit to the accuracy of rating scales and similar devices for 
subjective classification of individuals in terms of the casual 
impressions which they make upon certain of their fellows. 
Recognition of these limitations has led to many attempts 
to devise standardized series' of test situations, in which all 
subjects are given a certain number of tasks to perform, and 
their relative performance on these tasks is taken as a "meas- 
ure" or an index of their most probable behavior in other 
similar situations. This insures that all individuals will be 
judged from their behavior in the same series of situations, 
rather than from situations which vary widely from one 
individual to another as in the case of the rating scale. It 



Standardized Tests 441 

insures furthermore that all judges will use exactly the same 
standards in grading the performances of the different sub- 
jects, since the standards of performance are rigidly defined 
in a way which leaves little or nothing to be decided on the 
basis of personal opinion. Records are made at the time 
of observation, thus doing away with errors due to lapses 
of memory. And finally, since the tasks set are the same 
for all, the "trait 5 ' tested takes on a clearness of definition 
which is lacking when each judge defines it in his own way. 
Even scientists who have devoted many years of thought 
to the matter differ considerably when asked to define such 
a trait as "intelligence/ 5 Terman, who is the author of 
our best known scale of intelligence tests, defines it as "the 
power to think in abstract terms"; other leading psycholo- 
gists have defined it as "the ability to make correct responses 
from the standpoint of truth or fact," "the ability to adapt 
adequately to new situations," and so on (340). These 
definitions, though not exactly the same, obviously have 
much in common. 

If we now turn to the statements made by teachers con- 
cerning the factors which they consider in judging the in- 
telligence of their pupils, we find much greater variation. 
Some emphasize physical characteristics, "the glance of the 
eye" or the shape of the head. Others think chiefly in terms 
of the child's daily school work. Still others note particu- 
larly the child's apparent response to his immediate en- 
vironment, his attentiveness or mental alertness or his speed 
of reaction. If we were to question a group of persons with 
still less training and with a wider variety of experience 
and social background representatives of the hypothetical 
"man in the street" we should probably find even less 
agreement in definition. No single "test" of intelligence can 
possibly yield results which will accord with all these vary- 
ing definitions, but the test at least has the advantage of 



442 Experimental Child Study 

uniformity. It can be described in precise terms, and its 
results checked up against other criteria with a degree of 
assurance which can never be felt for the rating scale where 
the personal factor of the rater is so great as to preclude 
general evaluation. This does not mean that any test, merely 
because it is a test, will always yield a better or truer classi- 
fication of individuals than can be obtained by the use of 
ratings given by competent persons. It does mean that while 
ratings will continue to be good or poor according to the 
capacities of the judges by whom they are made, tests have 
more constant qualities of goodness or poorness which are 
relatively independent of the persons who happen to ad- 
minister them, and which can therefore be determined once 
and for all. Once their adequacy has been determined, a 
statistical analyses of the factors making for unreliability 
will often point the way to improvement. The theoretical and 
practical limitations of the rating scale method are far greater 
than those of the test method. 

We may then define the standardized general test as a uni- 
form and predetermined series of tasks or situations, the 
performance of which has been shown to be in some measure 
diagnostic of an individual's capacities, attainments, or 
habits in certain general lines. As compared to the rating 
scale it substitutes a uniform situation for one which varies 
from individual to individual; definite standards of perform- 
ance for indefinite standards which vary with the individual 
rater. Its results can be analyzed and ,its values and weak- 
nesses determined with a degree of finality impossible for 
the rating scale whose adequacy is so largely dependent 
upon the individual rater. In these respects its superiority to 
the rating scale is unquestioned. If the items of which the 
test is composed have been well selected from the stand- 
point of diagnostic value, if they cover a sufficiently wide 
range to take in all of the traits to be measured, if they 



Standardized Tests 443 

are sufficient in number to guard against chance variations 
in the behavior of the subjects, if the method of administer- 
ing and scoring has been so carefully defined as to guard 
against irregularities in technique, and if the test is admin- 
istered by a trained examiner capable of arousing maximum 
cooperation on the part of the subjects, the results obtained 
will commonly permit a much more truthful classification of 
the subjects tested than can possibly be secured by any 
other method now available. If any or all of these con- 
ditions are not fulfilled, the results may be very misleading. 
The fact that a certain series of tasks has been called a 
test of "intelligence," of "persistence/' of "character" or 
what not does not in itself mean that individuals can be 
classified by it in any useful way. However, the amount 
of reliance which can be placed upon it can be determined. 
This should always be done before the test is put to practical 
use. 

Units of measurement employed in testing. Suppose that 
in a certain very primitive tribe who had never developed 
any methods of measuring length, a mother became con- 
cerned about the height of her six-year-old boy. She does not 
think he is as tall as he should be at his age. She takes him 
to the chief of the tribe and asks his opinion. The chief 
is not sure, but assures the mother that he will find out. 
So he orders all the six-year-old boys in the tribe to be 
brought before him. One by one he stands them up against 
a large tree and cuts notches in the bark to show the level 
of each head. As the notches accumulate it is found that 
some are higher, some lower, but the great majority cluster 
around one central region with the others scattered about 
equally above and below. (See Figure 30.) When the height 
of each boy has been indicated in this way, the chief calls 
the anxious mother to him again, and they compare her 
boy's height with the series of notches on the tree. Since 



444 Experimental Child Study 

they have no other unit of measurement, they cannot say 
by how much his height differs from that of the most typical 
boy of his age but they can make a few simple comparisons. 
By counting the notches, they can say how many boys are 
taller, how many are shorter, and how many are about the 




FIGURE 30. 
Distribution of heights of six-year-old boys. 

same height. Crude as the method is, it at least tells them 
much more than they knew before. 

But other mothers now become interested. They want to 
know how their children compare with others of their age. 
Fortunately, there are plenty of trees and the chief is pa- 
tient. A tree is selected for each year of age, and all the 
children in the tribe are brought up in turn and their various 
heights are notched in on the appropriate trees. They now 
have a series of standards for each age, and the mothers 



Standardized Tests 445 

are greatly interested in comparing their children with the 
notches on the age-trees. 

Then one proud mother makes a discovery. Her six-year- 
old boy's notch shows him to be one of the tallest of his 
age in the tribe. She takes him over to the "seven-year tree" 
and finds that he is even taller than the majority of the 
boys of that age. She takes him to the "eight-year tree" 
and finds that his head reaches exactly to the point where 
the notches are most numerous. This gives her great joy. 
"My boy has eight-year height although he is only six," she 
boasts. Other mothers follow her example. By trying one 
tree after another they are able to determine the age to 
which their children's heights correspond. 

In measurements of such general traits as intelligence 
we are still at much the same level of scientific knowledge 
as was this tribe in its attempts to measure height. We can 
determine the average performance of children of different 
ages on our standardized series of tasks and by compar- 
ing other children with the standards thus obtained, we 
can ascertain the age to which their performances most 
nearly correspond. In measurements of intelligence we speak 
of this as the "mental age." Or we may go a step further 
and obtain a rough measure of the average rate of mental 
growth by dividing the mental age by the chronological 
age. Thus, a child of six whose performance on a certain 
intelligence test was equal to that of the average child of 
nine years would be said to have a mental age of nine. 
If we now divide this mental age by his chronological age 
we get a result of 1.50, which means that on the average 
his rate of mental growth (in terms of the test in question) 
has been 1.50 times as great as that of the average child. 
In expressing these ratios or "intelligence quotients" as they 
are called, it is customary to omit the decimal point and 
to write only the initial letters IQ of the words "in- 



446 Experimental Child Study 

telligence quotient." In the example given the child would 
be said to have an IQ of 150. Another child who at six 
years did only as well as the average child of five would 
be said to have an IQ of 83 *; a ten-year-old with a mental 
age of eight would have an IQ of 80. 

Another method of expressing an individual's standing 
on tests of this kind is in terms of his position with reference 
to others of his age. Just as by counting the notches on 
the tree the mothers in the primitive tribe could find how 
many children of his age were taller or shorter than a given 
child; so we can find how many, or, more generally speaking, 
what percentage of the children in a certain group equal or 
exceed the performance of a given member of the group. 
Thus if 100 six-year-olds are given a certain test and it is 
found that in this group 59 make a poorer showing than 
Johnny Smith, while the remainder do as well or better 
than he, then Johnny would rank as No. 60 in the group 
of 100. In order to make it possible to compare groups of 
different sizes it is customary to reduce all ranks to the posi- 
tion which they would presumably occupy in a similar group 
of 100, and to speak of these as percentile ranks. Like the 
IQ, the percentile rank is a method of expressing an individ- 
ual's standing in a way which has much the same meaning 
regardless of age. 

All of these methods, however, are methods of classifica- 
tion rather than methods of measurement. They are all 
based upon a comparison of individuals with each other 
rather than with some abstract standard which is independ- 
ent of the individuals who are compared. Even the mental 

* Mental and chronological ages are commonly taken to the nearest 
whole month and the quotient carried to two decimal places only. With 
children under five or six years, however, it may be preferable to calculate 
ages to the nearest half month; since the small size of the denominator 
introduces an appreciable shift in the IQ if an entire month is added to 
the chronological age at one time. 



Standardized Tests 447 

age, which has sometimes been unthinkingly spoken of as 
an "absolute" measure, is relative in the sense of being de- 
rived from the performance of children of the age in ques- 
tion. A mental age of six does not mean an intelligence 
twice as great as a mental age of three, nor are we war- 
ranted in speaking in any general way about "a year of 
mental growth/' since we have no reason whatever for as- 
suming that the average amount of growth is constant from 
one year to another. If it is useful to do so, we may speak 
of the amount of gain on a certain test which is made be- 
tween the third and fourth birthdays, but we have no way 
of knowing how this compares with the amount gained be- 
tween the seventh and eighth birthdays. The two amounts 
cannot be used interchangeably. Many attempts have been 
made to develop "absolute" units of mental growth, but 
none has met with universal acceptance. 

From the standpoint of scientific investigation, the ab- 
sence of absolute standards of measurement for such traits 
frequently imposes a serious handicap upon research. Prac- 
tically, the limitations resulting from this lack are less seri- 
ous. Even in such matters as physical size, we use measure- 
ment chiefly as a basis for classification. Our problem is not 
essentially different from that of the women in the primitive 
tribe. We ask, not "How tall is Johnny?" but "Is Johnny 
as tall as he should be?", that is, as tall as other children 
of his age. If we state that a certain seven-year-old is 
55 inches in height, the average person will not know 
whether he is exceptionally tall or exceptionally short, but 
if we say that he is as tall as the average nine-year-old 
or that he takes a ten-year size in suits, the statement takes 
on immediate meaning. Measurement rarely has much sig- 
nificance for the individual until it has been referred to some 
general standard or norm by which individuals can be 
classified. 



448 Experimental Child Study 

The standardization of tests. In attempting to devise a 
new series of tests for the classification of individuals a 
preliminary tryout of the proposed method is usually es- 
sential. In making this trial it is wise to select a larger 
number of tasks or items than will be needed for the final 
form of the test, since it is probable that a certain number 
tried will prove worthless and be discarded. In the initial 
selection of items for trial the following points should be 
kept in mind: 

1. Each item should be diagnostic, that is, should be 
significantly related to the trait which it is desired 
to study, 

2. The range of difficulty of the items should be great 
enough to make it highly unlikely that any subject 
of the ages for which the test is planned will make 
either a zero or a perfect score. A subject who earns 
a zero score may truly rank just below another who 
is able to pass only one item, or he may be so far 
below the latter that their abilities can hardly be com- 
pared. Likewise a perfect score may mean either very 
much or very little more than a score which is just 
short of being perfect, and there is no way of knowing 
which interpretation is true. The possible range of 
scores should therefore always be greater than the 
range of abilities among the subjects to be tested. 

3. The items should be so selected as to guard against 
the effect of unequal practice among the subjects as far 
as possible. If some of the subjects have had much 
practice in tasks closely similar to those used in the 
tests, while others are entirely unfamiliar with them, 
the meaning of the results will be uncertain. There is 
a question whether new tasks which may be said to 
test the ability of the subjects to adapt to unfamiliar 
situations, or familiar tasks which afford an indication 
of how adequately the subject has profited by his ex- 
periences of the past are likely to be more useful. It is 
not a bad plan to have the test series include some 
items of each kind. 



Standardized Tests 449 

4. The items should be varied in type ? in order to afford as 
wide a sampling of the field under consideration as 
possible. 

5. Particularly if the test is designed for young children, 
it is important that all items be interesting and attrac- 
tive in themselves. It is true that a skilful examiner can 
often arouse an artificial interest in tasks which would 
otherwise be unattractive. But since examiners differ 
greatly in their ability to handle children it is unsafe to 
rely upon a factor so variable as this is likely to be. 
Since tests tend to be meaningless unless the coopera- 
tion of the subjects is secured, every effort should be 
made to select material of a kind which will arouse 
spontaneous interest and effort. 

6. The tests should be convenient to administer and should 
have a limited range of possible responses so that 
scoring and treatment may be uniform and objective. 

When a tentative list of items has been selected which 
gives promise of meeting these criteria, it should be 
tried out with a preliminary group of subjects selected 
to be roughly representative of the group for whom 
the test is designed. This preliminary group should in- 
clude representatives of both sexes and of all the ages 
and social classes with whom it is intended to use the 
test. Particular care should be taken to include both 
extremes of ability, in order to make sure that the 
items cover a sufficiently wide range. The responses of 
the subjects should be recorded verbatim. Notes should 
be taken of any difficulties in administration. Any com- 
ments made by the subjects upon their attitudes toward 
the tasks should be recorded. The examiner should 
also note evidences of apparent interest and effort on 
the part of the children while performing the tasks. 
The results obtained for each item should then be care- 
fully examined to see how well they conform to the 
requirements listed above. 

Frequently there will be no single check which is 
adequate to determine the diagnostic value of the items 
since no valid measurement of the trait in question 
exists. In such cases it will be necessary to employ as 



450 Experimental Child Study 

many partial criteria as are available. For example, 
if the trait is one such as intelligence or motor ability 
which is known to show progress with age, the extent of 
the age progress can be used as a partial sign of the 
test's diagnostic value. Age is an imperfect criterion, 
however, since there are many factors which increase 
with age but are unrelated to the trait which it is de- 
sired to measure. In addition to age progress, therefore, 
other criteria must be employed. Ratings by competent 
judges, achievement in fields known to be related to 
the trait in question (such as school -progress in the 
case of an intelligence test) comparison of sharply 
contrasted groups (as reform-school boys with boys 
who have never had a court record in the case of a 
"character" test) may all be useful. The internal con- 
sistency of the test, that is, the extent to which the 
various items hang together as measures of the same 
general trait may be determined by the intercorrela- 
tions of the different items with each other and with 
the total. Intercorrelations should be positive but not 
too high, since high correlations mean that the items 
are in large measure duplicating each other and are 
making little independent contribution to the scale as 
a whole. 

Upon the basis of the preliminary tryout, the scale 
should be reorganized and if a sufficient number of 
items have stood the test it may be put into final form. 
Sometimes a number of preliminary trials are needed to 
yield a sufficient number of useful items to warrant 
final standardization. The number of items needed will 
vary with the reliability and diagnostic value of each, 
and with the degree of precision which is needed. The 
test as a whole should be sufficiently accurate to make 
the distinctions which are required without gross mis- 
classification of the subjects. 

In the final standardization, care should be taken to 
secure a group of subjects who may be considered rep- 
resentative of the group to whom the norms or stand- 
ards are expected to apply. This means that the sexes 
should be about equally represented at each age. Un- 



Standardized Tests 451 

less It can be shown that the test is one which is un- 
affected by differences in social status, the social factor 
should also be controlled by having the different social 
classes represented in approximately the same propor- 
tion as they are found in the general population. A 
fairly satisfactory way of doing this is to use paternal 
occupation as a rough measure of social status, and 
to consult the U. S. Census reports in order to de- 
termine the proportion of the total number of adult 
males in the community falling within each of certain 
general occupational categories, as in the industrial 
classification devised by Taussig (336), the Barr scale 
values (n), or the combination of the two worked out 
at the University of Minnesota. (Appendix A.) If it 
is found impossible to control factors such as these by 
selection, the composition of the group used for stand- 
ardization should at least be carefully described in ob- 
jective terms, to permit persons who wish to use the 
test for other groups to determine in advance whether 
or not the original norms may be taken as standards 
with which their children may be fairly compared. 

A discussion of the statistical aspects of test construc- 
tion would be beyond the scope of this book. A number of 
useful references are given in the bibliography. Whatever 
the method employed, the standardization should not be con- 
sidered complete until the adequacy of the method has been 
thoroughly investigated. Such an investigation should include 
first of all an analysis of the amount of experimental error 
in giving and scoring the test. Are the directions so clear 
that two persons will always give and score each test in 
exactly the same way? The stability of the norms or stand- 
ards at each age should also be ascertained. If another 
person should restandardize the test upon another group 
of subjects drawn from the same general population, by 
how little would his standards be expected to differ from 
those originally obtained? The consistency of the results ob- 
tained by the test should be ascertained both by the test- 



452 Experimental Child Study 

retest method, in which the results of two successive admin- 
istrations of the test are compared with each other, and by 
the split-scale method in which the sum of the scores earned 
on half the test are compared with those made on the other 
half. In dividing the scale for this purpose it is customary to 
include the odd numbered items in the first half and the even 
numbered items in the second half. By this means such 
factors as habituation to the test situation, fatigue, ^ etc., 
are distributed fairly evenly over both halves, permitting 
more valid comparisons. If more than one form of the test 
has been devised, the amount of agreement between the 
two forms should also be determined. The validity of the 
test, i.e. } the extent to which it agrees with other measures 
or ratings of the trait in question should be checked by the 
use of as many different criteria as possible, since it is but 
rarely that any single criterion will be entirely satisfactory. 
The reliability of the criteria used should also be determined, 
since even the best test cannot agree very closely with a 
criterion which is itself unreliable. All the findings should be 
reported in sufficient detail so that their interpretation will 
be unmistakable. 

The practical use of tests* In the use of standardized tests 
as instruments for practical diagnosis and guidance of the 
individual child, two fairly common practices should be 
guarded against. First, tests whose merit has not been proved 
should not be adopted for practical use until the necessary 
evaluation has been made. Merely because a test has been 
given a certain name, which happens to coincide with a felt 
need for a particular kind of diagnostic instrument is no 
evidence that the test in question can be depended upon to 
make such a diagnosis. The clinical worker must be con- 
tinually on his guard to see that his critical judgment is 
not blinded by his desire for making striking or spectacular 
diagnoses of vocational aptitudes, special talents and defects, 



Standardized Tests 453 

character and personality traits and similar factors which 
always make strong appeal to the popular fancy. Often the 
demands for such diagnoses become so strong that it is 
difficult to withstand them. The clinician who begins by 
trying a certain test "to see how it works'' and perhaps 
finds that in one or two cases it appears to check up fairly 
well with other observations of the subject, may be tempted 
to let his investigation stop there and to continue to use 
the test as a guide to decisions or recommendations which 
may seriously affect the future welfare of his subjects. The 
number of new "tests" which appear each year is so great 
that the problem of selecting those which are most valuable 
for a given purpose is a serious one. Only when the clinician 
is thoroughly acquainted with the principles of test construc- 
tion and evaluation is he in a position to separate the wheat 
from the chaff. 

A second practice, unfortunately common among many 
clinical workers, is that of modifying the standardized meth- 
ods of administering tests in order to make them conform 
more nearly to certain actual or fancied requirements of in- 
dividual children. To do this not only violates one of the 
most fundamental rules of scientific technique, but is also 
likely to defeat its own end, since it makes it impossible to 
determine at any later time just what the child's true per- 
formance on a test properly given would have been. If the 
clinician's judgment of the child's ability which led him to 
modify the test conditions was correct, then the test was un- 
necessary; if it was incorrect, the change in the testing 
method will have so obscured the source of the error that 
later correction becomes impossible. This does not mean that 
in clinical practice all tests should be given in a purely 
mechanical way and their results interpreted without regard 
to the past experience of the subject or other factors which 
may affect their adequacy for the individual. No tests are 



454 Experimental Child Study 

perfect, and the best of them may on occasion yield a very 
distorted picture of the facts as they are. In our present 
state of ignorance with regard to the special factors which 
underlie behavior, there can be no reasonable criticism of the 
clinician who, for reasons which he is willing to put on 
record, decides to ignore completely the results of all tests 
or measurements which have been given and to make a diag- 
nosis and prescribe treatment upon the basis of what he 
regards as a sensible interpretation of facts obtained through 
other sources. When this is done, the records of all tests 
given should be preserved with as great care as if they 
were to be used, the reasons why they are regarded as 
inadequate or unreliable should be set down in detail, to- 
gether with the clinician's diagnosis and a summary of the 
facts upon which this diagnosis is based. Later follow-up 
of the case will make it possible to determine whether the 
clinician or the test was more nearly right. With the accumu- 
lation of many such records the foundation may be laid for 
decided improvement in our present methods of clinical 
diagnosis. If, on the other hand, the clinician feels it neces- 
sary to bolster up his judgment by modifying the tests in 
such a way that they will give apparent support to opinions 
which he has already formed, later on there will be abso- 
lutely no way by which opinion can be distinguished from 
fact. 



Chapter 47 

EXPERIMENTS OR CONTROLLED 
INVESTIGATIONS 

THE characteristics of experiments. The word experi- 
ment refers to a method of investigation in which the 
investigator undertakes to control as many factors as possible 
in order to bring out the essential relationship between 
the phenomena studied. By deliberately setting about the 
creation of situations which can be produced as many times 
as he sees fit, the investigator secures many more observa- 
tions than could be obtained if he waited for the events to 
occur naturally. By eliminating and isolating irrelevant fac- 
tors, he brings the true relationships into clear relief. The 
limitation and definition of the conditions under which the 
experiment is conducted, makes it possible for other inves- 
tigators to repeat the experiment. By such repetition and 
verification correct generalization is ultimately established. 

The relation between incidental observation and experi- 
mentation becomes clear if we consider for a moment how 
an experiment originates. Observations of certain phenomena 
are made. On the basis of these observations a question is 
formulated. A special technique or experiment is then set 
up by means of which the question is answered. 

For instance, Day * noticed that occasional pairs of twins 

showed decided retardation in language development and in 

rare cases even developed a language of their own. She 

wondered whether these were sporadic instances or whether 

* Unpublished Ph.D. thesis, University of Minnesota. 

455 



456 Experimental Child Study 

the language development of twins in general is less than 
that of single children of corresponding age. Her method of 
answering this question was to parallel with twins the in- 
vestigation previously done by McCarthy (170) on single 
children. The results provide evidence not only that there 
is linguistic retardation in twins, but also that it becomes 
progressively more marked up to the age of five years. In 
speculating as to possible causes for this retardation, it was 
pointed out that twins might not be under the same necessity 
of learning the language in order to participate in the life 
of older children and adults as are single children, because 
of their constant companionship with each other. 

This hypothesis might be subjected to further test. One 
possibility is the study of the language development of the 
surviving member of pairs of twins in cases where one of the 
children died in infancy. Another possibility is the com- 
parison of the language development of twins before and 
after their entrance into school. If the retardation is the 
result of the limited social situation in which twins develop, 
it should be lessened under the influence of the broader social 
relations of school. Here, as in many other instances, the 
solution of one problem forms the starting point for another 
series of investigations. This is characteristic of all science. 

It should be noted that the question to be attacked by 
an experiment always has reference to human behavior in 
general rather than to the behavior of a particular individual. 
Day was interested in the effect of the twin situation upon 
language development. Her study was neither designed to 
furnish norms of language development nor to assay in- 
dividual abilities. In this respect the experiment is sharply 
set off from the other methods which have been described. 
Even though in carrying out an experiment the investigator 
may make use of such devices as tests, ratings, systematic 
observations and measurements or any other which seems 



Experiments or Controlled Investigation 457 

suited to his purpose, he is nevertheless not interested in the 
particular individuals who are tested, rated or measured. 
Rather his purpose is to ascertain the effect of certain 
deliberately introduced or selected factors upon behavior 
in general. 

Control of conditions. Ideally an experiment involves the 
control of all the factors in the situation and in the subjects 
except the one factor which is under investigation. As a re- 
sult of this control the investigator is able to connect a 
response with the particular situation which has been set 
up, and thus is able to isolate the significant factor. Theo- 
retically, in setting up an experiment the investigator knows 
the relative significance of the factors he wishes to control. 
Otherwise adequate control cannot be set up. When the 
experiment is completed, its results should answer the ques- 
tion originally put. 

Consider an instance. We wish to determine the effect of 
lapse of time upon memory, i.e., does memory remain at the 
same level or fall off as time passes? Even though everyday 
observation indicates that memory decreases as time passes, 
there remains the problem of th'e rate of decrease. In order 
to experiment we must state the problem even more pre- 
cisely. Do we remember as much at the end of twenty hours 
as at the end of six hours, as much at the end of forty as 
at the end of twenty hours ? 

At first sight this problem appears very simple. But other 
questions immediately arise. What, kind of material shall we 
give the persons who are going to memorize? Since there 
are differences in memory for different types of subject 
matter, it is necessary to control this factor by providing 
uniform material. If we start out with prose material we 
shall soon find that certain parts are easier to remember 
than others, because of the element of meaning. This may 
bring us to the point of seeking uniform material, such as 



458 Experimental Child Study 

nonsense syllables in which even the meaning factor is 
absent 

But the problem of control is not yet solved. Shall we 
have the subjects read the nonsense syllables silently or 
aloud, or shall we read the syllables to them? Suppose we 
decide to have the syllables pronounced as they are seen 
and thus control the subjects' overt reaction to the syllables. 
Then we face the question of the rate at which the syllables 
shall be presented. How shall we make sure that the rate 
does not vary? Since it is necessary to present the syllables 
at a constant rate, we devise instruments for the control 
of this factor. Finally, since the amount of reproduction at 
the end of a given period of time is related to the length 
of the list, the lists used should be of the same length. 

Although we have controlled four factors: material, rate, 
manner of reaction, and length of list, we must go still 
farther. Since we know that memory is related to age, we 
introduce control of this factor by performing our experi- 
ments on children of the same age. Then the problem of 
determining the time which shall elapse between the learn- 
ing of the nonsense syllables and their reproduction arises. 
Obviously, if we are to study the effects of lapse of time 
upon memory we shall have to vary the length of time be- 
tween stimulation and reproduction in a systematic fashion. 
Suppose we decide to test at regular intervals of one hour 
each after presentation, i.e., at one hour, two hours, three 
hours, four hours, etc. In selecting this series of intervals we 
are controlling time. But it is far too simple a procedure 
to give a list of syllables and test on the same list at one 
hour, two hours, etc. We must give a number of lists, testing 
for the first at one hour, the second at two hours, and 
so on. Otherwise, the recitation of the lists in the course 
of the testing will reinforce memory for them and thus 
distort the results. The foregoing account is an excellent ex- 



Experiments or Controlled Investigation 459 

ample of the necessity of knowing in advance what factors 
are most likely to affect the results of a particular experiment 
if adequate controls are to be set up. These factors will vary 
with the problem and cannot be determined arbitrarily. 

In the instance cited it is necessary to know something 
about the relationship of memory to age, to amount of 
material, to manner of presentation, etc., before an effective 
experiment can be blocked out. In the physical sciences, 
where the material to be dealt with is inert and lends itself 
readily to the will of the investigator, the setting up of ade- 
quate controls is far more simple than is the case in experi- 
mentation with living organisms. 

In child psychology the ideal of controlling all the factors 
save the particular one which is under study and permitting 
that factor alone to vary, is achieved rarely, if ever. If we 
could stop human beings from growing and hold them in 
statu quo for a period of time, if we knew how to control 
their motivation and the amount and quality of their previ- 
ous incidental practice, if we could eliminate all possible 
stimulation save that which we ourselves present, we might 
be able to set up experiments which would be crucial and 
would answer once and for all the questions originally pro- 
posed. Actually in the human situation we seldom have 
precise knowledge or control of any of these factors. Ac- 
cordingly we attempt to control all the factors which we 
know are relevant to the particular experiment, either di- 
rectly through the experimental set-up or indirectly by the 
use of control groups. 

Experimentation through direct measurements, tests, or 
ratings of the same individuals. In the carrying out of an 
experiment, it is necessary to secure some quantitative ex- 
pression of the changes which take place. In the study of 
memory previously described, the measure used is the num- 
ber of nonsense syllables retained after varying intervals of 



460 Experimental Child Study 

time. In the experiment on color discrimination, the time 
required for matching the different colors and the number 
of errors in matching is utilized. In the experiment on sus- 
tained attention, the length of time the eyes are fixated on 
each box is employed as a measure. In the experiment study- 
ing the effect of a change in the situation on language be- 
havior, the mean number of words per sentence, the propor- 
tion of parts of speech, the number of different words used 
and a classification of the social function of the different 
sentences is used. 

Often special mechanical devices have been constructed 
for the purpose of presenting stimuli or recording the re- 
sponses of the subject in a more precise and uniform fashion 
than can be done by the unaided human observer. These 
vary greatly from experiment to experiment in accordance 
with the problem studied. As a rule, the better planned the 
experiment and the more precise the instrument, the simpler 
is the process of measurement. The experimenter may also 
employ indirect measures or measures of complex functions, 
where no methods of direct measurement are available for 
the particular problem at hand. Thus, if he wishes to carry 
on an experiment on the effect of training upon emotional 
reactions he may have the emotional reactions of the children 
rated on a carefully prepared scale, and then subject the 
children to a particular training method for a period of time. 
At the end of that period of time the children may be re- 
rated on the same scale. Note that in such an experiment 
it would be necessary to have the raters on both occasions 
ignorant of the kind and type of training given in order 
that no bias might operate to modify their ratings. Where 
other than direct measures are used in experiment, extra 
precautions must be taken to secure accurate and impartial 
data. 

The use of control groups in experimentation. The stu- 



Experiments or Controlled Investigation 461 

dent of child behavior attacks many problems in which it is 
impossible for him to control, through an experimental 
set-up, all the factors which may affect the problem studied. 
For the most part this is due to the fact that in develop- 
ing organisms various phenomena take as a result of matura- 
tion, incidental stimulation or genetic factors rather than as 
a result of the introduction of an experimental condition. 
To meet this difficulty the technique of the control group 
may be used. Suppose we wish to find out whether or not 
children master material presented for their learning in 
class better when moving pictures are used for demonstra- 
tions than when ordinary still visual aids are used. At first 
glance this problem appears simple. Why not show moving 
pictures to a class and record the results? But this pro- 
cedure would not enable us to draw any conclusion. It is 
quite possible that if the moving pictures had not been shown 
to the class, its members would have improved quite as much 
under the old methods as when the new device is introduced. 
How are we to solve the problem? One method would be 
to divide the class in half, giving one half regular instruc- 
tion along established lines and the other half the moving 
pictures, testing both groups at the end of the period of 
time. By comparing the two groups with regard to their 
mastery of the subject matter some idea would be obtained 
as to which of the two methods was the better under "the 
circumstances used. 

This is known as the control group technique. It is widely 
used in experimental studies on children, whenever factors 
are present in the life of the child, either as a result of 
growth, or as a result of outside stimulation beyond the 
control of the investigator which may make for increased 
attainment or progress in a particular function independently 
of any experimental condition which may be introduced. In 
its original use children were divided at random into two 



462 Experimental Child Study 

groups. The experimental condition was then introduced into 
one group but not the other, and measurements were made 
on both groups at the end of a period of time. But it soon 
became apparent that unless the groups were extremely 
large, such differences as were apparent at the end of the 
experimental period might be nothing more than the effect 
of the chance results of sampling which would have been 
equally apparent at the beginning of the period had measure- 
ment been taken at that time. Therefore the procedure now 
followed is to make a test or measurement of all the children 
at the outset with respect to the function in question, then 
divide them into two groups of equal size, and subject one 
to the experimental condition, while keeping the other as a 
control group. At the end of the period, both groups are 
subjected to the same measurements or tests as were given 
originally. The change which has resulted in the control 
group is then subtracted from the change which has resulted 
in the experimental group and the remainder taken as the 
effect of the experimentally introduced factor. Various meth- 
ods of comparison other than those afforded by simple sub- 
traction have been developed for analyzing data furnished 
by such studies. 

An improvement on this procedure is found in some in- 
vestigations in which, after the second set of tests, nothing 
is done to the children for a period of time. They are then 
subjected to a third series of tests or measurements in 
order to ascertain the permanency of the results. In this way 
a double check is obtained, since a comparison of the experi- 
mental group with the control group is made at the end of 
the experimental period and a further comparison of both 
groups is made after a period of time in which the experi- 
mental condition is absent. 

In modern practice another technique, called control by 
pairing, has arisen. Preliminary tests or measurements are 



Experiments or Controlled Investigation 463 

given the children as before. On the basis of these tests 
or measurements the children are divided into two groups 
paired one with another with respect to various measure- 
ments. Thus if there were two children with IQ's of 140, 
one child with an IQ of 140 would go into the experimental 
group and the other would go into the control group. When 
a number of measurements are to be used in pairing, a prac- 
tical procedure to facilitate the work is to write the measure- 
ments for each child on a separate card. Select as pairs 
the cases which most nearly resemble each other on all 
the measurements. One member of each pair goes into the 
experimental group, the other into the control group. By this 
process it is insured that the groups will have similar means 
and similar dispersions for each of the variables on which 
pairing has been done. Since the use of paired groups insures 
that the major sources of error resulting from unequal selec- 
tion are ruled out, small differences in final standing are of 
far greater significance than is the case where both the con- 
trol and the experimental groups are selected at random. In 
determining the reliability of these differences the formula 
for correlated variables should be used. An interesting ex- 
ample of the use of paired groups is furnished in the Gates 
and Taylor studies (88, 89). 

If a large group of subjects is available from which selec- 
tion can be made, it is possible to match the subjects much 
more closely. For Instance in a study undertaken by Good- 
enough (105) on the influence of the nursery-school upon 
changes in intelligence quotients, children were paired with 
respect to sex, age, IQ, education of father, education of 
mother, socio-economic status of the father, and the nativity 
of parents. The experimental group consisted of 28 children 
enrolled in a nursery-school. The composition of this group 
could not be changed. In selecting the control group, the 
records of some 300 children in the community were ex- 



464 Experimental Child Study 

amined. In this way it was possible to secure 28 cases which 
matched the experimental group much more closely than 
would have been possible If a smaller number had been 
available. 

A modification of the method of control through pairing 
is furnished through the fact that nature occasionally does 
an excellent job of pairing through producing what are 
known to the scientist as identical twins, who can be used 
for study and observation. Gesell (97) has developed what 
he calls the method of co-twin control, which consists es- 
sentially in making a series of measurements and observa- 
tions on both members of a pair of identical twins, then 
subjecting one member of the pair to an experimental situa- 
tion (such as practice in stair-climbing), while the other 
remains in a natural environment or is prevented from exer- 
cising the particular activities in which the other is being 
given practice. At the end of a given period of time, measure- 
ments are made both on the practiced twin and the control 
twin, and conclusions drawn. Although up to the present, 
the method has been applied to single pairs, only the relative 
inaccessibility of identical twins in large numbers prevents its 
being used on a larger scale. 

Comparative studies. In the ordinary course of nature 
many experiments are performed for us, of which we need 
only to take advantage. People differ with respect to sex, 
race, social status, the size of the family from which they 
come, rural or city residence, order of birth, and so on. The 
greater number of these factors have existed throughout 
the lifetime of the individual and therefore have had the 
maximum opportunity to exert their effects. Although we 
cannot control these factors in the same way that we can 
control the temperature of the laboratory, the time of day 
at which an experiment is performed, the manner of present- 
ing a stimulus, etc., we can control them through selecting 



Experiments or Controlled Investigation 465 

as subjects individuals in whom the required conditions are 
known to have been operative. This is known as the com- 
parative method. Thus we may contrast the behavior of only 
children with that of children who have brothers and sisters 
in exactly the same way that we can contrast the behavior 
of children to whom we have intentionally given a particular 
kind of training with that of children who have not had such 
training. We may pair the groups for other related variables 
in the same way as is done in the formal experiment. We 
can test or measure the effect of the condition in a similar 
fashion. Inasmuch as the condition studied has commonly 
existed throughout life, one aspect of complete control is 
commonly lacking, namely, the measurement of initial status 
previous to the introduction of the experimental factor. For 
this reason larger numbers of cases are commonly needed to 
secure valid results than in experiments where such control 
is possible. 

Control "by norms or statistical devices. Another type of 
control is available when we have accurate norms. For 
example, if accurate norms on the development of language 
in children are available it may be possible to introduce a 
condition into the lives of a group of children which will 
affect language, and then measure the results by using the 
norms for control without the necessity of setting up a 
separate control group. However, the possibilities of this 
mode of attack are decidedly limited since it is but rarely 
that the investigator can be certain that the experimental 
group is similar in composition to the normative group. 
Further, it is necessary for the investigator who attempts a 
study of this type to reproduce the exact conditions under 
which the norms were obtained. 

It has been pointed out that in the experiment, an at- 
tempt is made to control all the factors except the par- 
ticular one which is undergoing analysis. By the use of a 



466 Experimental Child Study 

statistical technique * known as partial correlation it Is pos- 
sible to secure a result similar to that obtained when experi- 
mental control is introduced. The technique is chiefly util- 
ized in the analysis of relations where either an experimental 
set-up is impossible because of the nature of the material 
to be gathered, or as a substitute method in the handling 
of data already collected without experimental control. An 
illustration will make the point clean Suppose that we are 
interested in the relation between intelligence test scores and 
scholastic success. This relation will be affected by time 
spent in study. If we secure a large number of observations 
or measurements of children with respect to intelligence, 
time spent in study, and scholastic success, we can proceed 
by the use of partial correlation to hold time spent in study 
constant and determine the relationship between intelligence 
and scholastic success. Or we can select two groups of 
children who differ with respect to intelligence, pair them 
with respect to time spent in study and then find the differ- 
ence between the two groups with respect to scholastic suc- 
cess. Or we may proceed by the experimental method to take 
a group of children who vary with respect to intelligence 
and place them under conditions in which we equalize the 
amount of time spent in studying for all children and then 
study the relation between intelligence and scholastic success. 
Although recognizing in the last case the fact that we can- 
not completely control such factors as the motivation or 
energy with which study is carried on by controlling the time 
spent in study, nevertheless a clearer picture of the relation- 
ship between intelligence and scholastic success would be 
obtained with time of study artificially and experimentally 
held constant. Here are three techniques for attacking the 

*For the method of computing partial correlations the student is 
referred to the textbooks on statistics listed in Section IV of the 
bibliography. 



Experiments or Controlled Investigation 467 

same problem, ranging from one involving complex statis- 
tical treatment, to one in which the statistical treatment 
necessary is relatively simple, since by deliberate control 
of one factor, much of the subsequent need for complex 
analysis is eliminated. This brings us to a rather important 
point with reference to method. In general, control of con- 
ditions in advance is to be preferred to the accumulation of 
a mass of measurements on a large body of cases without 
such control, necessitating involved statistical treatment. Al- 
though statistics furnishes us with our most valuable tools 
for the handling of data, it never becomes an altogether 
effective substitute for more precise methods of collecting 
data. 



BIBLIOGRAPHY 

This bibliography represents a selection from approxi- 
mately fifteen hundred titles which were considered. In gen- 
eral the selection was based upon the following principles: 
(i) articles written in English were taken in preference 
to those in foreign languages, (2) preference was given to 
studies of younger children, (3) recent articles were given 
preference over the earlier studies, (4) emphasis was placed 
on studies in the social sciences. 

Very brief articles or notes were not included unless of 
special importance. A small number of articles and books 
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ticular portions of this book. On the whole, an attempt was 
made to have the selection cover a fairly wide range of 
topics and methods. 

For this reason, articles of somewhat less merit have occa- 
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worth when the former deal with topics for which little in- 
formation is available. 

1. ALPERT, AUGUSTA, The solving of problem situations 
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2. ANDERSON, J. E., The attendance of nursery school 
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3. ANDERSON, J. E., The dream as a reconditioning process. 
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4. ANDERSON, J. E., The clientele of a parental education 
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5. ANDERSON, J. E., FOSTER, J. C, and GOODENOUGH, F. 
L., The sleep of young children. University of Min- 
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Minneapolis, University of Minnesota Press. To ap- 
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469 



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6. ANDRUS, R., An Inventory of the habits of children from 
two to five years. New York, Teachers' College, Colum- 
bia University Bureau of Pub. 1928, Pp. 51. 

7. ATKINS, RUTH, The measurement of the intelligence of 
young children by an object-fitting test. University of 
Minnesota, Institute of Child Welfare Monograph 
Series No. V. Minneapolis, University of Minnesota 
Press, 1931. 

8. BALDWIN, B. T., The physical growth of children from 
birth to maturity. University of Iowa Stud., Stud, in 
Child Welfare, i, No. i, 1921, Pp. 411. 

9. BALDWIN, B. T., FILLMORE, E. A., and HADLEY, L., 
Farm children; an investigation of rural child life in 
selected areas of Iowa. New York, D. Appleton and 
Co., 1930, Pp. xxii + 337- ^ 

10. BALDWIN, B. T., and STECHER, L. 1, The psychology 
of the preschool child. New York, D. Appleton and 
Co., 1924, Pp. 305. ^ 

n. BARR, F. E., A scale for measuring mental ability m 
vocations and some of its applications. M.A. thesis, 
Stanford Univ., 1918. Described in Genetic Studies of 
Genius, Vol. i, Mental and physical traits of a thou- 
sand gifted children by L. M. Terman et al. See Chap. 
IV. 

12. BARRETT, HELEN E., and KOCH, HELEN L., The effect 
of nursery-school training upon the mental-test per- 
formance of a group of orphanage children. /. Genet. 
PsychoL, 1930, 37, 102-122. 

13. BAYLEY, N., Performance tests for three, four, and five- 
year-old children. Fed. Sem. 1926, 33, 435-454- 

14. BAYNE, T. L., WINSOR, A. L., and WINTERS, E. S., Con- 
ditioned motor responses in children. Proc. Soc. Exper. 
Biol. and Med. 1929, 26, 342-343. 

15. BECKMANN, HERMANN, Die Entwicklung der Zahlleist- 
ung bei 2-6 jahrigen Kindern. Zsch. /, angew. PsychoL 
1923, 22, 1-160. 

16. BERNE, E. V. C., An investigation of the wants of seven 
children. University of Iowa Stud., Stud, in Child Wel- 
fare. 1929, 4, No. 2, Pp. 61. 



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17. BETZNER, JEAN, Content and form of original com- 
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18. BINET, ALFRED, L'etude experimental de r intelligence. 
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19. BLACKING, E., Standardization of a bead-stringing test. 
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345. WEISS, A. P., The measurement of infant behavior. 
Psychol Rev. 1929, 36, 45 3 -47 J - 



III. MENTAL TEST MANUALS 

346. ARTHUR, GRACE, A point scale of performance tests. 
Vol. I. Clinical Manual New York, The Common- 
wealth Fund Division of Publications, 1930, Pp. ix 
+ 82. 

347. BAKER, H. J., Detroit kindergarten test. Yonkers-on- 
Hudson, World Book Co., 1920. 

348. BAKER, H. J., Detroit advanced first-grade intelligence 
test. Yonkers-on-Hudson, World Book Co. 

349. BIRD, G. E., The Rhode Island intelligence test. /. Educ. 
Res. 1923, 8, 397-403. 

350. BIRD, G, E. ? and CRAIG, C. E., Rhode Island intelligence 
test for children from three to six years of age. Bloom- 
ington, III, Public School Pub. Co. 

351. BRONNER, A. F., HEALY, W., LOWE, G. M., and SHIM- 
BERG, M. E., A manual of individual mental tests and 
testing. Boston: Little, Brown & Co., 1927, Pp. x + 
287. 

352. DEARBORN, W. F., The Dearborn group tests of in- 
telligence. Rev. Ed. Series 7. General examination A 
and B. Philadelphia, J. B. Lippincott Co., 1922. 

353. ENGEL, ANNA M., Detroit first-grade intelligence test. 
Yonkers-on-Hudson, World Book Co., 1920. 

354. GOODENOUGH, F. L., Measurement of intelligence by 
drawings. Yonkers-on-Hudson, World Book Co., 1926, 
Pp. xi + 177. 

355. GOODENOUGH, F. L., and FOSTER, J. C, The Minnesota 
preschool tests. Minneapolis, University of Minnesota 
Press. 

Ready in 1931. 



Bibliography 497 

356. HAGGERTY, M. E., Intelligence examinations, Delta I, 
for grades J-j. Yonkers-on-Hudson, World Book Co., 
1920, Pp. 12. 

357. HAGGERTY, M. E., and NOON AN, M. E., Haggerty read- 
ing examination Sigma I for grades i-j. Yonkers- 
on-Hudson, World Book Co. 

358. HAGGERTY, M. E., TERMAN, L. M., THORNDIKE, E. L., 
WHIFFLED G. M., and YERKES, R. M., National intelli- 
gence tests. Yonkers-on-Hudson, World Book Co. 

359. HAYES, S. P., The new revision of the Binet intelligence 
tests for the blind. Teachers' Forum for Instructors of 
Blind Children, 1929, No. 2, 2-4. 

360. HERRING, J. P., Herring revision of the Binet-Simon 
tests. Examination manual. Yonkers-on-Hudson, World 
Book Co., Pp. 56. 

361. KELLEY, T. L., A constructive ability test. /. Educ. 
Psychol. 1916, 7, 1-16. 

362. KELLEY, T. L., RUCH, G. M., and TERMAN, L. M., 
New Stanford achievement test. Forms V, X, Y, Z. 
Yonkers-on-Hudson, World Book Co., 1929, Primary 
examination. Pp. 8. Advanced examination, Pp. 24. 

363. KINGSBURY, F. A., A group intelligence scale for pri- 
mary grades. Psychol. Monog. 1924, 33, No. 6, Pp. 60. 

364. KUHLMANN, F., A handbook of mental tests. Baltimore, 
Warwick & York, 1922, Pp. 208. 

365. KUHLMANN, F., and ANDERSON, R. G., Kuhlmann- 
Anderson intelligence tests. Minneapolis, Minn.: Edu- 
cational Test Bureau, 1927. 

366. LINFERT, H. E., and HIERHOLZER, H. M., A scale for 
measuring the mental development of infants during the 
first year of life. Cath. Univ. Amer. Stud. Psychol. 
and Psychiat., 1928, I, No. 4, Pp. 33. 

367. MYERS, G. C., and MYERS, C. E., Myers mental meas- 
ure, New York, Newson, 1921. 

368. OTIS, A. S., Otis group intelligence scale: Primary ex- 
amination: Forms A and B. Yonkers-on-Hudson, 
World Book Co. 

369. PINTNER, R., Manual of directions for the non-language 
mental and educational survey tests. Columbus, Ohio, 
College Book, 1920, Pp. 16. 



498 Bibliography 

370. PINTNER, R., and CUNNINGHAM, B. V., The Pmtner- 
Cunningham primary mental test. Yonkers-on-Hudson, 
World Book Co., 1923. 

371. PINTNER, R. ? and PATERSON, D. G., A scale of perform- 
ance tests. New York, D. Appleton & Co., 1917, Pp. 

X + 2I8. 

372. PRESSEY, L. C., Pressey attainment scales. Blooming- 
ton, 111., Public School Pub. Co. 

Separate scales are available for each of the first 
three grades. 

373. PRESSEY, S. L., and PRESSEY, L. C., Pressey primary 
classification test, Form A. Grades i and 2. Blooming- 
ton, 111., Public School Pub. Co. 

374. PRESSEY, S. L., and PRESSEY, L. C., Pressey inter- 
mediate classification test. Bloomington, 111., Public 
School Pub. Co. 

375. SANGREN, P. V., Sangren information tests for young 
children. Yonkers-on-Hudson, World Book Co., 1930. 

376. STUTSMAN, R., Mental measurement of preschool chil- 
dren. Yonkers-on-Hudson. World Book Co., 1931. Pp. 
x + 368. 

377. TERMAN, L. M., The measurement of Intelligence. Bos- 
ton, Houghton, Mifflin Co., 1916, Pp. xviii + 362. 

A revision of these tests is now being made. 

378. WHIPPLE, G. M., Manual of mental and physical tests. 
Part L Simpler processes. Part II. Complex processes. 
Baltimore, Warwick and York. Third edition, 1924. 

379. YERKES, R. M., and FOSTER, J. C., Jp2j revision. A 
point scale for measuring mental ability. Baltimore, 
Warwick and York, 1923, Pp. vii + 219. 



IV. STATISTICAL METHODS, FORMS AND TABLES 

380. ANDERSON, JOHN E., Correlation chart. Minneapolis, 
Educational Test Bureau, 1928. 

381. ANDERSON, R. G., A critical examination of test-scoring 
methods. Arch. Psychol. 1925, No. 8o ? Pp. 50. 

382. Barlow's tables of squares, cubes, square roots, cube 
roots, and reciprocals of all integer numbers up to 



Bibliography 499 

10,000. London, E. and F. N. Spon, 1924, (First pub- 
lished in 1814), Pp. vii + 2 ' 

383. CRELLE, A. L., Calculating tables. Berlin, O. Seelinger y 
1908, Pp. 500. 

384. GARRETT, H. E., Statistics in psychology and education. 
New York, Longmans, Green & Co., 1926, Pp. xiii + 



385. GOODENOUGH, F. L., A short method for computing the 
correlation between interchangeable variables. /. Educ. 
PsychoL, 1929, 20, 386. 

386. HOLZINGER, K. J., Statistical tables for students in 
education and psychology. Chicago, University of 
Chicago, University of Chicago Press, 1926, Pp. v + 74. 

387. HOLZINGER, K. J., Statistical resume of the Spearman 
two-factor theory. Chicago, University of Chicago Press, 
1930, Pp. 43. 

388. INGLIS, A., Inglis tables of intelligence quotient values. 
Yonkers-on-Hudson, World Book Co., Pp. 16. 

389. KELLEY, T. L., Kelley correlation chart. Yonkers-on- 
Hudson, World Book Co. 

390. KELLEY, T. L., Statistical method. New York, The 
Macmillan Co., 1923, Pp. xi -+- 390. 

391. KELLEY, T. L., and SHEN, E., General statistical prin- 
ciples. In Foundations of experimental psychology. 
Worcester, Mass., Clark University Press, 1929, Pp. 
832-854. 

392. KELLEY, T. L., and SHEN, E., The statistical treatment 
of certain typical problems. In Foundations of experi- 
mental psychology. Worcester, Mass., Clark University 
Press, 1929, Pp. 855-883. 

393. OTIS, A. S., Otis correlation chart. Yonkers-on-Hudson, 
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394. OTIS, A. S., Universal p ere entile graph. Yonkers-on- 
Hudson, World Book Co., Pp. 4. 

395. PEARSON, KARL, Tables for biometricians and statis- 
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396. THORNDIKE, E. L., An introduction to the theory of 
mental and social measurements. Second revised edi- 



500 Bibliography 

tion. New York, Teachers' College, Columbia Univ. 
Bureau PubL, 1919, Pp. xi + 2 77- 

397. THURSTONE, L. L., The fundamentals of statistics. New 
York, The Macmillan Co., 1925. 

398. THURSTONE, L. L., A method of scaling psychological 
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451- 

399. THURSTONE, L. L., The unit of measurement in edu- 
cational scales. /. Educ. PsychoL 1927, 18, 505-524. 

400. THURSTONE, L. L., Scale construction with weighted ob- 
servations. /. Educ. PsychoL 1928, 19, 441-453. 

401. WARREN, RICHARD, and MENDENHALL, R. M., The 
Mendenhall-Warren-Hollerith correlation method. Co- 
lumbia University Statistical Bureau Document No. I. 

1929, Pp. ii + 37? 6 plates. 

402. WOODWORTH, R. S., Combining the results of several 
tests: a study in statistical method. PsychoL Rev. 1912, 
19, 97-123. 

403. YULE, G. UDNY. An introduction to the theory of sta- 
tistics. London, Charles Griffin & Co., 1919, Pp. xv 

+ 398. 



APPENDIX A 

CLASSIFICATION OF OCCUPATIONS OF EM- 
PLOYED MALES IN UNITED STATES, 1920 

The data in these tables are taken from the Report of 
the Fourteenth Census of the United States, Vol. 4, 1920. 
By following this outline, corresponding percentages can be 
worked ^out from the census data for any state and for the 
larger cities. 

GROUP I 

Census 
Classification 

Prof. S. Architects; 

" Artists, sculptors, teachers of art; 

" Authors editors, reporters; 

" Chemists, assayers, and metallurgists; 

" Civil engineers, surveyors; 

" Clergymen; 

" College presidents and professors; 

" Dentists; 

" Electrical engineers; 

" Keepers of charitable and penal institutions; 

" Lawyers, judges, and justices; 

" Librarians; 

* Mechanical engineers; 

" Mining engineers; 

" Physicians and surgeons; 

" Professional service; (other occup.) 

" Teachers; (School) 

TOTAL in United States 839,188 

Per cent of total occupied 2.54 

* Includes all technical engineers not elsewhere classified. 

501 



502 



Appendix A 



GROUP II 

Census 
Classification 

Cler. Accountants and auditors; 

Prof. S. Aeronauts; 
Trade Bankers and bank officials; 

" Books; (retail dealers) 

Brokers, N.O.S.,* and promoters; 

Mfg. Builders and building contractors; ^ 

Trade Buyers and shippers of grain; (retail dealers) 

" Buyers and shippers of livestock; (retail dealers) 

" Buyers and shippers of other farm produce; (re- 

tail dealers) 

Trans. Captains, masters, mates, and pilots; 
Trade Commercial brokers and commission men; 

" Department store dealers; (retail dealers) 

Prof. S. Designers; 

" Draftsmen; 

Trade Drugs and medicine, pharmacists, druggists; (re- 
tail dealers) 

" Furs; (retail dealers) 

Trans. Inspectors; (steam railway) 
Prof. S. Inventors 

" Interior decorators 

Trade Jewelry; (retail dealers) 
Dom. S. Laundry owners, officials, and managers; 
Trade Loan brokers and loan company officials ; 
Trans. Locomotive engineers 
Trade Lumber; (retail dealers) 
Mfg. Managers and superintendents; (mfg.) 

" Manufacturers and officials; 

Prof. S. Musicians and teachers of music; 
Trade Officials of insurance companies; 
Pub. S. Officials, inspectors; (state) 
Trans. Officials and supt.; (steam and street R.R.) 
Pub. S. Officials, U. S.; (except postmasters) 
Mining Operators, officials and managers of mines; 

*Not otherwise stated. 



Appendix A 503 

Census 
Classification 

Ag. Owners and mgrs. of log and timber camps; 

Pub. S. Probation and truant officers; 
Trade Proprietors, officials, mgrs. elevators and ware- 
Trans, houses; 

Proprietors, officials, mgrs. for telegraph, tele- 
phone, and other transportation N.O.S, 
Trade Other proprietors, officials, and mgrs.; 
Prof. S. Religious, charity, and welfare workers; 
Trade Stockbrokers ; 

" Wholesale dealers, importers, and exporters; 

TOTAL in United States 1,553,626 

Per cent of total occupied 4.70 

Retail dealers includes managers and superintendents of 
retail stores. 

GROUP III 

Classification 

Census 

Prof. S. Abstracters, notaries, justices of peace; 

" Actors; 

Trans. Agents of express companies; 

Trade Agr. implements and wagons; (retail dealers) 

Mfg. Annealers and temperers; (metal) 

Ag. Apiarists; 

Mfg. Apprentices to architects, designers, and drafts- 
men; 

Trade Art stores and artist materials; (retail dealers) 

" Automobiles and accessories; (retail dealers) 

Cler. Bookkeepers and cashiers; 

Trade Boots and shoes; (retail dealers) 

Mfg. Cabinet makers; 

" Carpenters; * 

Trade Carpets and rugs; (retail dealers) 

" Clothing and men's furnishings; (retail dealers) 

" Coal and wood; (retail dealers) 

" Commercial travelers, traveling salesmen; 



504 Appendix A 

Census 
Classification 

Mfg. Compositors, linotypers, and typesetters; 

Trade Crockery, glass, and queensware; (retail dealers, 

Curios, antiques, novelties; (retail dealers) 

" Decorators, drapers, window dressers; 

Prof. S. Dentists' assistants and apprentices ; 

Mfg. Dressmakers and seamstresses not in factory; 

" Electricians; 

Electrotypers, stereotypers, lithographers; 

Trade Employment office keepers; 

Mfg. Engravers; 

Trade Florist; (retail dealers) 

Trans. Foremen of livery and transfer company; 

Mfg. Foremen, overseers, mfg.; 

Trade Foremen, floorwalkers in stores; 

Ag. Foresters, forest rangers, timber cruisers, etc. 

Trade Furniture; (retail dealers) 

Trans. Garage keepers, managers; 

Trade Gas fixtures and electrical supplies; (retail deal- 
ers) 

" General stores; (retail dealers) 

Mfg. Glass blowers; 

Trade Hardware stores and cutlery; (retail dealers) 

Dom. S. Hotel managers and keepers ; 

Trans. Inspectors of street rjailway; 

" Inspectors of telephone and telegraph; 

" Inspectors, other transportation; 

Trade Insurance agents; 

Mfg. Jewelers, watchmakers, goldsmiths, silversmiths; 

Ag. Landscape gardeners and nurserymen; 

Pub. S. Lighthouse keepers; 

Mfg, Machinists; 

" Mechanics, other; 

" Millers (grain, flour, feed, etc.); 

" Milliners and millinery dealers; 

" Millwrights; 

Trade Music and musical instruments^ (retail dealers) ; 

Pub. S. Officials, inspectors, city and Bounty; 

" Officials of lodge, society, etc.; 



Appendix A 



505 



Census 
Classification 

Trade Optician (retail dealers); 

Prof. S. Osteopaths; 

Trade Pawnbrokers ; 

Prof. S. Photographers; 

Mfg. Piano tuners and organ tuners; 

" Plumbers, gas and steam fitters; 

Pub. S. Postmasters; 

Trade Produce and provisions (retail dealers); 

Trans. Proprietors and managers of transfer company; 

" Railway mail clerks; 

Trade Real estate agents and officials ; 

Mfg. Skilled occupations (N.O.S.) ; 

Trade Stationery (retail dealers) ; 

Trans. Steam railroad conductors; 

Cler. Stenographers and typists ; 

Prof, S. Teachers of athletics and dancing; 

Trans. Telegraph operators; 

Prof. S. Theatrical owners, mgrs. officials; 

Trans. Ticket and station agents; 

Prof. S. Trained nurses; 

" Turfmen and sportsmen; 

Trade Undertakers ; 

Prof. S. Veterinary surgeons; 

Cler. Weighers; 

Trans. Yardmen, steam railroad; 

Trade Retail dealers (other specified) ; 

Retail dealers (N.O.S.) ; 

Mfg. Wood carvers; 

TOTAL in United States 4,767,285 



Per cent of total occupied 



1442 



GROUP IV 

Ag. Agriculture and animal husbandry, other and not 

specified pursuits; 
" Dairy farmers; 

" Dairy farm, farm, garden, orchard, etc., foremen; 



506 



Appendix A 



Census 
Classification 

Ag. Farmers, general farms; 

" Farmers, turpentine farms; 

" Florists, fruit growers, gardeners, and nursery 

men; 

Inspectors, sealers, and surveyors (lumber) ; 

" Poultry raisers; 

" Stock raisers; 

TOTAL in United States 6,197,191 



Per cent of total occupied ..... 



18.74 



GROUP V 

Cler. Agents, canvassers and collectors; 
Mfg. Apprentices to cabinet makers, carpenters, elec- 
tricians, machinists; 

" Apprentices to jewelers, watchmakers, goldsmiths; 

Prof. S. Attendants and helpers (other-prof, service) ; 
Trans. Baggagemen , freight agents (railroad) ; 
Mfg. Bakers; 

Dom. S. Barbers, hairdressers, manicurists; 
Trade Bicycle (retail dealers) ; 
Dom. S. Billiard and pool room keepers; 

" Boarding and lodging house keepers; 

Mfg. Blacksmiths, foremen, hammersmiths, welders; 

" Boilermakers; 

Trans. Brakemen, railroad; 
Mfg. Brick and stone masons; 

Trade * Butchers and meat dealers (retail dealers); 
Dom. S. Butlers; 

Trade Candy, confectionery (retail dealers); 
Trans. Chauffeurs ; 
Trade Cigars and tobacco (retail dealers) ; 

" Clerks in stores ; 

Cler. Clerks, other, not in stores (except shipping clerks 

and weighers); 
Trade Coffee and tea (retail dealers) ; 



Appendix A 



57 



Census 
Classification 

Trans. Conductors, street railroads; '' 

Dom. S. Cooks ; 

Mfg. Coopers; 

Dom. S. Dance hall and skating rink, etc., keepers; 

Trade Delicatessen stores (retail dealers); 

Prof. S. Detectives; 

Trade Dry goods, fancy goods, notions (retail dealers); 

Mfg. Dyers (not retail dealers) ; 

Trans. Express messengers; 

Prof. S. Firemen (fire department) ; 

Trade Five and ten cent variety stores (retail dealers) ; 

" Flour and feed (retail dealers) ; 

Trans. Foremen and overseers, transportation N.O.S.; 

Dom. S. Foremen, and overseers of laundry operatives^ 

Trans. Foremen and overseers, steam and street rail- 
roads ; 

Trade Foremen (warehouses, stockyards, etc.) ; 

" Fruit (retail dealers); 

" Groceries (retail dealers) ; 

Mfg. Gunsmiths, locksmiths, and bell hangers; 

Trade Harness, saddlery (retail dealers) ; 

Dom. S. Housekeepers and stewards; 

Trade Ice (retail dealers) ; 

Mining Inspectors (extraction of minerals) ; 

Trade Inspectors, samplers, and gaugers, (trade) ; 

Prof. S. Keepers of pleasure resorts, race tracks, etc.; 

Trade Leather and hides (retail dealers) ; 

Prof. S. Librarians' assistants and attendants; 

Pub. S. Lifesavers; 

Trans. Livery stable keepers and managers; 

" Locomotive firemen; 

Mfg. Loom fixers ; 

Trans. Mail carriers; ; * 

Pub. S. Marshals and constables; 

Trade Milk (retail dealers); 

Trans. Motormen, steam and street railroad; 

Mfg, Holders, founders and casters (metal) ; 

Trade News dealers (retail dealers); 



Appendix A 

Census 
Classification 

Dom. S. Nurses, not trained; 

Trade Oil, paint, wallpaper (retail dealers); 

Mfg. 4 Painters, enamelers, glaziers, varnishers, etc.; 

" Paper hangers; 

" Pattern and model makers; 

Prof. S. Physicians' and surgeons ^attendants; 

Mfg. Plasterers and cement finishers; 

Pub. S. Policemen; 

Mfg. Pressmen and plate printers (printing) ; 

Pub. S. Public service (other occupations) ; 

Dom. S. Restaurant, cafe and lunchroom keepers; 

Mfg. Roofers and slaters; 

Trade Salesmen, sales agents, auctioneers, demonstra- 
tors; 

Mfg. Sawyers; 

Prof. S. Semi-professional, other occupations; 

Mfe. Semi-skilled operatives, N.O.S. (mfg. and mech.) ; 

Trade Semi-skilled pursuits, fruit graders, meat cutters, 
packers, wholesale and retail trade, other 
occup.; 

Trans. Semi-skilled transportation, other occup.; 

Pub. S. Sheriff; 

Cler. Shipping clerks, not in stores; 

Mfg. Shoemakers, cobblers, not in factory; 

Prof. S. Showmen; 

Pub. S. Soldiers, sailors, marines; 

Mfg. Stationary engineers, cranemen and hoistmen, 
etc.; 

" Stone cutters ; 

" Structural iron workers (building) ; 

" Tailors; 

Trans. Telegraph and telephone linemen; 

** Telephone operators; 

Prof. S. Theater ushers; 

Mfg. Tinsmiths and coppersmiths; 

" Toolmakers, dyesetters, and sinkers; 

" Upholsterers j 



Appendix A 

Census 
Classification 
Dom. S. Waiters; 
Mfg. Wheelwrights; 

TOTAL in United States . , 
Per cent of total occupied . 



509 



9,059457 



2740 



Mfg. 



Dom. S. 



Trans. 


Dom. S. 
Cler. 

Trans. 
Dom. S. 
Mining 

<c 

Dom. S. 

Trade 

Trans. 



Dom. S. 



GROUP VI 



Apprentices to blacksmiths, Boilermakers, coop- 
ers, masons, painters, glaziers, varnishers, paper 
hangers, plasterers, roofers and slaters, tin- 
smiths and coppersmiths; 

Apprentices to printers and book binders; 

Apprentices (other); 

Attendants, cleaners and renovators of clothing, 
hunters, trappers, vendors, saloon keepers, um- 

. brella menders, scissors grinders, and other 
occup. (domestic service), bartenders, bath- 
house keepers and attendants, cemetery keep- 
ers; 

Bell boys, chore boys, etc.; 

Boatmen, canal men, and lock keepers; 

Boiler washers and engine hostlers; 

Bootblacks; 

Bundle, cash, messenger, errand, and office boys 
(except messengers) ; 

Carriage and hack drivers; 

Coachmen and footmen; 

Coal mine operatives; 

Copper mine operatives; 

Chambermaids; 

Deliverymen (bakers, laundries, stores); 

Draymen, teamsters and expressmen (not includ- 
ing teamsters in agriculture, forestry, and ex- 
traction of minerals); 

Elevator tenders ; 

Farm laborers (home farms only) ; 

Firemen (except locomotive and fire dept.) ; 



510 Appendix A 

Census 
Classification 

Ag. Fishermen and oystermen; 

Mining Foremen and overseers (extraction of minerals) ; 

Ag. Foremen and overseers (forestry); 

Prof. S. Fortune tellers, hypnotists, spiritualists, etc.; 

Mfg. Furnacemen and smeltermen, heaters, ladlers, 
and pourers; 

" Filers, grinders, buffers, and metal polishers; 

Mining Gold and silver mine operatives; 

Pub. S. Guards, watchmen, and doorkeepers (public serv- 
ice) ; 

Prof. S. Healers (except osteopaths, physicians, and sur- 
geons )j 

Mining Iron mine operatives; 

Trade Hucksters and peddlers (retail dealers) ; 

Dom. S. Janitors and sextons; 

Trade Junk dealers (retail dealers); 

" Laundry operatives (other) ; 

Trade Newsboys; 

Mining Oil, gas, and salt well operatives; 

Mfg. Oilers of machinery; 

Mining Operatives in mines N.O.S.; 

Dom. S. Porters (domestic and prof, service) ; 

" Porters (steam railroads); 

11 Porters (other except in stores); 

Mining Quarry operatives; 

Trade Rags (retail dealers); 

Mfg. Roller and roll hands (metal) ; 

Trans. Sailors and deck hands; 

Dom. S. Servants (other) ; 

Prof. S. Stage hands and circus helpers; 

Trans. Switchmen and flagmen (steam railroad); 

" Switchmen and flagmen (street railroad); 

Ag. Teamsters and haulers (lumber) ; 

Trans. Telegraph messengers; 

Dom. S. Valets; 

TOTAL in United States 4,336,658 

Per cent of total occupied *3-25 



Appendix A 



511* 



GROUP VII (Urban) 

Census 
Classification 
Dom. S. Cleaners; 
Trans. Hostlers and stable hands; 

Mfg. Laborers all industries, N.O.S., mfg. and me- 

chanical; 
Trade Laborers, coal yards, stock yards, lumber yards; 

" Laborers, express company, pipe lines, telegraph 

and telephone, water trans, and other trans.; 
Trans. Laborers, garage, road and street; 
Trade Laborers, porters, helpers in stores; 
Dom. S. Laborers, (laundry operatives) ; 
Trans. Laborers, steam and street railroads; 
Dom. S. Laborers (domestic and prof, service); 

** Launderers not in laundry; 

Trans. Longshoremen, stevedores; 

Pub. S. Scavengers, garagemen, other laborers, (public 
service) ; 

TOTAL in United States 3*963,398 

Per cent of total occupied 11.99 



GROUP VII (Rural) 

Cornshellers, hay-balers, etc.; 
Dairy farm laborers;^ 
Ditchers (farm); 
Farm laborers (working out) ; 
Farm laborers (turpentine farms) ; 
Gardeners, greenhouse, orchard, and nursery la- 
borers; 

Irrigators and ditch tenders; 
Poultry yard laborers; 



Appendix A 

Census 

Classification 

Ag. Lumbermen, raftsmen, and wood choppers; 

" Stock herders, drovers, and feeders; 

TOTAL in United States 2,303,525 

Per cent of total occupied ..... 6.97 

TOTAL GROUP VII in United 

States (Urban and Rural) . . 6,266,923 

Per cent of total occupied 18.96 

GRAND TOTAL all classes for 
the United States 33*064,737 



APPENDIX B 

THE CHAPIN SCALE * 

FOR RATING LIVING ROOM EQUIPMENT 

DIRECTIONS TO VISITOR 

1. The following list of items is for the guidance of the 
recorder. Not all of the features listed will be found in 
any one home. Entries on the schedules should, however, 
follow the order and numbering indicated. Weights ap- 
pear after the names of the respective items. Disregard 
these weights in recording. Only when the list is finally 
checked should the individual items be multiplied by 
these weights and the sum of the weighted scores be 
computed, and then only after leaving the home. All in- 
formation is confidential. 

2. Check or underline the articles or items present. If more 
than one, write 2, 3, or 4, as the case may be. 

3. Do not enter the score of any article or feature present. 
Complete recording before attempting to enter scores. 

4. In cases where the family has no real living room, but 
uses the room at nights as a bedroom, or during the day 
as a kitchen or as a dining room, or as both, in addition 
to use of room as the chief gathering place of the family, 
please note this fact clearly and describe for what pur- 
poses the room is used. 

5. When possible it is desirable to have a living room 
checked twice. This may be done in either of two ways. 

a. After an interval of two or three weeks the same 
visitor may recheck the room- The first schedule should 
be marked I, the second II. 

* (43, 44, 258) 



Appendix B 

b. After an interval or simultaneously the room may be 
checked by two different visitors. One schedule should 
be marked A, the other B. 

Scores of the same homes on two trials should be similar. 
If a group of homes are scored twice there should be a 
high correlation between the scores. Please report find- 
ings to F. Stuart Chapin, University of Minnesota. 

SCHEDULE OF LIVING ROOM EQUIPMENT 



I. FIXED FEATURES 

1. Floor - 

Softwood i, hardwood 2, 
composition 3, stone 4. 

2. Floor covering - 

Composition i, carpet 2, 
small rags 3, large rug 4, 
oriental rug 6. 

3. Wall covering - 

Paper I, kalsomine 2, 
plain paint 3, decorative 
paint 4, wooden panels $. 

4. Woodwork 

Painted I, varnished 2, 
stained 3, oiled 4. 

5. Door protection 

Screen i, storm door I. 

6. Windows 

I each window. 

7. Window protection * 

Screen, blind, netting, 
storm sash, awning, shut- 
ter i each. 

8. Window covering * 

Shades i, curtains 2, 
drapes 3. 

9. Fireplace 

Imitation i, gas 2, wood 
4, coal 4. 

10. Fire utensils 

Andirons, screen, poker, 
tongs, shovel, brush, hod, 
basket, rack, i each. 

11. Heat 

Stove i, hot air 2, steam 
3, hot water 4. 



12. Artificial light - 

Kerosene I, gas 2, elec- 
tric 3. 

13. Artificial ventilators I..- 

14. Clothes closets I - 

Total Section I - 

II. BUILT-IN FEATURES 

15. Book containers 

Shelves i, cases 2. 

16. Beds 

In a sideboard i, in a 
ceiling 2, in a door 3. 

17. Desk i - 

18. Window seats I 

19. Window boxes I 



Total Section II. 



III. STANDARD FURNITURE 

20. Table . . - 

Sewing i, writing I, card 
i, library, end, tea, 2 
each. 

21. Chair - 

Straight, rocker, arm 
chair, high chair, I each. 

22. Stool or bench 

High stool, footstool, pi- 
ano stool, piano bench, i 
each. 

23. Couch 

Cot I, sanitary couch 2, 
chaise longue 3, daybed 
4, davenport 5, bed- 
davenport 6. 



1 If checked out of season, ascertain if used in season and so record. 



Appendix B 



515 



personal- 



24. Desk 

Business I, 
social 2. 

25. Book cases i 

26. Wardrobe or movable 
cabinet I 

27. Sewing cabinet I 

28. Sewing machine 

Hand power I, foot pow- 
er 2, electric 3. 

29. Rack or stand I 

30. Screen I 

31. Chests I 

32. Music cabinet I 

Total Section III 

IV. FURNISHINGS AND CULTURAL 
RESOURCES 

33. Covers 

Furniture, table, chair, 
couch, piano, I each. 

34. Pillows 

Couch, floor, i each. 

35. Lamps 

Floor, bridge, table, I 
each. 

36. Candle holders, I each. . 

37. Clock 

Mantel, grandfather, wall, 
alarm, i each. 

38. Mirror, I each 

39. Pottery, brass or metal. . 

Factory made I, hand 
made 2 each. 

Baskets 

Factory or hand made, 
waste, sewing, sandwich, , 
decorative, I each. 

Statues, i each 

Vases i, flowers or 

plants, 2 each 

Photographs I each 
(portraits of personal 

interest) 

Pictures 



40. 



41. 
42. 

43. 



44. 



Note if original or repro- 



duction. If original, oil, 
water color, etching, 
wood block, lithograph, 
crayon drawing, pencil 
drawing, pen and ink, 
brush drawing, photo- 
graph (when treated as 
a work of art), 2 each; 
if reproduction, photo- 
graph, half tone, color 
print, chromo, i each. 

45. Books 2 ^ . f 

Poetry, fiction, history, 
drama, biography, phi- 
losophy, essays, litera- 
ture, religion, art, science 
(physical, psychological, 
social), atlas, dictionary, 
encyclopedia, .20 for 
each volume. 

46. Newspapers 3 

General, labor, local com- 
munity, sectarian, i for 
each type of paper. 

47. Periodicals 3 

News (current events), 
professional, religious, lit- 
erary, science, art, chil- 
dren's, i each; fraternal, 
fashion, or popular story, 
.50 each. 

48. Telephone 8 ...- 

Switchboard connection 
i, two-party line 2, one- 
party line 3 (Note social 
or business mainly) . 

49. Radio 8 

Crystal I, one-tube 2, 
two-tube 3, three-tube 4, 
five-tube and up, 5. 

50. Musical instruments 3 . .- 
Piano 5, organ i, violin 
i, other hand instru- 
ments i each. 

51. Mechanical musical in- 
struments z - 



3 To be recorded if in another room (except professional library of 
doctor, lawyer, clergyman). 
3 To be recorded if in another room. 



516 Appendix B 

Music box i, phono- solo, instrument (piano, 

graph 2, player-organ 3, violin, etc.), trio, quar- 

player-piano 4. tet, band, orchestra, .10 

52. Sheet music 4 for each record; jazz .01 

Opera, folk, military, for each. 

ballads, classic, dance , . . TTr 

(other than jazz) , chil- Total Sectlon IV " 

dren's exercises, .05 for Sums of Weighted Scores 

each sheet; jazz, .01 for 

each sheet. Total Section I - 

53, Phonograph records 4 . . . Section II - 

Type of music (as 

above) ; type of instru- Section III 

ment reproduced; voice Section IV 

solo, duet, quartet, 

chorus; instrumental Grand Total 

4 To be recorded if in another room. 



APPENDIX C 

I. Key list of intelligence quotients for photographs shown 
in Figure 22, Chap. 26. 



Picture IQ Picture 


IQ Picture IQ 


A 95 E 


80 I 137 


B in F 


118 J 116 


C 127 G 


121 K 133 


D 92 H 


105 L 100 


2. Key for matching Buchner 


pictures (Figure 29) to the 


numbered descriptions of situations given in Chapter 34. 


Picture Situation 


Picture Situation 


A 8 


E ii 


B 4 


F 3 


C 9 


G 10 


D i 


H 7 



APPENDIX D 
LIST OF STATISTICAL FORMULAS 

The following list includes only the formulas suggested 
for use in the experiments described in Chapters 15-5 5 
inclusive. For further statistical methods the student is re- 
ferred to the textbooks listed in the bibliography. 

Symbols 

a = number of judges (Formula 22). 

A.D. = average deviation. 

c = correction to be applied when computations are 

made from an arbitrary origin instead of the true 
mean. 

d = difference between ranks. 

D = difference between groups. 

dis. = distribution. 

/ = number of cases or frequencies in a class interval. 

i = size of class interval. 

k = coefficient of alienation. 

M = arithmetic mean. 

Mdn = median. 

M.V. = mean variation. 

n = number of times the original length of a test^ or 

series of observations is duplicated in applying 
the Spearman-Brown prophecy formula. 

TV = number of cases. 

p = a proportion or percentage. 

P.E. = probable error. 

q znthe proportion remaining after p has been sub- 

tracted (i p). 

r =the product moment coefficient of correlation. 

rn - = a reliability coefficient. 

5*3 



Appendix D 

FH = mean intercorrelation between ranks. 

S = sum of all ranks given to a single case (Formula 

22). 

S.D. = standard deviation of a distribution. 

x = a distance measured in terms of class intervals 

away from the mean or from an arbitrary origin. 
In a correlation chart the x distances are plotted 

_ on the horizontal axis. 

x =the regression of x on y. The most probable x 

score corresponding to a given value of y. 

y = the regression of y on x. The most probable y 

score corresponding to a given value of x. 

y = a distance corresponding to x (above) plotted on 

the vertical axis of a correlation chart. 

p = coefficient of correlation obtained by the rank- 

order method. 

o = standard error of a statistical measure (mean, 

coefficient of correlation, etc.) This symbol is also 
used to indicate the standard deviation of a dis- 
tribution (S.D.). 

2 =. the sum of. 

Formulas 

L Measures of central tendency. 

1. The arithmetic mean (M) 

a. Long method: 

-, 2 (measures) 

M ~ N 

b. Short method: 

* f A i - > * i (2 fa) 

M = Arbitrary origin -| rp- 

2. The median (Mdn) 

a. Counting method: 

, . - N I 

Man = the measure. 



520 Appendix D 

II. Measures of dispersion. 

1. The mean variation (Af.F.) or average deviation 

U.D.) 

2x 

M.V. or A.D. = -ryr (disregarding signs.) 

2. The standard deviation (S.D.) 

a. Long method: 



b, Short method: 



3. The coefficient of variability 

SJ). 



Coef. var. = 



M 



III. Measures of probable variability. Standard errors (o) 
(To reduce standard errors to probable errors, 
multiply by .6745.) 

1. Standard error of the mean: 

SJP. 

M ~" VN 

2. Standard error of a percentage: 

= Jis 

3. Standard error of a coefficient of correlation: 

i r 2 

agm .....i.-.. . 
* \j*? i. i ..,- - 
vw 

h LOS (i P 2 ) x -IN 

D. Op = (approximately). 



Appendix D 521 

4. Standard error of a difference between correlated 
measures: 



5. Standard error of a difference between independent 
measures: 



D = V Gi 2 +- O 2 2 



IV. Measures of relationship. 

i. The Spearman rank-order coefficient of correlation: 



2. The Pearson product-moment coefficient of cor- 
relation 

a. Long method: 




N OxOy 

b. Short method: 






3. The product-moment formula for use when vari- 
ables are interchangeable: 



N 



4. Short method for finding the mean intercorrelation 
between ranks: 



_ 

11 ~ 



(a 



522 Appendix D 

5. The Spearman-Brown prophecy formula: 



6. The coefficient of alienation: 

k= v/ 1 r 2 

7. The regression equations 

a. Regression of AT on y: 

S.D.* 
x = r Q n y> 

O.Z^.y 

b. Regression of y on ^.* 



GLOSSARY 

(The terms marked by asterisks are defined elsewhere in the 

glossary) 

abscissa a distance measured along the horizontal axis (or 
base-line) of a graph or chart. This is also known as the 
x axis; hence in plotting correlations* the variable* 
which is entered along the abscissa is known as the x 
variable. See ordinate* 

absolute measure A measure expressed In equal units whose 
derivation is independent of the thing measured, and is 
determined only by the fundamental notions of space, 
mass, and time; e.g., inches, seconds, pounds, 

action pattern See behavior pattern.* 

alienation, coefficient of (k) See coefficient of alienation.* 

analysis, graphic See graphic analysis.* 

arbitrary origin A point which is arbitrarily chosen for pur- 
poses of convenience as a zero point from which meas- 
urements are to be taken. In finding the arithmetic 
mean it is customary to make the initial calculation from 
an arbitrary origin or "guessed average" and apply a 
correction afterward. 

arithmetic mean (M) The sum of the separate measures 
divided by the number of measures. 

array A single row or column in a correlation table or 
"scattergram." * 

average deviation (A.D.) The sum of the values of the 
deviations of the separate measures from the mean* 
divided by the number of measures. Also known as the 
mean variation (M.V.)* or the mean deviation (M.D.) 

axis See abscissa * and ordinate.* 

bar diagram, A graphic method of comparing two or more 
quantities or proportions by the use of bars with lengths 
proportionate to the values of each. 
523 



524 Glossary 

behaviorism The view that only behavior which is or can 
be made open to observation by everyone is useful for 
scientific investigation. 

behavior pattern A complex act or sequence of acts which 
is regarded as making up a functional whole. Also 
known as action pattern * or reaction pattern. 

case history An organized summary of the Available data 
regarding the past and present characteristics of an in- 
dividual and his environment, assembled with reference 
to a particular problem. 

category A general class under which objects or actions 
are grouped. The term is commonly reserved for group- 
ings made upon the basis of qualitative rather than 
quantitative characteristics. Analogous to class interval * 
in a quantitative series. 

cell That portion of a correlation table or scattergram,* 
which is formed by the intersection of an x array * with 
a y array.* (See ordinate * and abscissa.*) 

central tendency, measure of. The measure which is^taken 
to be the most significant or meaningful expression of 
the general trend of the individual values in a group. 
In psychological and educational statistics the most 
commonly used measures of central tendency are the 
arithmetic mean,* the median,* and the mode.* 

chartometerAn instrument for measuring the length of 
irregular lines. 

class interval A given range of scores within a continuous 
quantitative series.* Analogous to category * in a quali- 
tative series. 

code slip A sheet on which the results obtained on a single 
individual on all phases of an investigation are brought 
together in a systematic and concise fashion, for pur- 
poses of sorting and classifying. 

coefficient of alienation (k) A quantitative expression of 
the lack of relationship between two variables * corre- 
sponding to the coefficient of correlation * which is^ a 
quantitative expression of the presence of relationship. 

coefficient of correlation See correlation, coefficient of.* a 

coefficient of variability The quotient obtained by dividing 
the standard deviation * by the mean * of the group. 



Glossary 525 

comparative method Comparison of two or more groups 
known to differ with respect to some essential charac- 
teristic, such as race, biological classification, etc. 

composite rating scale The term is used here to denote a 
compound rating scale in which the general trait * to be 
rated has been broken up into a number of sub-traits 
which are rated separately and the results combined for 
the general rating. Any method of rating the items 
may be used. 

conditioned response. A response which a given stimulus 
was originally unable to evoke; but which has become 
attached to it through repeated presentation of that 
stimulus just before or along with the stimulus which 
normally evokes the response. 

conditioning The process of setting up a conditioned re- 
sponse.* 

consistency, internal See internal consistency.* 

constant error An error of measurement which is more 
likely to take one direction than another; that is, tends 
to yield results which are too high rather than too low 
or vice versa. 

continuous variable or continuous series A measurement 
which is theoretically capable of infinitely fine sub- 
division, e.g., time or space. 

control by pairing See pairing."* 

control group A group of subjects used for comparison with 
the group who are acting as subjects of an investigation 
(the experimental group*). Control groups are em- 
ployed chiefly in connection with experimental studies 
of learning when the performance of the subjects is 
likely to be influenced by incidental stimulation, practice 
or maturation. The extent to which the two groups 
differ from each other at the end of the experimental 
period is taken as a measure of the effect of the training 
given. See pairing.* 

control, methods of Methods of limiting possibilities oi 
variation which are sources of error in experimental 
work. In the field of human behavior this is rarely, if 
ever, possible, hence methods of control are commonly 
partial rather than complete. 



526 Glossary 

correlation Concomitant variation. See Chapters 14 and 31. 

correlation, coefficient of A. quantitative expression of the 
consistency with which two variables* tend to vary 
concomitantly. 

correlation, partial See partial correlation.*^ 

co-twin control A method of control in which one member 
of a pair or pairs of identical twins is subjected to an ex- 
perimental condition while the other is used as a control. 

criterion A standard by which the validity * of a test or 
other measuring device may be determined. 

curve Representation by a line which may be ^ either 
straight or curved of a series of values of a continuous 
variable,* Growth curve A curve drawn to show the 
extent of the changes which take place with advancing 
age in a particular physical or mental trait.* Learning 
curve A curve drawn to show the changes which^ take 
place with practice. Seriatim curve Any curve designed 
to show serial changes in a trait.* 

curve, normal probability See normal probability curve.* 

deviation, average (A.D.) See average deviation.* 

deviation, mean (M.D.) See average deviation.* ^ 

deviation, standard (S.D. or a) See standard deviation.* 

differences, individual See individual differences.* 

differentiation The process through which new structures 
or functions appear. 

discrete units Units which are distinct or separate from 
each other, as persons, chairs, apples. Discontinuous 
quantities as opposed to continuous * quantities or 
variables.* 

dispersion (of scores within a group) Refers to the extent 
to which the scores or measures of a particular group 
scatter about their central tendency.* 

distribution See frequency distribution. 

empirical Based upon the results of observation. 

error, constant See constant error.* 

error, experimental See experimental error.* 

error, instrumental See instrumental error.* 

error, intrinsic See intrinsic error.* 

error, observational See observational error.* 

error, sampling See sampling error.* 



Glossary 527 

error, variable See variable error.* 

experiment A controlled investigation set up for the pur- 
pose of answering a scientific question or testing an 
hypothesis.* 

experimental error Error due to inaccuracy in the measur- 
ing instrument, to lack of precision on the part of the 
observer, or to errors in recording. Per cent of experi- 
mental error The per cent which the average experi- 
mental error is of the mean of the group measured. 

experimental group A group of subjects who are exposed 
to the experimental conditions of an investigation as 
contrasted with a control group * of subjects who are 
inactive. 

fluctuations of sampling* Chance differences among differ- 
ent samples drawn from the same population. 

j 'ore-exercise A practice exercise given at the beginning 
of an experiment or test in order to acquaint the sub- 
ject with the procedure to be followed. 

frequency A term used in statistics to denote the number 
of cases in a given class-interval.* 

frequency distribution or table A tabular arrangement of 
a series of measures within successive class-intervals.* 

frequency polygon A graphic presentation of the data of a 
frequency table by means of a continuous line joining 
the points which represent the mid-values of the suc- 
cessive class-intervals.* 

graphic analysis The plotting or charting of data for the 
purpose of bringing out trends or relationships. 

graphic rating scale. A method of expressing estimates of 
individuals by indicating their relative position on a line 
supposed to represent the entire range of the trait * in 
question. 

growth curve See curve, growth.* 

heterogeneity As used in statistics, the term has reference 
to the amount of dispersion * of the individual measures 
and particularly to the increase in dispersion resulting 
from unlikeness of the cases in some correlated trait.* 
Thus, the dispersion of the height measures of a group 
of children will be increased if the children are not all 
of the same age. 



528 Glossary 

histogram A graphic representation of a frequency table * 
by means of a group of adjacent rectangles of height 
corresponding to the number of cases within each of the 
successive class-intervals.* 

hypothesis A supposition made as a starting point for in- 
vestigation. 

individual differences Differences of specified kind between 
the individuals making up a group. The term is also 
loosely used to include differences between categori- 
cally* defined groups, as differences between sexes, 
races, etc. . 

instrumental error Error due to inaccuracy of the instru- 
ment used in measuring, in presenting the stimulus, or 
in recording the response when this is done by means 
of a mechanical device rather than by hand. 

integration The process of bringing together and uniting 
into a whole of which the parts, although they may be 
artificially distinguished, lose their separate identity. 

intelligence quotient (IQ) The quotient obtained by divid- 
ing the mental age * by the chronological age. The IQ 
gives a rough measure of the average rate at which 
mental growth has taken place in the individual. It has 
approximately the same meaning regardless of age 
(within the developmental period) ; 

internal consistency The extent to which the separate items 
in a composite test or scale correlate * with each other 
and with the total series. 

interpolation The process of calculating values for points 
intermediate between those actually measured. Thus, 
if standards are derived for ages five and six years re- 
spectively, it is possible by interpolation to compute 
standards for each month of age between the birthdays. 

intrinsic error Error resulting from true but uncontrollable 
variation in the subject measured when it is desired 
to secure a measure of its most characteristic state. 
Briefly, the error resulting from securing an inadequate 
number of measures of a varying phenomenon. 

introspective method A method of obtaining psychological 
data through the subject's verbal report of his own ex- 
periences, feelings, etc., of the moment, usually as these 



Glossary 529 

are aroused by some artificially presented stimulus. The 
introspective method differs from the behavioristic 
method * which takes account only of those aspects of 
the subject's response which can be observed by the 
experimenter, 

learning curve See curve, learning.* 

maintenance level A stage of development at which growth 
has ceased, and the organism is maintained in a rela- 
tively constant state. The term is approximate rather 
than precise, since small changes in structure and func- 
tion continue to occur even after the adult level has 
been reached. 

master sheet A general form on which the results obtained 
by all the subjects on corresponding items are brought 
together for general purposes of summarizing. 

mean } arithmetic (M) See arithmetic mean.* 

mean deviation See average deviation.* 

mean variation (M.V.) See average deviation.* 

measure, absolute See absolute measure.* 

measurement, direct The measurement in absolute units* 
of structures and functions which are open to general 
observation and which can be described in terms of 
generally accepted meaning, as height, weight, time re- 
quired to perform a given task, etc. 

median (Mdn) The point in a frequency distribution* on 
either side of which fifty per cent of the measures lie. 

mental age (MA) The level of mental development of a 
child expressed in terms of the typical performance of 
children of the age in question. Thus a child is said 
to have a mental age of seven if his performance on the 
test used is equal to that of the average seven year 
old child. Since different mental tests yield somewhat 
different results, the test used should always be specified 
when mental ages or intelligence quotients * are reported. 

norm A standard found by determining the average meas- 
urement or most typical kind of performance for a given 
group. 

normal probability curve The bell shaped curve obtained 
by plotting the 7t th expansion of the binomial theorem. 
It represents the relative frequency of occurrence of the 



530 Glossary 

different combinations of an infinite number of inde- 
pendent factors when the chances of the occurrence or 
non-occurrence of each factor is the same. 

objective data Data obtained from facts which are open to 
general observation. The opposite of subjective data.* 

observational error Error resulting from faulty observa- 
tion; failure to see the right thing or to see it in its 
proper relationships. 

observations, incidental Observations made casually with- 
out formally conceived plan. 

observations, systematic Observations made according to a 
preconceived plan and recorded in a systematic way. 

ordinate A distance measured along the vertical axis of a 
graph or chart. The ordinate is also known as _ the y 
axis; hence in plotting correlations* the variable* 
which is entered along the ordinate is known as the y 
variable. See abscissa.* 

origin A point from which measurements are made to 
define position. 

origin, arbitrary See arbitrary origin.* 

overlapping, per cent of See per cent of overlapping.* 

pairing A method of selecting a control group * to match 
an experimental group with reference to all character- 
istics believed to have a bearing upon the performance 
to be studied. 

partial correlation A statistical technique used where three 
or more variables are involved for the purpose of can- 
celling out the effect of one or more variables * in order 
to determine the independent relationships of the re- 
mainder. 

per cent of overlapping The per cent of the cases in one 
group which equals or exceeds the median* score or 
measurement of another group with which it is com- 
pared. 

percentile The score on a particular test or measurement 
at or below which a given percentage of the cases in 
the group under consideration will fall. Thus, the 75th 
percentile for three-year-old children on a certain test is 
the score which separates the lowest 75 per cent from 
the highest 25 per cent. 



Glossary 53 1 

percentile rank The position or rank occupied by a given 
individual in a group of 100 who are ranked * in order 
of measurement from low to high. Percentile ranks are 
usually determined from percentile tables used as norms. 

physiological limit The limit of performance on a given 
task which is set by the physical or physiological ca- 
pacities of the organism. For example, no matter how 
thoroughly a maze-pattern has been learned, it can 
never be traced in a shorter time than that required 
to make the needed muscular movements. 

practice limit The limit beyond which further practice with- 
out change in procedure brings no improvement. A true 
physiological limit can never be exceeded, but the limit 
of practice according to a particular method is some- 
times greatly surpassed by the use of an improved tech- 
nique. 

probable error The range between which 50 per cent of the 
cases in a normal distribution * will be found. Since 
distributions of finite numbers of cases are rarely exactly 
normal in form, the use of the probable error should be 
confined to the statistical computation of probable 
fluctuations of sampling.* 

prophecy formula (Spearman-Brown) A formula to de- 
termine the improvement in reliability * to be expected 
by increasing the length of a test or the number of 
observations in a series of time samples. 

psycho-physics The quantitative study of the relation be- 
tween the physical attributes of the stimulus and the 
attributes of sensation. 

quartiles The 25th, 5oth, and 75th percentiles.* Since the 
50th percentile is the median, the term is commonly used 
with reference only to the 25th and 75th percentiles, 
often designated as Qi and 03. 

questionnaire A formal series of questions on a given sub- 
ject designed for use with fairly large numbers of sub- 
jects. 

range In statistics the range of scores on a given test or 
measurement is defined as the difference between the 
two extremes of the group measured. 

ranking Arranging in order of merit. 



532 Glossary 

rating scale A formally organized ^ series of descriptive 
categories * in terms of which individuals are to be 
classified by means of personal estimates of their various 
characteristics. 

rating scale, composite See composite rating scale.* 

rating scale, graphic See graphic rating scale.* 

reaction pattern See behavior pattern.* 

reaction time The interval elapsing between the presenta- 
tion of a stimulus and the making of a specified motor 
response. 

regression When two variables* are imperfectly corre- 
lated * the mean of any array * will be ^ found to have 
moved toward or "regressed" to a point nearer the 
mean of the other variable than the distance of the array 
itself from its own mean. Distance here must be ex- 
pressed in standard deviation* units, and the number 
of cases in the array must be great enough to cancel out 
chance variations. 

regression equation The equation which shows the extent 
of regression* corresponding to a given magnitude of 
correlation,* and from which the most probable score 
in one variable can be predicted from a knowledge of 
the score in the correlated variable. 

regression lines Lines drawn through the means of the 
arrays * in each of two variables * showing the extent 
of the regression.* 

reliability A term used in statistics to indicate the amount 
of dependence which can be placed either in an in- 
dividual score or measurement or in a group measure, 
such as the mean,* standard deviation,* etc. Reliability 
refers solely to the accuracy of the measurement per se 
and tells nothing about its meaning; i.e., whether or not 
it measures what it purports to measure. The reliability 
of individual scores is usually expressed in terms of 
correlation; * the reliability of group-values in terms of 
the standard error * of the measure in question. 

sampling Refers to the methods by which a group of sub- 
jects for investigation are selected, i.e., the general char- 
acteristics of the group of subjects as expressed in ob- 
jective terms. 



Glossary 533 

sampling error Error resulting from extending the use of 
norms or other experimental findings to a group of 
significantly different character from the one actually 
studied. Errors of sampling are always likely to occur 
when general conclusions are drawn from experimental 
groups whose composition is Inadequately described. 

Kale values Values assigned to test-scores or other irregu- 
larly spaced measures on the basis of statistical treat- 
ment designed to establish their distance from each 
other on a scale of equal units. 

scatter -diagram or scattergram A correlation chart. 

semi-interquartile range One half the distance from the 
25th to the 75th percentile,* i.e., from Qi to Q3. 

seriatim curve See curve, seriatim.* 

situation A general term used to denote all the conditions 
surrounding the subject of an experiment or an observa- 
tion. Both the material factors such as the room-tem- 
perature, ^the number of people present, etc., and the 
psychological factors such as the familiarity or un- 
familiarity of the surroundings may be included. Also 
loosely used in a more specific sense to refer to a group 
of stimuli which elicit a particular reaction. 

ntuational analysis An analysis of the differences in be- 
havior characteristically associated with different situa- 
tions.* 

rkewness, measure of A measure of the symmetry of a 
distribution. In a normal curve,* the cases cluster 
around the mid-point and decrease in frequency sym- 
metrically toward the extremes. In a skewed curve, the 
cases tend to be concentrated at a point nearer one 
extreme than the other. The curve is said to be skewed 
toward the extreme at which the cases tail out, i.e., 
positively skewed if the tailing out is toward the upper 
end of the curve, and negatively skewed if toward the 
lower end. 

smoothing The mathematical treatment of data for the pur- 
pose of ironing out irregularities in order to bring out 
a general trend. 

standard deviation (S.D. or o) The square root of the 
mean of the squares of the deviations of the separate 



534 Glossary 

measures from the central tendency. Unless otherwise 
stipulated, the standard deviation is computed from the 
mean.* Under ordinary circumstances it is the most reli- 
able measure of dispersion.* 

standard error (o) The theoretical standard deviation * of an 
infinite number of similar statistical measures (means, 
medians, standard deviations, etc.) obtained from suc- 
cessive samplings * drawn from the same population. 
standard error of estimate The standard error* of an 
array;* i.e., the standard error of estimating a score 
on a second variable * from knowledge of a score in the 
first. 

standardized test A test which has been tried out on a 
sufficient number of subjects to yield fairly reliable 
norms.* Adequate standardization also implies examina- 
tion of the test's reliability,* and validity,* and an ob- 
jective description of the sampling * of subjects on which 
the norms were derived. 

subjective data Data derived from facts which can be ob- 
served only by the subject himself: such as his own 
thoughts, feelings, sensations, etc. The term is also 
used to include observations and estimates in which 
there is much disagreement among observers, leading to 
the assumption that the reports have been influenced in 
unknown ways by the personal characteristics and ex- 
periences of the individuals. 
systematic error See constant error.* 

time sample or method of short samples A method of tak- 
ing systematic observations in which a constant unit 
of time is employed. 

trait A general characteristic or usual mode of reaction; 
a distinguishing factor in terms of which individuals 
may be classified. 

validity Theoretically the term indicates the accuracy with 
which a test or other device measures the thing it 
purports to measure. Actually, since it is often im- 
possible to secure a really valid criterion * in terms of 
which the test can be tested, the term validity is used 
to denote the correlation * of a measuring device with 
some other measure or rating which is accepted as the 



Glossary 535 

best criterion available, though it may be recognized as 
imperfect. 

variability, coefficient of See coefficient of variability** 
variable A trait * in respect to which the individuals com- 
posing a group differ from each other. 
variable, continuous See continuous variable.* 
variable error An error which is as likely to take one 
direction as another; hence an error which tends to be 
cancelled out in measurements of large groups. 
weighting The assigning of differential values to the sepa- 
rate items or sections making up a composite measure. 
Weights may be either arbitrary or determined by 
statistical procedure. 



INDEXES OF SUBJECTS AND NAMES 



Index of Subjects 



Abbreviations, used in record keep- 
ing, 57 

Abscissa, 85, in, 523 

Accuracy, checking for, 60 ff. 

Adaptation, 13 

Adapted information, 215 

Adjustment of child to situation, 
63 ff. 

Alienation, coefficient of, 288, 524 

Anger, 341, 433 

Anterior-posterior development, 8 1 

Arbitrary origin, 96, 268, 523, 530 

Arithmetic mean, 79 ff., 96 ff., 
100 ff., in, 523 

Arm span, 88 

Attention, 175 ff. 

Average deviation, 108, 129, 523 

Average intercorrelation, 307 ff. 

Bar diagrams, 120, 523 

Barr Scale for occupational intelli- 
gence, 238, 451 

Behavior problems, 117, 305 ff., 
355, 356 ff., 358 

Behaviorism, 16 ff., 524 

Bibliography, method of preparing, 
48 ff. 

Biography, child, 4 ff., 365 ff. 

Brain weight, 23 

Case history, 32, 357 ff., 3^9 & 
524 

Causality, 37, 235, 358 

Central tendency, in, 519, 524 ^ 

Chapin scale for living room equip- 
ment, 239, 513 ff. 

Chapman-Sims scale for socio-eco- 
nomic status, 243 ff. 

Chartometer, 145, 524 

Checking for accuracy, 60 ff. 

Child study movement, 7 



Children, methods of handling, 

62 ff., 387 

Class interval, 85, 89, 99 ff., 524 
Code slip, 58, 105 ff., 524 
Coefficient of alienation, 288, 524 
Coefficient of correlation, see Cor- 

relation 

Coefficient of variability, 130, 524 
Collection of data, 55 ff. 
Color and form perception, 169 ff. 
Color discrimination, 151 ff. 
Comparative method, 12, 465, 525 
Concepts, children's, 6, 345 
Conditioning, 17, 365 ff., 525 
Construction analysis of sentences, 

216 

Constructive ability, 352ff. 
Contacts between child and teacher, 



. 

Continuity of development, 19 ff. 
Continuous quantity or variable, 

99, 525 

Control group, 326 ff., 525 
Control of conditions, 7, 457 ff., 

525 

Controlled investigations, 6, 35, 
457 ff. 

Coordination, bodily, 141 ff., 337^- 

Correction to arbitrary origin, 
99 ff., i27ff., 242, 2695. 

Correlation, coefficient of, 133 ff., 
526; effect of heterogeneity upon, 
137, 281 ff., 527; effect upon reli- 
ability of a difference, 165; for- 
mulas for, 521 ff.; interchangea- 
ble variables, 240 ff.; meaning of, 
136 ff., 280 ff.; partial, 466, 530; 
product moment, 240 ff., 263 ff.; 
ratio, 279; Spearman rank-order, 

133 ff- 
Co-twin control, 464, 526 



539 



540 



Index of Subjects 



Criteria for evaluation of scientific 

work, 50 ff., 526 
Cues, secondary, 68 
Curriculum, 329 
Curves, learning, 181, 192 ff., 337, 

348, 526; mental growth, 24.; 

seriatim, 109 ff., 526 

Data, collection of, 55 #; treatment 

of, 52 
Deciles, 217 

Definitions, children's, 28 
Development, order of, 24 ff. 
Developmental processes interre- 

lated, 21 ff. 

Deviation, average, 108, 129, ^523 
Deviation, standard, of a distribu- 

tion, 126 ff., 157, 533 ff- 
Diary records of single children, 

4ff., 365ff : 
Differences, individual, 10, 12, 13, 

308 ff., 528 

Differences, tetrad, 339 
Differentiation, 26 ff., 5 2 6 
Digits, method of writing, 57 ff. 
Dispersion, 526; effect upon corre- 

lation, 13/ff.; formulas for meas- 

uring, 520 
Distribution of teachers' time, 



Distribution, frequency, 84 ff., 527 
Diurnal variation, 65 
Dominant behavior, 254 ff. 
Double-entry method of correla- 

tion, 240 ff. 

Dramatic imitation, 215 
Drawing ability, test of, 94, 323 ff. 
Drawings, children's, 5, 344 
Dressing habits, 335 

Echolalia, 215 

Educational method, 326 ff., 354, 

3S6 . 

Educational psychology, 9 ff. 
Egocentric speech, 214 
Emotional stability, 342 
Emotionally toned responses, 215 
Emotions, 291, 340; judging emo- 

tions from photographs, 300 ff.; 

key for, 517 



Error, constant (systematic), 52, 
382, 525; direction of, 5 2 ex ~ 
perimental, 52, 82 ff., 131, 146, 
407 ff., 451, 527; grouping, 102; 
intrinsic, 409, 528; instrumental, 

407, 528; observational, 250, 297, 

408, 530; sampling, 155, 238, 
388 ff., 391, 409, 533J sources of, 
52, 407 ff., 43i; variable, 52, 382, 

535 

Evaluation of case histories, 376 ff. 

Evaluation of scientific work, 
50 ff. 

Experience with children, value of, 
71 ff. 

Experimental, error, 52, 82 ff., 131, 
146, 407 ff., 451, 527; method, 6, 
18, 527; procedure, 51 ff.; set-up, 
66 ff. 

Experiments, 35, 455 ff., 5 2 7; rela- 
tion to observational methods, 
455 ff.; purpose of, 457 

Extroversion, 146, 291 ff. 

Faculties, mental, 9, 28 ff. 
Familial resemblances, 349, 3595 * n 

twins, 352, 360 
Fear, 341, 365 ff., 387 
Feebleminded, 13 ff., 342, 372 
Feeding problems, 117 
Food preferences, iiyff., 336 
Fore-exercises, 67, 527 
Formulas, list of, 5i8ff. 
Frequency distribution, 84 ff., 5 2 7j 

normal, 88, 529 
Frequency surface, 91 ff. 
Freudian movement, 15 ff. 
Functional analysis of sentences, 

214 ff. 

Graphic treatment of data, 60, 

89 ff ; , 109, 120, 527 
Grouping error, 102 

Handedness, shown by rate of tap- 
ping, 131 

Head circumference, 88 
Health movement, 18 
Height, sitting, 8 iff., 88 
Height, standing, 78 ff., 88 



Index of Subjects 



Heterogeneity, effect upon correla- 
tion coefficient, 281 fit., 527 
Histogram, 85, 91 if., 528 
Hypotheses, development of, 34, 
456 ff., 528 

Incentives, 70 ff. 

Incidental observations, 4, 32, 35, 
363 ff., 426 ff., 530; comparison 
with systematic, 428 ff. 

Individual differences, 10, 12, 13, 
308 ff., 528 

Inflection, tonal, 67 ff. 

Instructions, supplementary, 68 ff.; 
verbal, 67 ft. 

Integration, 26 ff., 528; of problems 
in scientific field, 54 

Intelligence, criteria of, 13, 222, 
441 ff.; quotient, 228 ff., 445 ff., 
528; estimating from photographs, 
23 iff.; key for, 517; effect of 
environment upon, 351; tests, 
II ff., 14, 25, 33, 225 ff., 351, 441, 
445, 450 

Interests, children's in school sub- 
jects, 3 12 if. 

Interpretation of results, 53 ff.; 
from case history data, 376 ff. 

Interviews with parents, n8ff. 

Introspective method, 6, 16, 528 

Introversion, 145, 291 ff. 

Investigations, controlled, 6, 455 ff. 

Labelling^ 57 

Laboratories, psychological, 6, 7 

Language development, 5, 210 ff., 

344; in twins, 455 ff. 
Laughter, 296 ff., 341 
Learning, ability, 339 ff., 360; 

curves, 181, 192 ff., 337, 348, 526 
Literature, need of studying, 47 ff., 

364 ff. 
Living room equipment, scale for, 

239 ff., 513 ff. 

Maintenance level, 21 
Master sheet, 58 ff ? 529 
Maze-learning in children, 198 ff., 339 
Mean, arithmetic, 79 ff., m, 523; 
short method for finding, 96 ff. 
Mean variation, 108, 523 



Measurements, 33, 403 ff.; of bodily 
dimensions, 77 ff.; reliability of, 
406 ff.; units of, 405 ff., 443 ff., 

447 

Median, in, 529 

Memory, 179 ff., 3495., 457 ff. 

Memory transferences, 15 ff. 

Mental age, 226, 227, 445, 529 

Mental defects, 13 ff., 386 

Mental growth, 23 ff., 352 

Mental hygiene, 1 8, 305 ff. 

Mental set, 13, 300 

Mid point of class interval, 99 ff. 

Monologue, 215 

Motivation, 62, 70 ff. 

Moving average, 195 ff. 

Musical ability, 3196.; tests of, 
320 ff.; relation to auditory acu- 
ity, 352 

Normal probability curve, 88, 292, 
529 

Norms, 337, 345, 4-", 450 ff., 529; 
control by, 465 

Note-taking, methods of, 49 ff. 

Obliviscence, 350 

Observational period, length of, 
331 ff.. 

Observations, incidental, 4, 32, 35, 
363 ff., 426 ff., 530; comparison 
with systematic, 428 ff. 

Observations systematic, 34, 144 ff., 
246 ff., 296 ff., 334, 337, 341, 344, 
353, 426 ff., 530; rules for, 427 if.; 
comparison with incidental obser- 
vations, 428 ff. 

Occupation as related to socio-eco- 
nomic status, 2375.; classifica- 
tion of, 501 ff. 

Oral habits, 431 

Ordinate, 85, in, 530 

Organization of course in child 
study, 44 ff. 

Orientation of problem in scientific 
field, 50 ff. 

Origin, arbitrary, 96, 268, 523, 530 

Overlapping, per cent of, in ff., 53 

Pairing, control by, 326 ff., 462 ff., 
530 



542 



Index of Subjects 



Parents, interviews with, n8ff. 
Percentiles, 217 if., 446 ff., 53 
Perception, 168 if.; of color and 

form, 169 ff. 

Periods of development, 19 if. 
Personality traits, 12, 354, 452 if.; 

types, 292 t 

Photographs, judging intelligence 
from, 231 ff.; judging emotion 
from, 300 if. 

Physical activity, 143 ff-; 3 34 ff- 
Physical and mental traits, 12, 

359ff. 

Physical condition, effect upon per- 
formance, 65 ff., 352 
Physical growth, 19, 77 ff-, 404 
Physiological limit, 193 ff., 531 
Plateaus in learning curve, 194 
Play equipment, 258 if.; uses of, 

260 if. 
Play interests, 20, 258 if., 260 ff., 

Praise, value of, 7 1 

Prediction, gain in accuracy of from 
correlation, 288 

Presentation of results, 52 ff., 75 ff. 

Probability curve, normal, 88, 529 

Probability table, 163 

Probable error, 218, 520, 531 

Problem solving in children, 186 if., 
190 if., 347 if- t i 

Problem requirements, develop- 
ment of methods from,^! if., 35 

Problems, purpose and aim of, 50 

Procedure, experimental, 51 if.; in 
testing, 453 ff. 

Prophecy-formula, Spearman- 
Brown, 148 ff., 247 ff., 531 

Psycho-analysis, i$ff. 

Puberty, 20 

Quartiles, 218, 531 

Questionnaire, 8, 33, 337, 342, 348, 

3 79 if., 531; reliability of, 381$.; 

construction of, 390 ff. 

Racial differences, 336, 340, 352 
Range, of measures in a distribu- 
tion, 89, 92, 531; semi-interquar- 
tile, 218, 533 



Ranking methods, 232 ff., 306 ff., 
314 ff., 414 ff., 53i; reliability of, 
422 if.; uses of, 424 ff. 

Rating scales, 33, 293 ff., 308 ff., 
315 if., 324, 336, 353, 354, 4*3 ff., 
440, 532; composite, 421 ff., 525; 
graphic, 420 ff., 5^7; standard- 
ized, 421 ff.; reliability of, 422 if.; 
uses of, 4245. 

Reaction, immediate vs. delayed, 
179 

Reaction patterns, 28, 532 

Reaction time, 342, 404, 532 

Recall, 179, 346, 383 ff.; of logical 
prose, iSoff.; of visually pre- 
sented stimuli, 182 ff., 350 

Recapitulation theory, 20 

Recognition, 179 

Record forms, 56 ff. 

Record taking, 56 ff. 

Regression equations, 277 ff., 532; 
lines, 271 ff., 532 

Reliability, 13 iff., 148, 239 ff., 247, 
280, 281 ff., 307 ff., 452, 532; of 
differences, 154 ff., of observa- 
tional data, 435 ff., of t question- 
naires, 381 ff.; reliability esti- 
mated in one range from knowl- 
edge of another, 2821!. 

Reminiscence, 350 

Report, the student's, 73 ff. 

Results, interpretation of, 53 ff.; 
presentation of, 52 ff.; summariz- 
ing, 59 ff. 

Reviews, preparation of, 49 n. 

Sampling, 154 if., 234 ff., 451 if., 

532; in questionnaire data, 388 
Scatter diagram or scattergram, 

263 ff., 533 
School subjects, children's interest 

in, 312 ff. 
Self-criticism, 13 

Semi-interquartile range, 218, 533 
Sensory acuity, 172 ff,, 343 
Seriatim curves, 109 ff., 526 
Similarities and differences, 25, 346 
Situational analysis, 433, 533 
Skewncss, 93 #-, 533 
Skill, acquisition of, 192, 202, 337 



Index of Subjects 



543 



Sleep, 103 if., 336 
Slot-maze, Young, 71, 194 
Smoothing by moving average, 

195 fi\, 533 

Social behavior, 245 ft., 353, 432; 
types of (Parten categories), 
248 ff.; in infants, 254 ff. 

Social concepts, 345 

Social phrases, 215 

Socialized speech, 215 

Socio-economic status, 234 ff. 

Sources, first hand, 47 

Speech defects, 348 ff. 

Special abilities, 3*9 $> 352 ff., 
452 

Stadiometer, 78 ff., 88 

Standard deviation, 126 ff., 157? 
533; rules for finding, 128; value 
compared to average deviation, 
129 

Standard error, meaning of, 157, 
534; of an array, 287, 534; of the 
correlation coefficient, 279; of 
estimate, 278 ff., 534; formulas 
for, 520 ff.; of the mean, 157; of 
a percentage, 317 

Subjects, methods of securing, 
4iff.; selection of, 51 ff., 234 ff., 
388 

Summarizing results, 59 ff. 

Supplementary instructions, 68 ff. 
Surface area, 343 

Sustained attention, I76ff. 

Systematic observations, 34, 1445., 
246 ff., 296 ff., 334, 337, 34-1, 344, 
353, 426 ff., 530; rules for, 4275.; 
comparison with incidental obser- 
vations, 428 ff. 



Table implements, use of, 335 

Tabulation book, 59 

Tactual acuity, 172 ff. 

Tally marks, 93 

Tapping, rate of, 122 ff. 

Taussig industrial classification, 
238, 451 

Tests, standardized, 439 ff., 534; 
standardization of, 448 ff.; use of, 
452 ff. 

Testing intelligence, n ff. 

Thinking, development of, 186 ff. 

"Three-track" system, 14 

Time limits, 69 ff. 

Time - sampling, 246 ff., 255 ff., 
2965., 334, 430 ff., 534 

Tonal inflection, 675. 

Treatment of data, 52; from sys- 
tematic observations, 434 

Trials, number allowed, 69 

Two-point threshold, 343 

Variability, coefficient of, 130, 535 
Variation, diurnal, 65 
Variation, mean, 108 
Visual apprehension, span of, 343 
Vocabulary, 5, 22 ff., 211, 222 ff., 

3.67 
Voice, tone of, 64 

Walking board, 141 

Welfare movement, 18 

White House Conference, interview 

form, 400 ff. 

"Whole vs. parts," 327ff. 
Word analysis by parts of speech, 

216 
Work sheets, 58 



Index of Names 



Alpert, Augusta, 191 
Anderson, J. E., 117, 265, 400 
Atkins, Ruth, 352 

Barr, F. E., 238, 451 
Beethoven, Ludwig van, 319 
Binet, Alfred, 7, n, 12, 13, 14, 17, 

226 

Blanchard, Phyllis, 7 
Book, Win. F., 193 
Brian, Clara R., 169, 172, 195, 202, 

205 

Brown, Wm., 148 
Buchner, Martin, 302, 517 

Cady, Vernon S., 342 

Candolle, Augustin P. de., 319 

Cattell, J. Me., 10, 12 

Chapin, F. Stuart, 239, 244, 513, 

SH 

Chapman, J. C., 243, 244 
Comenius, John A., 3, 356 
Cunningham, B. V., 227 

Darwin, Charles, 4, 5, 6, 16, 17 
Day, Ella J., 455, 45^ 
Dearborn, W. F., 11 

Ebbinghaus, H., n 

Fechner, G. T., 6 

Foster, J. C., 117, 180, 181, 182, 330 

Freud, Sigmund, 15 

Froebel, Fr., 3 

Furfey, P. H., 421 

Gal ton, Francis, 8 
Gates, A. I., n, 65, 463 
Gesell, Arnold, 7, 464 
Gilbert, J. A., n, 122 
Goddard, H. H., 7 



Goodenough, Florence L., 122, 124, 
139, 169, 172, 195, 202, 205, 
227, 463 

Haggerty, M. E., 227 
Hall, G. Stanley, 6, 7, 8, 10 
Heidbreder, Edna, 186, 187, 190 
Helmholtz, H. L. F., 6 
Herbart, J. F., 9, 10 
Hollingworth, Leta, n 
Hull, C. L., 433 

Jung, C. G., 291 

Keller, Helen, 210 

Kelley, T. L., II, 160, 161, 282, 

307, 423 

Kohler, Wolfgang, 191 
Kuhlman, F., 7 

Landis, Carney, 430 
Locke, John, 3, 356 

McCarthy, Dorothea, 212, 214, 216, 
217, 220, 344, 430, 435, 456 

McCarty, Stella, 94, 324, 325 

McGinnis, Esther, 71, 194, 320, 
321, 322 

Major, D. R., 5 

Marston, L. R., 145, 291, 293, 294, 
298, 421 

Mateer, Florence, 7 

Matthews, Ellen, 342 

Meumann, E., II 

Miles, W. R., 198 

Moore, H. T., 344, 430 

Mozart, W. A., 319 

Miinsterberg, Hugo, n 



Olson, Willard C., 246, 421, 430, 
431, 432, 434 



545 



546 



Index of Names 



Parten, Mildred, 246, 248, 250, 253, 

432 

Pearson, Karl, 138, 160, 263 
Pestalozzi, Johann H., 3, 9 
Piaget, Jean, 214, 215 
Pintner, R., 227 
Plato, 356 
Plutarch, 356 
Pressey, S. L., and L. C., 227 

Ratke, Wolfgang, 3 

Rein, Win,, 9 

Rogers, M. C., 352 

Rousseau, Jean Jacques, 3, 9, 356 

Scupin, E., and Scupin, G., S, 367 
Seashore, C. E., 320, 321, 322, 325, 

352 

Seneca, 356 
Shen, Eugene, 423 
Sherman, Mandel, 301, 341 
Shinn, Millicent, S 
Simon, Th., n 
Sims, V. M., 243, 244 
Skalet, Magda, 258, 260 
Spearman, Charles, 133, 148, 439 
Staples, Ruth, 151 



Stern, Clara, S 
Stern, Wm., 5 
Stutsman, Rachel, 151 

Taussig, F. W., 238, 451 

Taylor, Grace, 463 

Terman, L. M., 7, 441 

Tiedemann, D., 4 

Thomas, Dorothy S., 144, 146, 432 

Thorndike, E. L., 1 1, 24, 65, 66, 

439 

Thurstone, L. L., 24 
Tinker, M. A., 122, 124, 139 

Valentine, C. W., 341, 3^5, 3<$6 

Watson, J. B., 16, 17, 34*, 3^5, 367 
Weber, Edward, 6, 283 
Wickman, E. K., 305 
Wood, Ben D., 160 
Woodworth, R. S., n, 342 
Wundt, Wm., 6, 8, 10 

Young, H. H., y i, 194 
Yule, G. Udney, 161 

Ziller, T., 9 



124589